Category: Medical

All You Need to Know About Cross Allergy

All You Need to Know About Cross Allergy

When you bite into an apple or an apricot, your mouth suddenly starts to itch. Shortness of breath is noticeable after the chocolate cake. These signs indicate a cross allergy. But what exactly does that mean?

What is a cross allergy?

A runny nose, reddening of the eyes or a sore throat immediately after eating are indications of an intolerance. See AbbreviationFinder for abbreviations related to Cross Allergy.

A cross-allergy always occurs when another allergy is already present. The symptoms of cross allergy can be similar to those of pollen allergy.

Sneezing fits, watery eyes, itchy rashes and shortness of breath. However, since the allergen enters the body when you eat and is not only absorbed through the air like pollen, a cross-allergy can also become dangerous. Swelling of the mouth or windpipe can cause suffocation.

In the worst case, an anaphylactic shock can occur with a cross-allergy. This state of shock is life-threatening and requires emergency medical care.


The causes of cross-allergies are clear: the patient has an allergy and now reacts to other substances. A cross allergy has developed. The reason: Due to the similarity in the structures of certain allergens, the patient suddenly reacts to foods that were previously well tolerated.

A cross-allergy is very common in pollen allergy sufferers. Almost half of those allergic to birch pollen also react to stone fruit, soy, celery and nuts. People who are allergic to grass pollen can develop cross-allergies to peanuts, potatoes, grains, soybeans and tomatoes. Even with an allergy to house dust mites, a cross-allergy can easily develop. Suddenly those affected can no longer tolerate marine animals.

Sometimes it is enough if, in the case of a cross-allergy, the threatening foods are simply removed from the dining table during the pollen season. But sometimes only a consistent and decades-long renunciation helps.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

The cross allergy can manifest itself in different symptoms. They depend on the one hand on the main allergen and on the other hand on the way in which the allergenic substance comes into contact with the patient. In this context, contact with the skin, contact with the mucous membrane of the mouth, nose and throat, with the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract come into question.

In this context, the symptoms of the cross-allergy are not always the same as those of the main allergy. While the birch pollen allergy is one of the allergies that irritate the mucous stimuli and cause itching of the eyes as well as a runny nose, the cross-allergy to apples or nuts can be recognized by tingling and swelling in the mouth and throat area.

Symptoms in the area of ​​the mucous membranes can affect the eyes, nose, throat and respiratory tract in general. Allergic conjunctivitis (conjunctivitis) of the eyes manifests itself with itching, redness and swelling. The mucous membranes of the nose react with secretions and sneezing attacks occur. An allergic cough is also possible. A complication that can occur with almost all cross-allergies is anaphylactic shock with shortness of breath and loss of consciousness.

Allergens that get into the mouth with food cause tingling and swelling there and can become evident in the further course of digestion with gastrointestinal complaints. Allergens that react to skin contact are contact allergens. Here the skin forms itchy, sometimes weeping wheals.

Diagnosis & History

The suspicion of a cross-allergy must be confirmed by the doctor. If allergic symptoms have occurred, the allergist will examine the blood to detect any allergens. In an interview, he will discuss the further procedure with the patient.

In addition, the doctor will provide information about all those allergens that can also trigger a cross-allergy. If there is only an allergy to pollen and no cross-allergy has yet occurred, those high-risk allergens should be avoided or at least their consumption should be restricted as a precautionary measure.

The ingredients of finished products should also be read carefully. Because in the case of a cross-allergy, even the smallest traces are enough to trigger an allergic reaction.


Since the allergic reaction in a cross-allergy is basically the same as in a normal allergy, the cross-allergy can lead to just as serious consequences as any other allergy. Cross allergies can lead to different symptoms depending on the severity. If the cross-allergy exists, for example, in addition to a pollen allergy in the form of a food allergy, complaints in the mouth and throat area, but also in the gastrointestinal tract, can be expected when certain foods are eaten.

Severe symptoms of a cross allergy can be very dangerous. As with general allergies, cross-allergies can lead to serious complications, such as allergic shock. Allergic shock as a life-threatening complication can lead to impaired blood circulation and, in extreme cases, to cardiac arrest. Because allergic shock is an emergency, it must be treated by a doctor with medication or CPR for cardiac arrest.

Another complication is shortness of breath, which can occur with both the original allergy and the cross allergy. The allergic reaction can cause the mucous membranes in the larynx, trachea and bronchi to swell. A narrowing of the inner cross-section impedes the flow of air, resulting in shortness of breath. If contact with the allergen in question can be avoided, the occurrence of possible complications can be minimized.

When should you go to the doctor?

Those affected who suffer from an allergic reaction should always seek detailed information from a doctor about possible cross-allergies. As soon as the presence of an allergy has been confirmed by medical tests, extensive information is required about cross-links to other allergic triggers. If you still experience watery eyes, itchy skin or discolouration of the skin after eating food, you should consult a doctor. A runny nose, reddening of the eyes or a sore throat immediately after eating are further indications of an intolerance.

A doctor must be consulted for medical treatment. The sudden and rapid emergence of pustules and poplars on the skin indicates irregularities that should be examined. If you experience a feeling of tightness in your throat or shortness of breath, consult a doctor as soon as possible. If you stop breathing, feel suffocated, or lose your ability to breathe, call an ambulance. People who are experiencing severe anxiety or a panic attack due to reduced ability to breathe need immediate medical attention. If the person concerned experiences an anaphylactic shock, his life is in danger. An ambulance must be called and first aid measures must be initiated immediately by those present to ensure survival.

Treatment & Therapy

If a cross-allergy and the pollen or house dust mite allergy associated with it remain untreated, there is a risk that the symptoms will worsen. A gradual shift from watery eyes and sneezing fits to shortness of breath, skin reactions and even circulatory collapse takes place.

If the dreaded anaphylactic shock occurs, a cross-allergy can even lead to death if left untreated. Treating a cross-allergy begins by identifying the original allergy. If this allergy is combated, the cross-allergy often disappears as well. If an allergy remains untreated, there is a risk of further allergies and cross-allergies. The lives of those affected are becoming increasingly restricted.

In the first place, the allergens should be avoided. This includes all foods associated with the cross-allergy. Medications are used to alleviate the symptoms. Acupuncture, autohemotherapy, the consumption of black cumin oil, nettle tea or homeopathic globules have already led to many a cure. However, these alternative forms of treatment do not help all patients.

Conventional medicine recommends desensitization. Here the smallest amounts of the allergen are injected under the patient’s skin. Once the pollen allergy has been treated, the cross-allergy to the food often improves as well.

Outlook & Forecast

There are testimonials from those affected in whom allergies and thus also cross-allergies have grown together, in which they suddenly disappeared. This is not the norm. Those who manage to consistently avoid the allergen have the best prognosis of not suffering any health damage from a cross-allergy. If this is possible, there is usually no further allergic reaction that could be considered hazardous to health.

Since consistent avoidance of an allergen is not always possible, desensitization also has a good prognosis for many of those affected. Anyone who attends all appointments where weakened pathogens are injected for increasing desensitization has a good chance of suffering no or at least only weakened allergic reactions.

When this is also not possible, sufferers have to live with drugs that are given as needed to interrupt the allergic reactions caused by the cross-allergy. Today’s drugs are very safe and so well tolerated that children can usually be treated well with them. If the medication is taken as prescribed by the doctor, the prognosis is good that the cross-allergy can be brought under control.


A cross allergy cannot always be prevented. However, it is important to avoid allergy triggers. Indoor mold should be eliminated. Tobacco smoke is also harmful to the body. A mother should exclusively breastfeed her child for at least six months to reduce the risk of allergies.

If an allergy is already present, certain foods should be consumed with caution. These include nuts (hazel pollen allergy), stone fruits, carrots, celery (birch pollen allergy), spices (mugwort allergy) and tomato, kiwi, melon (grass pollen allergy).


The question of aftercare depends on the success of the initial therapy. In principle, there is a chance of healing with the help of hyposensitization. If this is successful, no follow-up care is necessary. The recurrence of the cross allergy is excluded. In all other cases, the disease persists.

Aftercare aims to avoid acute contact with allergens and to train the patient for his everyday life. This happens in a conversation. Scheduled follow-up examinations, such as those known from tumor diseases, are not planned. The person concerned therefore has a high degree of personal responsibility. When preparing food, certain foods should be avoided or prepared in such a way that no intolerance arises.

Nutritional advice promises long-term freedom from symptoms. The prevention of complications is also a mainstay of aftercare. It can always happen that carelessness causes an allergic reaction. In this case, the patient must know how to behave. He will be informed about this as part of the initial diagnosis. As standard, those affected should have an allergy pass and an emergency bag with medication with them. However, these measures are only suggested by doctors. It is up to the patient to implement it themselves.

You can do that yourself

If you have a cross-allergy, there are a few helpful tips that allergy sufferers can use to make everyday life easier. The preparation can help with allergic reactions to fruit or vegetables. Instead of raw apples or cherries, cooked alternatives such as apple or cherry pie or apple compote can be more tolerable. Cooked carrots are also better tolerated. Individual varieties often make the difference.

Avoiding alcohol as much as possible can also be very helpful for allergy sufferers, as alcohol can intensify the allergic reaction. The same applies to stress. It is therefore important to avoid possible stressful situations and burdens in everyday life. When it comes to nutrition, individual nutritional advice is recommended in order to find possible alternatives to food.

Medicines basically help to alleviate the various symptoms of an allergy. These can be tablets, inhalation sprays, creams or ointments or injections. A balanced diet is also important, as is avoiding the allergen. In the event of severe allergic reactions, those affected and those around them should be informed about how to deal with severe circulatory problems in the event of an allergic reaction. This includes an allergy pass and an allergy emergency kit with the appropriate medication. Physical activity and a healthy lifestyle can reduce allergies and reduce symptoms.

Cross Allergy

All You Need to Know About Polio

All You Need to Know About Polio

Polio (poliomyelitis) is a highly contagious infectious disease. If left untreated, it can lead to death due to severe paralysis that can attack the lungs and respiratory organs and render them inoperable. However, there is a vaccination against polio, so that this disease has only rarely occurred in Germany since the 1960s.

What is polio?

Even if poliomyelitis is largely under control in this country thanks to oral vaccination, many people still suffer from the long-term effects of early childhood polio. The early symptoms of polio can be non-specific and undramatic. Poliomyelitis only takes a severe course in a few infected people.

Polio (poliomyelitis), or simply polio, is a highly contagious infectious disease transmitted by poliovirus types I, II, and III. After an illness, paralysis can remain or even lead to death. See AbbreviationFinder for abbreviations related to Polio.

Usually the viral disease is always febrile. The paralysis is caused by the polio virus infested spinal cord, which controls movement. In principle, poliomyelitis has become rare in industrialized countries since around 1960 and the introduction of preventive oral vaccination. The last disease in Germany caused by a wild virus was reported in 1990. However, vaccination coverage in society is declining more and more.

In more than 95 percent of the cases, poliomyelitis goes unnoticed and without symptoms. In about one percent of cases, the described paralysis or meningitis occurs, which can leave permanent damage.


With polio (poliomyelitis) you get infected by RNA viruses from the group of polioviruses. These are highly contagious and are transmitted fecal-orally. The infection is comparable to the transmission of hepatitis A, which means that you become infected by consuming contaminated food or drink. In contrast, infection through coughing, sneezing or kissing is rare.

The incubation period for polio is quite long, ranging from three to 35 days before it breaks out. The disease proceeds in two phases. After infection, the viruses multiply in the body and unspecific symptoms such as headaches and body aches, loss of appetite, diarrhea, fever and difficulty swallowing occur.

After this first phase of the disease there is a symptom-free interval and the viruses penetrate the central nervous system and thus trigger the second phase of the disease. Symptoms of this phase are muscle pain in general, especially back pain, paralysis, increased sensitivity to stimuli and meningitis.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

Even if poliomyelitis is largely under control in this country thanks to oral vaccination, many people still suffer from the long-term effects of early childhood polio. The early symptoms of polio can be non-specific and undramatic. Poliomyelitis only takes a severe course in a few infected people. It is dangerous that post-polio syndrome with considerable symptoms can still occur many years after the actual infection.

Symptoms of polio infection may be absent or lead to mild abortive poliomyelitis. There are usually unspecific symptoms such as high temperature, headache and body aches, loss of appetite, sore throat or diarrhea. About five out of a hundred infected people show such symptoms at all. Two forms of polio can occur in severely affected individuals: non-paralytic polio and classic paralytic polio.

The former leads to meningitis with fever, stiff neck, muscle and back pain and increased sensitivity to external stimuli. Classic polio leads to permanent signs of paralysis on the extremities. In addition, severe back pain and complaints of varying severity in the breathing, swallowing, speech and eye muscles can occur. Fatal respiratory paralysis can occur.

course of the disease

Child paralysis (poliomyelitis) can occur in three different courses of the disease. They differ in the type and intensity of the symptoms and, above all, whether the central nervous system is affected or not.

In the low, the so-called subclinical course, the signs of the disease are rather minor. After six to nine days, the disease breaks out in the form of fever, nausea, headache and sore throat. Overall, it is milder and the central nervous system is not infected.

In the non-paralytic course (which occurs in about one percent of all people infected with polio), the person affected has fever, back and muscle pain and neck stiffness. In this course of the disease, the central nervous system is affected, but the course of the disease is milder than in the paralytic course.

In this case, the person concerned suffers from paralysis, especially of the legs. This paralysis can also remain after the illness. In two to 20 cases, patients who suffer from a progressive form of the disease with paralysis die.


Complications of poliomyelitis are widely diversified in their manifestation. With consistent physiotherapeutic treatment, symptoms of paralysis can completely regress up to two years after the acute phase. However, despite therapy, muscle impairments often remain. In some cases, not only the leg muscles but also the trunk muscles are affected by paralysis.

Over time, severe scoliosis of the spine develops, as it is not sufficiently stabilized by the weak muscles. As a result, breathing can be significantly affected. If no appropriate therapy takes place during convalescence, the dysfunction of the affected muscles remains much more pronounced. Corresponding effects on the musculoskeletal system such as joint misalignments, circulatory disorders, osteoporosis, breathing and swallowing difficulties are more serious.

Paralyzed extremities often grow restricted, which later leads to leg length discrepancies, a tilted pelvis and scoliosis. Orthopedic aids such as crutches, splints and manual wheelchairs put additional strain on healthy joints after many years of use. In addition, a history of polio must be taken into account for each subsequent general anesthetic.

The dosage must be adjusted accordingly in order to avoid problems waking up after anesthesia. The most common late effect is the post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Years or decades after the illness has been overcome, extreme tiredness and the sudden onset of new paralysis occur. Muscles that were not previously affected can also become diseased.

When should you go to the doctor?

A doctor is required for symptoms such as paralysis, restricted mobility, joint problems and body aches. Being unable to move around unaided is a worrying condition. In particular, asymmetrical paralysis of the limbs are signs of a serious illness. Since poliomyelitis can lead to death in severe cases without medical care, a doctor should be consulted as soon as the first irregularities appear.

If there is a refusal to eat or drink, problems with the digestive tract, diarrhea or nausea, a doctor should be consulted. In the case of a headache or a general feeling of pain throughout the body, examinations are necessary to clarify the cause. Back pain, changes in breathing, and increased irritability are red flags that should be followed up. If breathing stops or anxiety occurs due to shortness of breath, it is advisable to consult a doctor. Consultation of a doctor is necessary as soon as persistent irregularities of the muscular system occur.

If there was no physical overexertion, this is considered unusual and should be examined. If you have a fever, sore throat or stiff neck, see a doctor. If circulatory disorders occur, if there is a general feeling of illness or if you have problems chewing, swallowing or speaking, you should see a doctor. Problems with the eye muscles or the heart rhythm must be presented to a doctor as soon as possible.

Treatment & Therapy

On the one hand, infant paralysis (poliomyelitis) can be diagnosed by the visible symptoms such as signs of paralysis. However, it is also possible to detect the virus in faeces, throat secretions or brain fluid. If the patient is in the first phase of polio, many feverish infections are possible because of the non-specific symptoms.

Even if paralysis has already occurred, there are other diseases that resemble the course of polio. Only the symptoms of polio can be treated, i.e. the symptoms are alleviated with medication. So far it has not been possible to fight the virus directly.

If polio is suspected, strict bed rest is usually required. Otherwise, physiotherapy is recommended and in the event of signs of paralysis, the person concerned is positioned alternately to relax the muscles. Vaccination against polio is also possible.

Outlook & Forecast

The prognosis for polio is usually good. This disease can heal spontaneously. These occur in a period of up to two years after infection. Nevertheless, medical care should always be sought for a good prognosis, since the disease is associated with complications in many of those affected. Without treatment, the risk of a severe course of the disease increases. This can lead to the premature death of the patient. There is also the possibility of lifelong impairments and secondary diseases.

With a sufficient and comprehensive treatment, individual therapy methods are used. These depend on the extent of the symptoms and the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis and the start of treatment. In addition to the administration of medication, physiotherapeutic support is also used to alleviate the movement impairments. In addition, possible late effects of polio are limited in this way. Displacements of the spine or differences in the length of the limbs should be avoided.

An unfavorable course of the disease is given as soon as the cranial nerves of the person concerned are affected. In these cases, the prognosis is poor. Polio shows a significantly increased mortality rate in the sick patients. Up to twenty percent of those affected die prematurely.


Polio is an infectious disease caused by poliovirus. In technical terms, this is called poliomyelitis, or polio for short. This term is made up of the words “polio” and “myelitis”, which together describe the inflammation of the spinal cord caused by the polioviruses. Although the term suggests that only children can get poliomyelitis, adults are also often affected.

In many cases, polio is asymptomatic, but it can also lead to severe, permanent paralysis of varying degrees. It becomes particularly dangerous when the viruses affect the respiratory function. In the past, it was very common for affected people to be placed in the so-called “iron lung” in order to be able to breathe at all.

The polioviruses are transmitted through human contact, so it is a so-called contact infection. The original plan was to completely eradicate poliomyelitis within the 21st century, however, due to political, geographic and global implications, this plan has not worked. As a result of the African civil war in 2012, there were almost 200 new infections, including in Nigeria, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Chad. However, there are also individual infections within the EU, such as in Ukraine in 2015, where only about half of all children are vaccinated.

The only effective remedy against polio is preventive, comprehensive vaccination. In the past, this step was done by means of an oral vaccination, nowadays children in the third month of life are given a basic vaccination, which is refreshed after ten years. In the case of persons at risk, further vaccinations can be carried out later if necessary. The STIKO (“Standing Vaccination Commission”) recommends a combination vaccination against polio (child paralysis), tetanus (lockjaw), diphtheria (infectious disease) and pertussis (whooping cough).

You can do that yourself

In the acute phase of polio, the bed rest prescribed by the doctor must be strictly observed. A muscle-relaxing position counteracts muscle cramps in the event of signs of paralysis, and warm, moist compresses can relieve pain. Light physiotherapy under supervision is already useful at this stage and should be continued consistently after the illness.

Permanent paralysis or joint damage to the spine or extremities require an adjustment of everyday life to the changed circumstances. Many mobility restrictions can be compensated for by aids such as walking splints, walkers or wheelchairs, and a barrier-free living space makes it easier to maintain the usual daily routine. In many cases, it is also possible to remain in professional life. It is important not to overtax the body and to pay attention to its signals. Sufficient sleep and regular rest breaks ensure the necessary recovery, unnecessary stress and excessive physical exertion should be avoided.

Post-polio syndrome, in particular, tends to worsen with exertion. Exploring your own limits must therefore be done with extreme caution. Mentally, the illness is processed better if limitations are not viewed as a weakness, but are accepted as a given. For many sufferers, it is helpful to talk to other sufferers in a self-help group or to talk to a psychotherapist.


All You Need to Know About Hyperlexia

All You Need to Know About Hyperlexia

Children who learn to read well ahead of their peers and display a strong fascination with letters and numbers sometimes owe their extraordinary abilities to a syndrome known as hyperlexia. This is considered a possible sign of autism, Asperger’s or Williams-Beuren syndrome.

What is hyperlexia?

Children affected by hyperlexia usually have an IQ of average or slightly above average. They have an exceptional talent for deciphering languages ​​and thus become very early readers. See AbbreviationFinder for abbreviations related to Hyperlexia.

Hyperlexia, from the Greek “hyper” (over) and “lexis” (pronunciation, word), describes a child’s remarkably good ability to read. However, this is accompanied by difficulties in understanding and using spoken language correctly and difficulties with social interactions.

The syndrome was first identified in 1967 by Norman and Margaret Silverberg, who defined it as a precocious reading ability without prior practice, typically occurring before the age of five. They found that affectedchildrenhave a gift for decoding words that far exceeds their reading comprehension. Many experts believe that hyperlexia is an indicator of autism.

Others, such as Darold Schlagt, have identified different types of the syndrome, only some of which are linked to autism and Asperger’s Syndrome. These are neurologically normal children who are very early readers (type 1), autistic children who develop early reading as a gift (type 2), and children who display autistic-like traits that disappear with age (type 3).


The exact causes for the development of hyperlexia are not known. It is believed that the syndrome results from overdevelopment of certain areas of the brain while others remain underdeveloped. If the phenomenon occurs as a result of autism or Asperger’s, possible explanations can be found here. Various triggers of autism are currently being investigated.

First, genetic factors may play a role. Over 100 genes and more than 40 gene loci have already been identified that are involved in the disease. The many possible combinations of genetic abnormalities ensure the great diversity and breadth of the autism spectrum.

Symptoms, Ailments and Signs

In 2004, researchers discovered signs of altered connectivity, i.e. the large-scale flow of information, in the brains of Asperger’s patients. Brain scans showed both areas of increased and decreased activity, as well as less synchronization of the activity patterns of different brain areas. In addition to global under-connectivity, i.e. reduced linkage, local over-connectivity also frequently occurred.

This is understood as the over-specialization of certain brain activities. The peculiarities in the behavior of the patients that occur as a result, for example when grasping connections between feelings, people and things, can also be observed in hyperlexic children. Therefore, dealing with the triggers of autism and Asperger’s can provide information about the causes of hyperlexia syndrome.

Diagnosis & course of disease

Children affected by hyperlexia usually have an IQ of average or slightly above average. They have an exceptional talent for deciphering languages ​​and thus become very early readers. In most cases, they develop normally up to the age of 18 to 24 months, only then do the abnormalities appear more frequently.

If a child is able to spell long words before the age of 2 and read full sentences before the age of 3, they may be affected by the syndrome. Other talents include fast letter and syllable counting and reverse reading. At the same time, noticeable communication difficulties can often be observed in the children.

Many of them only learn to speak through intensive repetition and have difficulties in learning the rules of a language through examples or trial and error. This often entails social problems, which also arise from the fact that hyperlexic children have less interest in playing or communicating with others. They rarely initiate conversations, often they develop special and unusual fears.

The children use echolalia, i.e. repeating sentences and words, to develop their language. They often have a large vocabulary and can name many objects, but cannot use their language skills in the abstract. Spontaneous expressions are missing and the pragmatic use of language is underdeveloped.

Hyperlexic children often have trouble answering where, how, and why questions. It is not uncommon for those affected to be cognitively overwhelmed by parents, educators or teachers, who also expect special skills and achievements from them in areas other than reading. In everyday life they need routines as they encounter difficulties in changing with ritual behavior.


Hyperlexia mainly causes psychological problems that cannot be treated in every case. In many cases, children have special gifts or abilities, so that they learn to read or do arithmetic at a relatively early age. In addition to these positive aspects, there are also limitations in other areas of life, which can make the everyday life of the affected children very difficult.

There can also be communication difficulties, for example, which can lead to teasing or bullying, especially among children. Most children with hyperlexia also have no need to play or talk to other children. They often develop fears of communication and contact with other people. If these fears are not addressed in childhood, they can lead to serious social problems in adulthood.

The treatment itself does not lead to any particular complications and, as a rule, is carried out through various therapies. However, it cannot be predicted whether the therapies will be successful and lead to a positive course of the disease. Not infrequently, the parents also suffer from psychological problems due to hyperlexia.

When should you go to the doctor?

If a child shows behavioral problems in direct comparison to other children of the same age, these should be discussed with a doctor. If the development of the child has changed or is not age-appropriate, there are often diseases that require treatment or the child needs special support for the existing skills. Medical tests are performed to diagnose possible disorders or level of development. If the person concerned finds it difficult to make connections between people, things and feelings, this is considered unusual. If contexts cannot be recorded, a doctor should be consulted.

If letters and words are learned very early on without the influence of adults, this observation should be pursued further. If long words can be spelled at a very young age, it is advisable to consult a doctor. If there are difficulties in the areas of communication, feelings or physical closeness, a doctor should be consulted. If the rules of the language cannot be grasped despite a lot of practice, a visit to the doctor is advisable. A doctor should take a closer look at the behavior of children who show little interest in social contacts or playing with toys. If parents or carers of the child recognize that patterns to be learned are not accepted by the child, a doctor should be asked for advice as a neutral observer.

Treatment & Therapy

Hyperlexia can be treated if the condition is diagnosed early enough. This requires intensive speech therapy, which should be started in an early phase of child development. This allows the child to acquire better language skills and develop social skills more easily.

If they already have advanced reading skills, these should be used as the primary approach to speech therapy. It is important that experts, parents, educators and teachers work together as a team. Applied Behavior Analysis (“ABA”), which is commonly used in the treatment of autism, may also be beneficial for the associated hyperlexic syndrome.

It is a holistic form of therapy that has also included teaching language skills since the 1980s. The aim of these measures is to develop social and communicative skills. The children’s existing abilities are used as the basis on which the therapy program is built. The parents are included in the treatment, learning attempts and successes are reinforced as directly as possible.

Outlook & Forecast

The ability to learn letters and numbers before other children do is not stopped or treated. It is the result of the child having above-average intelligence and, in most cases, indicates that another disorder is present. For this reason, hyperlexia is not an independent disease that is treated. It is the result of an existing underlying disease that needs to be diagnosed and treated medically. In most cases there is a brain disorder which, despite the above-average ability to deal with numbers and letters, leads to a reduction in opportunities in other areas of life. It is often not possible for the patient to lead an independent life.

The patient’s treatment needs are not focused on the hyperlexia and are therefore not given priority. Rather, support measures take place so that the skills of hyperlexia are used and the patient is not under-challenged in this area, which in turn can trigger new complications.

The prospect of curing or minimizing hyperlexia can be classified as constant for the reasons given. In speech or behavioral therapy, existing cognitive possibilities are promoted and dealing with the ability is trained. This leads to an improvement in the emotional state of most patients and thus to a better sense of well-being.


Since the causes of hyperlexia are still largely unexplored, no preventive measures can be recommended. In connection with autism, theories have repeatedly emerged in recent years that interpret the disease as a possible consequence of vaccine damage. However, these have not yet been proven and, in the case of vaccines containing thiomersal, have even been disproved. So refusing vaccination most likely does not protect against autism and hyperlexia.


In the case of hyperlexia, the follow-up measures are severely limited in most cases. The person concerned is primarily dependent on a quick diagnosis with subsequent treatment so that further symptoms or complications can be prevented. This also prevents the symptoms from getting worse.

The disease does not really need to be treated by a doctor, but the children do need strong support in their lives so that they can exercise their skills properly. Parents must recognize hyperlexia early on and have it examined by a doctor. After that, the children are dependent on special support.

Behavioral therapy may also be necessary in some cases to relieve the symptoms of this disorder. Care and support from one’s own family or from relatives and acquaintances also helps to alleviate or even prevent mental upsets or depression. Parents must be fully and correctly informed about this disease. Contact with other people affected by hyperlexia can also be very useful, as this often leads to an exchange of information.

You can do that yourself

Parents of affected children should primarily organize speech therapy for their child. If the therapeutic treatment is started, language skills can be promoted and social restrictions reduced. The therapy must be supported by the parents at home by reading a lot with the child and doing arithmetic. If the child already has advanced reading skills, reading skills can be specifically improved. The child may be able to start school earlier and fully utilize their mental abilities.

Accompanying this, behavioral therapy is always indicated. Early behavioral training is particularly important for children with hyperlexia associated with autism. Parents or legal guardians should receive training on this and, if necessary, speak to other parents. This allows the optimal treatment for the child to be found.

If, despite everything, the child has difficulties integrating, further therapeutic advice may be useful. The child may need to attend a special needs school or take medication to relieve associated symptoms of the underlying autism disorder. The pediatrician or a child psychologist can decide which measures are to be taken in detail.


All You Need to Know About Contract

All You Need to Know About Contract

According to digopaul, contract is a term originating from the Latin word contractus that names the agreement or pact, whether oral or written, between parties that accept certain obligations and rights on a given matter. The document that reflects the conditions of this agreement is also called the contract.

For example: “The Chilean player will sign the contract in the next few hours and will join the team immediately”, “Tomorrow we have to go to the real estate agency to sign the contract for the renewal of the lease”, “The company violated the conditions of the contract and will be fined”.

The contract, in short, is an agreement of wills that is manifested in common between two or more people (individuals or legal entities). Its clauses regulate the relations between the signatories in a certain matter.

When determining the content of any type of contract, we would have to make it clear that three fundamental elements must appear in it: the data relating to the subjects who sign it, the pillars of the provision and consideration that is established, and the way in which the approval is given to it by the two parties involved.

There are many types of contracts that exist, however, among the most significant are the following:
• Private, which is made directly by the people who sign it.
• Public, which is authorized by public employees.
• Formal. In this case, it is the contract that, as established by the relevant legislation, has a very specific form of consent by the subjects involved in it.
• Bilateral, which is the one that establishes that those who sign them assume from that very moment a series of obligations.

One of the areas where the contract is most important is in the labor sphere, since it becomes the mechanism by which a company obtains the services of a worker and this, in exchange for a salary, assumes a series of tasks.

Specifically, within this sector we find subsidized indefinite contracts, training contracts, for a very specific duration, intermittent permanent work, part-time work, for people with disabilities, relief work, for research staff, indefinite without any kind of bonus…

All contracts give rise to legal effects, which are the enforceable obligations established in their content. If a company contractually promises to provide a certain service and then fails to deliver, it is possible to sue the company.

Most legal systems require that contracts meet three requirements: consent (the will of the parties), object (things or services that can enter the field of commerce) and cause (the reason that leads to the parties to enter into the contract).

There are various kinds of invalidity that render the contract without legal effect. Nullity is a generic situation that prevents the deployment of the legal consequences of the agreement and takes it back to the time of its conclusion. Rescission, on the other hand, is another judicial declaration that annuls the contract.


All You Need to Know About Suspension Trauma

All You Need to Know About Suspension Trauma

Suspension trauma is an emergency medical shock condition that can also be described as orthostatic shock. The sufferer hangs in an upright position, allowing blood to pool into the legs that hang down. Being placed in a prone position too quickly can result in death.

What is suspension trauma?

According to abbreviationfinder, suspension trauma is usually diagnosed by rescue teams and rescue services and is based on visual diagnostics and vital signs. The diagnosis at the site of the event is absolutely necessary for a favorable course, since the person concerned must not be brought into the lying position too quickly.

Suspension trauma is a shock that can occur as a result of prolonged hanging in a harness system. In a harness, the person concerned is forced to an upright posture. Its extremities usually hang down. This pose can cause blood to pool in the extremities due to gravity. If the affected person is released from their upright position, this release can result in a so-called rescue collapse, since the circulatory regulation cannot cope with the rapid change in posture.

The phenomenon of suspension trauma has been known since the 1970s and is a rather rare occurrence. Nevertheless, since the discovery, several deaths have been documented, which can probably be attributed solely to this phenomenon. The physician Amphoux first described the hanging trauma in connection with cavers who had suffered an accident and who had only suffered a minor fall and mysteriously died as a result of the fall.


When a person changes from a lying position to a standing position, around 600 milliliters of blood can pool in the veins of the legs. The arterial blood pressure and the cardiac output decrease briefly with this phenomenon. The body reacts to this phenomenon by constricting the blood vessels. The heart rate increases and catecholamines are released.

The blood vessels in the brain are equipped with self-regulating mechanisms and thus ensure blood flow. But if there is not enough counter-regulation, then the cerebral blood flow is extremely reduced. As a result, dizziness sets in. However, this does not result in an orthostatic shock, since the person concerned sits down or lies down at the first dizziness or a fainting sign. In this way, the orthostatic change is compensated for again.

No equalization can take place in a belt system. The counter-regulatory mechanisms of the organism are overwhelmed and the blood is redistributed. There is a lack of volume, which can even be exacerbated by constrictions caused by the straps.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

Symptoms of suspension trauma are, to some extent, individual. Above all, the time at which it occurs over time is determined by the individual constitution of the respective person. As a rule, the first symptoms appear after a minimum of one minute and a maximum of 20 minutes. Those affected turn pale in the face. You start sweating and you feel dizzy. The legs usually become numb after a while.

Other misperceptions also appear at times. Those affected often suffer from swelling nausea, which can increase to the point of vomiting. Shortness of breath and dizziness are added. Disturbances of the perception system can occur. Visual disturbances are the most common.

Sometimes there is also a bloodless bloodletting at the attachment points of the straps. Even necrosis or varicose veins may appear spontaneously at the site of strangulation. The pent-up blood in the extremities may contain toxic substances, such as those found in post-ischemia syndrome.

Diagnosis & course of disease

Suspension trauma is usually diagnosed by rescue teams and rescue services and is based on visual diagnostics and vital signs. The diagnosis at the site of the event is absolutely necessary for a favorable course, since the person concerned must not be brought into the lying position too quickly. Too rapid a rearrangement can lead to cardiac death because the heart muscle is overstrained.


If a suspension trauma is not treated, the patient usually dies relatively quickly. For this reason, immediate medical treatment of the trauma is necessary to avoid consequential damage and death of the patient. The longer the patient hangs on the belt system, the more complaints and complications usually occur.

There is vomiting and severe nausea, and the affected person continues to suffer from dizziness and gasping. Misperceptions and paralysis occur in various regions of the body and the quality of life decreases sharply. There are also severe visual disturbances, which, however, normalize again with treatment. The general condition of the patient worsens, and after a few minutes, as a rule, the affected person loses consciousness and faints.

Complications can arise if the patient is moved too quickly during treatment. In this case, the heart can be overloaded and cardiac death occurs. In many cases, resuscitation is necessary when the suspension trauma has lasted for a long period of time. It cannot be predicted whether the suspension trauma will cause permanent damage to the patient.

When should you go to the doctor?

If a suspension trauma is suspected, an emergency doctor must be alerted immediately. The trauma represents a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment and subsequent comprehensive evaluation at the hospital. If symptoms such as abnormal sensations, nausea and vomiting or shortness of breath occur a few minutes after an accident, often in connection with external injuries, the emergency services must be called. Visual disturbances, dizziness and pain can also be warning signs that require rapid clarification.

Externally, a hanging trauma can be recognized by the pale complexion and the frequent outbreaks of sweat. If the legs or other limbs also become numb, a doctor should be alerted. First responders must provide first aid until a doctor is available. After a suspension trauma, the affected person has to spend a few days to weeks in the hospital, depending on how severe the injuries are. After discharge from the hospital, regular examinations by the doctor are indicated, as complications can still occur weeks later.

Treatment & Therapy

Rescuing the patient is the first step in treating suspension trauma. The victim should be placed in an upright position for the next 20 minutes. If this principle is ignored, the orthostatic change can have life-threatening consequences. This is especially true when toxic substances have accumulated in the extremities. Further treatment of the suspension trauma depends on the symptoms.

For example, the first responders remove clothing that is too tight. The patient’s breathing and circulation are continuously monitored. If normal breathing stops and the patient loses consciousness, conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation is done. If there is only a loss of consciousness but breathing remains normal, the person is placed in the recovery position.

When emergency medics reach the scene of the accident, an oxygen supply is initiated. A venous line is placed. In combination with this, a blood sugar determination takes place. When hypoglycemia is present, emergency medical professionals give the patient glucose as a crystalline solution. Sympathomimetics such as adrenaline are sometimes administered intravenously. If the circulation does not stabilize in this way, sufficient volume administration is indicated.


Suspension trauma can be prevented to a certain extent by solely using appropriate harness systems and rope loops. In the event of a fall, the person concerned places their legs in these loops to stimulate the muscle pump. However, hanging trauma cannot be ruled out with certainty.


Anyone who has experienced a suspension trauma as a rope access worker can suffer from the typical symptoms again at any time. Because a crash can happen again by accident. In certain professions and in certain leisure activities, there is simply an increased risk. Follow-up care is primarily related to preventive measures aimed at ensuring that the sufferer uses positioning systems with foot slings and work seats that reduce the risk of suspension trauma.

Doctors and insurance companies provide information about suitable fall protection. However, the use of such systems is the responsibility of the patient himself or his employer. Beyond preventing recurrence, aftercare aims to manage consequential damage. These occur primarily when the patient has been in the safety harness for too long or has suffered a shock.

Aftercare is then based on the existing symptoms. Many forms of aftercare are conceivable, from lifelong permanent treatment to short-term therapies. Doctors provide suitable aids and medicines. In addition to a detailed anamnesis, examinations may also include imaging procedures. Sometimes a psychological stress disorder occurs as a result of a suspension trauma. Psychotherapy provides relief and shows the way to a symptom-free everyday life.

You can do that yourself

People who have felt trapped in a harness system for a long time should only change their body position slowly. Blood circulation can be continuously stimulated, for example, by moving fingers or toes. Further movements of the limbs, such as the wrist or ankle, can be gradually initiated by circling or tilting.

Sudden loading of the limbs with body weight should always be avoided in the event of a hanging trauma. Helpers who want to free those affected from the belt system must be informed about the approximate time of the current position and existing complaints. With numbness in the arms or legs, the body lacks the strength to carry its own weight. The muscles have not been sufficiently supplied with oxygen and other nutrients through the vessels, so that they usually need several minutes to be able to function again.

After an accident, those providing assistance should contact a paramedic immediately. This usually has sufficient experience not to trigger excessive demands. The person concerned should avoid overestimating their condition after sitting in a rigid position in the belt system for a long period of time. A good reflection of his physical possibilities reduces danger for him and is helpful for the recovery process. The urge for liberation often prevails and leads to a further risk of accidents.

aminations do not make sense. On the one hand, this is due to the fact that the typical complaints can be easily avoided by avoiding high levels; on the other hand, the disease is permanent and cannot be treated according to current scientific knowledge.

The best way for climbers to avoid acute complications is to climb slowly, gradually adapting to the changing conditions. On the other hand, there are no complaints at all during scheduled follow-up examinations in the rooms of a doctor’s surgery, since there was no increase in altitude. The aftercare does not prove to be effective here either.

Aftercare is also about supporting the patient in everyday life. The doctor can give you tips on how to behave on the next mountain hike. However, the patient is responsible for implementation. If you have severe symptoms, you should start the descent immediately. On longer tours, accommodation in lower plains is preferable. The increase should be slow. It should be borne in mind that the body needs time to adapt to the changed climatic conditions.

You can do that yourself

People who suffer from altitude sickness should always carry an altimeter with them. In many cars it is already firmly integrated into the on-board system and can be called up at any time with current data. Nevertheless, it is advisable to also have a mobile device with you that can be worn on the body and also measures the height in real time. At the first symptoms of altitude sickness, it is necessary to check the current position in which the person concerned is located. A return to a much lower altitude should be initiated as quickly as possible and there the symptoms should be awaited.

Since altitude sickness can quickly turn into a life-threatening condition, unnecessary risks should be avoided. A doctor must be called if symptoms worsen or drowsiness occurs. Staying in higher areas should be well thought out and planned. If possible, avoid it.

Those affected and their close relatives should obtain comprehensive information about the disease, the symptoms and the resulting consequences. Spontaneous mountain tours should be avoided. The organism can often slowly adapt to certain altitudes. Therefore, if it is necessary to stay at certain heights, several days or weeks should be planned in which only gradual ascent takes place.

Suspension Trauma

All You Need to Know About Immune Complex Vasculitis

All You Need to Know About Immune Complex Vasculitis

Immune complex vasculitis is a form of blood vessel inflammation. It is one of the subgroups of vascular inflammation.

What is immune complex vasculitis?

According to abbreviationfinder, the various gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms cause numerous complications, such as epilepsy or intestinal infarction, which can be fatal. If the heart is involved, angina pectoris can result, which can lead to a heart attack.

Immune complex vasculitis is a form of vascular inflammation (vasculitis). Vasculitis causes the walls of the blood vessels to become inflamed. Immune complex vasculitis occurs when the vascular inflammation is caused by an immunological reaction. Immune complexes are deposited on the walls of numerous smaller blood vessels.

Doctors then also speak of leukocytoplastic vasculitis, allergic vasculitis or hypersensitivity vasculitis . Doctors distinguish between cutaneous and systemic immune complex vasculitis:

In cutaneous immune complex vasculitis, sufferers suffer from inflammation of the small blood vessels near the skin. In the run-up to the vascular inflammation, a bacterial infection, which is usually caused by streptococci, or a viral disease appears.

If, on the other hand, the vasculitis is caused by antibodies and takes a chronic course, this can usually be traced back to hepatitis C. There is talk of systemic immune complex vasculitis when not only the skin is affected by the vascular inflammation, but also the kidneys and the entire central nervous system.


Immune complex vasculitis is caused by the deposit of larger immune complexes originating from the blood on the vessel walls of the blood vessels. This usually happens due to an over-sensitivity of the immune system to drugs or components of germs. Sometimes the leukocytoplastic vasculitis also appears in the context of a systemic immune complex vasculitis.

The formation of smaller immune complexes occurs, among other things, when a smaller wound is infected with bacteria. These are bound in the wound by specific antibodies of the organism. The complexes can be easily dissolved in the blood. Their degradation takes place in the liver. However, if larger accumulations of foreign substances and corresponding antibodies come together, this leads to the formation of large immune complexes.

This process usually takes place in the context of infections in which a larger number of germs penetrates the blood. The most common triggers include throat infections caused by viruses or streptococcus bacteria, and infections with hepatitis B or hepatitis C viruses. Some people also develop antibodies to drugs such as certain antibiotics, painkillers, birth control pills, or diuretics.

If large amounts of germs or drugs against which antibodies already exist get into the blood, this results in the formation of huge immune complexes. Since these are difficult to dissolve in the blood, they are deposited as solid substances on the walls of the blood vessels. This is especially true in blood vessels where there is slow blood flow, such as very small veins.

If the immune complexes are deposited on the vessel walls, this leads to a migration of leukocytes (white blood cells) from the blood into the vessel walls. This in turn triggers an inflammatory response. The leukocytes attempt to break down the immune complexes by releasing certain components, but this is only partially successful. Somewhat accidentally, the aggressive ingredients can penetrate into adjacent tissues, causing further damage to the blood vessel walls.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

The typical symptoms of immune complex vasculitis include many small hemorrhages that are visible on the skin. They first show up on the lower legs in the form of red dots, which can reach a maximum size of three millimeters. After a few days, the dots turn blue-red. In addition, red bleeding occurs in the lower and thigh region. However , itching or burning occurs only occasionally.

In the case of a stronger inflammatory reaction, the dark red nodules reach a diameter of several millimeters. If the immune complex vasculitis is severe, the top layer of skin in the middle of the nodules dies off, which is noticeable by a light gray discoloration or blistering.

Furthermore, superficial skin defects form that weep. In the worst case, tissue necrosis is also possible, which is noticeable in the form of soluble black nodules and small, painful wounds.

Diagnosis & course of disease

As part of the examination, the doctor asks the patient whether they had an infection some time ago or whether they are taking new medicines. He also wants to know whether the person concerned suffers from underlying chronic diseases. Finally, the patient’s skin is checked. The doctor pays particular attention to the red spots.

Two tissue samples (biopsy) are taken to confirm the diagnosis. The first sample is checked microscopically in a laboratory for vascular inflammation. In the second sample, immune complexes deposited on the walls of the vessels can be detected using the immunofluorescence method. If the immune complex vasculitis is not treated or if the central nervous system is involved, the disease usually takes a negative course.


The immune complex vasculitis causes bleeding in the skin. These hemorrhages are visible to those affected as small dots and can change color and become larger as the disease progresses. In most cases, the affected regions also experience severe itching and burning pain.

It is not uncommon for the pain to also appear in the form of pain at rest and can thus lead to considerable sleep disorders and irritability in the patient. In severe cases, the upper layers of skin in the respective regions can also die off completely, which can lead to the formation of scars and blisters. This manifests itself in reduced aesthetics and thus reduced self-esteem.

In the treatment of immune complex vasculitis, in most cases there are no special complications. First and foremost, the underlying disease that is responsible for the immune complex vasculitis is always treated. If inflammation has already occurred, antibiotics can be taken to counteract it. Life expectancy is not reduced by the disease and there are no further symptoms after treatment.

When should you go to the doctor?

Anyone who suddenly notices bleeding on the skin should see a doctor. The skin changes indicate a skin disease that needs to be clarified and treated if necessary. Whether this is an immune complex vasculitis can only be determined by a doctor. Therefore, medical advice should be sought at the first sign of illness. Clear warning signs that must be clarified as soon as possible are bluish-red discolorations on the skin, often associated with itching or burning.

At the latest when the inflammation gets bigger or the skin areas die off, a doctor’s visit is indicated. The disease often occurs after infection with hepatitis B or hepatitis C viruses. Taking painkillers or antibiotics can also lead to immune complex vasculitis. To whom these factors apply, the symptoms mentioned should be clarified quickly. In addition to the family doctor, a dermatologist or an immunologist can be consulted. Patients with chronic complaints should consult a therapist, as the disease often has an impact on the psyche.

Treatment & Therapy

The treatment of immune complex vasculitis depends on the triggering causes. If drugs or a pathogen are responsible for the hypersensitivity, it is important to switch off the trigger. As a rule, the inflammatory symptoms will soon subside again. If bacteria are involved in the vascular inflammation, the administration of antibiotics can be useful.

If the cause is a specific drug, it is discontinued or replaced with another drug. Wearing special compression stockings is considered helpful . In this way, the blood flows faster in the small vessels, which means that no new immune complexes can be deposited on the vessel walls. In most cases, cortisone therapy is also carried out.

Outlook & Forecast

Immune complex vasculitis requires comprehensive treatment. If the non-bacterial inflammation of the blood vessels is not treated, the prognosis is unfavorable. The various gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms cause numerous complications, such as epilepsy or intestinal infarction, which can be fatal. If the heart is involved, angina pectoris can result, which can lead to a heart attack.

The patients are severely restricted in their quality of life due to the condition and have to take a wide variety of medications. Nevertheless, well-being is reduced, which can also result in long-term psychological problems. Even comprehensive treatment does not guarantee recovery. If the central nervous system is involved, a fatal outcome is likely. Those affected generally have a reduced life expectancy.

Factors such as early treatment and being in good physical condition, other than immune complex vasculitis, improve the chances of recovery. With comprehensive medical therapy, the cause of the condition can be treated within a period of three months to several years. Accompanying this, symptomatic therapy is necessary. The prognosis is worse in children, the elderly and patients with an immune deficiency. Most of these patients die from the typical endothelial swelling or other complications in the first weeks to months after the onset of the immune complex vasculitis.


Preventive measures against immune complex vasculitis are not known. This makes it all the more important to start treatment as soon as possible in the event of illness.


In most cases, those affected with immune complex vasculitis do not have any special options for aftercare, so that a quick diagnosis should be made in the first place for this disease. Early diagnosis and early initiation of treatment usually result in a positive course of the disease.

Self-healing cannot occur with this disease. As a rule, those affected by immune complex vasculitis have to discontinue certain medications or replace them with others. However, you should always consult a doctor. When taking medication, it is always important to ensure that the dosage is correct and that it is taken regularly in order to relieve the symptoms properly and permanently.

If you have any questions or are unclear, it is advisable to consult a doctor first. Wearing compression stockings can often have a positive effect on the course of immune complex vasculitis. Due to the illness, many patients also need the help of their own family or friends in their everyday life.

Loving conversations with those affected often have a positive effect on the course of the disease and can sometimes prevent the onset of depression or other psychological complaints. The life expectancy of those affected may be reduced as a result of the disease.

You can do that yourself

Unfortunately, immune complex vasculitis cannot be prevented directly. For this reason, a doctor should always be consulted immediately if the disease occurs. The earlier the disease is treated, the higher the chances of a positive course of the disease. Unfortunately, the possibilities for self-help are also severely limited with this disease.

If the doctor prescribes antibiotics for the patient, they should be taken. When taking antibiotics, the corresponding instructions must be observed. The use of other medications should also be checked. Furthermore, the symptoms of immune complex vasculitis can be limited by wearing compression stockings. These can usually be prescribed by a doctor. Also a therapy with cortisonehas a positive effect on the course of the disease. In a self-experiment, the person concerned should pay attention to whether certain medications increase the symptoms of the immune complex vasculitis. If this is the case, the medication can be discontinued or replaced with other medication after consultation with the doctor treating you.

Skin complaints or scars can also be limited and avoided with the help of nourishing ointments or creams. In serious cases, however, a surgical procedure is suitable to avoid aesthetic problems.

Immune Complex Vasculitis

All You Need to Know About Hirsuties Papillaris Penis

All You Need to Know About Hirsuties Papillaris Penis

According to abbreviationfinder, hirsuties papillaris penis are skin changes on the edge of the male glans, which resemble wart-like horny tips and can extend over the foreskin ligament. The anomalies have no disease value, but correspond to a harmless atavism. The treatment is not covered by health insurance since there is no medical need for therapy.

What is a hirsuties papillaris penis?

In hirsuties papillaris penis or hirsuties papillaris coronae glandis, wart-like skin changes form on the edge of the glans, which can appear white, skin-colored or reddish. In the German-speaking world, the tiny warts are sometimes referred to as horntips or horntips. The warts can extend from the edge of the glans to the foreskin of the penis.

The horn-like tips are also referred to in medicine as papillae coronae glandis, as papillomata coronae glandis or as penis papillomas. Papillomas are benign tumors. In the narrower sense, however, hirsuties papillaris penis is not a phenomenon with pathological value. Basically, there can be no question of a tumor disease.

The horntips are relatively common in Germany and occur in about 20 percent of all pubescent boys. Around 40 percent of all men worldwide are affected. Analogously, there is a similar wart disease of the female sex with the hirsuties papillaris vulvae, in which the tiny warts form in the area of the vulva. The female variant is much rarer compared to the male. However, the hirsuties papillaris vulvae are also not pathological.


The hirsuties papillaris penis are often associated with the wildest speculation about possible causes. Some sufferers think it is a malformation. Other patients assume they have a sexually transmitted disease. Still others recognize the horn tip as a symptom of another disease or attribute the condition to poor hygiene.

None of this is true. Instead, the phenomenon is a simple atavism that has no pathological value. There is always talk of atavism when anatomical features of the phylogenetic ancestors are developed again in a modern individual. Since the features do not fulfill any function in the current stage of development of the man, the horntips have probably receded in the course of evolution.

In this context, hirsuties papillaris penis, like the rudiments, belong to the evidence of evolution and are a normal symptom of atavism. However, since they do not affect all men, they are occasionally perceived as deformities or disfigurements.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

Patients with hirsuties papillaris penis discover skin changes on their genitals that look like horn-like tips. The changes are small in size and may vary in color. In addition to white horny tips, reddish or skin-colored tips can be present. In most cases, the lesion is concentrated around the edge of the glans.

A larger field is only affected in exceptional cases. For example, some patients discover horny horns extending from the edge of the glans to over the foreskin ligament. The wart-like formations do not cause any accompanying symptoms. They neither hurt nor cause itching.

Since it is not a symptom of an overarching disease and also not a disease in its own right, those affected remain largely asymptomatic. However, most patients are ashamed of the abnormal change during puberty and should therefore consider treatment.

Diagnosis & disease progression

Due to their typical appearance, the diagnosis of hirsuties papillaris penis turns out to be relatively easy. It can hardly be confused with the so-called Fordyce glands in the form of free sebaceous glands, confused with sebaceous cysts or misdiagnosed as contagious genital warts. The dermatologist makes the diagnosis from the atavism.

In terms of differential diagnosis, the phenomenon must be distinguished above all from molluscum contagiosum, which occurs predominantly in isolated form on the shaft of the penis and has a central dent. Differentiation from lichen planus, bowenoid papules, or condylomata lata of syphilis can also be relevant for differential diagnosis. The prognosis for patients with hirsuties papillaris penis is excellent.


Hirsuties papillaris penis causes abnormalities in the male sex organ. As a rule, these abnormalities do not lead to any particular symptoms or complications and therefore do not need to be treated either. However, they can lead to aesthetic complaints and thus trigger reduced self-esteem or inferiority complexes in men.

As a rule, the quality of life and life expectancy are not reduced or restricted by hirsuties papillaris penis. Those affected suffer from small tips on the glans. However, these little corners do not lead to pain or itching and therefore do not represent any particular restriction in everyday life. However, these complaints can lead to feelings of shame and insecurity, especially in children and adolescents, so that treatment is often necessary.

Without treatment, the patient may experience restricted sexual development. The treatment removes the symptoms completely, so there are no further complications or changes on the skin. However, scars can form. As a rule, a doctor will explain the possible risks of the procedure before the treatment.

When should you go to the doctor?

With a hirsuties papillaris penis, a doctor’s visit is not absolutely necessary. The skin changes on the penis are not pathological and can also occur without medical treatment. Normally, no further health problems develop. A shortened life expectancy is also not to be expected. A doctor’s visit is only necessary if the optical flaw of the squirrel-like structure becomes a mental problem for the person concerned.

If you experience stressful emotions such as feelings of shame or disgust, it is advisable to see a doctor. If there are problems in the partnership, withdrawal behavior or the avoidance of interpersonal contacts, there is a need for action. If the skin changes lead to a change in behavior or personality, a doctor should be consulted. In the case of abnormalities such as depressive phases, melancholy or an aggressive appearance, a doctor should be consulted.

If sexual dysfunction occurs due to hirsuties papillaris penis, a doctor’s visit is recommended. If the skin lesions are intentionally scratched or damaged, health problems can occur. If the wound is not properly treated, pathogens can get into the organism and lead to further diseases. A check-up visit to a doctor is necessary because in severe cases there is a risk of blood poisoning. You should therefore see a doctor if pain sets in, reddening of the skin, itching or the formation of pus.

Treatment & Therapy

From a medical point of view, there is no need to treat hirsuties papillaris penis. The removal of the wart-like structures does not have to take place, nor does drug treatment. However, if the patient with the horntips feels uncomfortable, treatment should still be considered to ensure carefree sexual development.

Since there is no medical need for treatment, the costs of treating hirsuties papillaris penis are not covered by health insurance. In most cases, patients therefore decide against removal as soon as they are made aware of the sometimes high prevalence and harmlessness of the skin changes. In individual cases, patients decide to have the horn tips removed for purely cosmetic reasons.

Removal is usually done as part of a laser treatment or cryotherapy. The patient is under local anesthesia during the removal. The treatment is carried out by a dermatologist or a plastic surgeon. Removal is preceded by education that indicates the risk of disruptive scarring. As soon as this information has been provided, the number of people willing to be treated is reduced by at least half.

Outlook & Forecast

Hirsuties papillaris penis is a non-morbid phenomenon. In 30 to 40 percent of all men, so-called horn tips can form on the glans during puberty. It is an age-old hereditary condition that can occur in every third man. Extremely rarely, women also suffer from horn tips on the vagina.

Since hirsuties papillaris penis is not a disease, it does not require treatment. However, the horn tip can lead to mental stress. This is especially true when large papules appear. Many men perceive these as unaesthetic and abnormal. Partly this raises the concern that it is a serious disease that is contagious. More often, however, horn tips evoke a feeling of shame in front of the partner. The assumption arises that the partner might perceive the papules as deterrent and contagious. This stress can lead to erectile dysfunction in men. In this sense, Hirsuties papillaris penis has a disease value.

In some cases, however, purely psychological support no longer helps. Cosmetic surgery is often the only remedy here. Surgical removal of the horn tips usually goes well. However, in a few cases, scars remain, which are also unaesthetic and can lead to functional restrictions of the penis. It is also possible for the papules to recur after an operation.


Hirsuties papillaris penis cannot be prevented because it is a harmless atavism.


In the case of hirsuties papillaris penis, those affected usually do not have any special measures for direct follow-up care. The disease itself does not necessarily have to be treated, since it does not threaten the life of the person affected and is usually only an aesthetic complaint. Therefore, no direct treatment is necessary for hirsuties papillaris penis if it is not absolutely desired by the person concerned.

The disease itself can be alleviated with a simple surgical procedure. The operation usually proceeds without complications. After that, the person concerned should protect and care for the area around the penis particularly well. It is often necessary to take antibiotics to prevent inflammation.

The person concerned should take these regularly and also in the right dosage. Furthermore, some check-ups by a doctor are useful after the procedure. If the hirsuties papillaris penis is not treated, psychological upsets may occur. In many cases, intensive discussions with your partner or family help to prevent depression or other psychological upsets.

You can do that yourself

As a rule, no special therapy or treatment is necessary for hirsuties papillaris penis. Since in most cases the affected person does not suffer from any particular symptoms or pain, no self-help measures need to be taken to treat this disease.

However, many sufferers can be ashamed of the disease. The person concerned should definitely talk to their partner about these feelings of shame in order to avoid further psychological problems or depression. Contact with other sufferers or talking to a doctor can also significantly reduce and limit these feelings of shame. Above all, the partner must offer the patient support and strengthen their self-esteem.

Although no treatment is necessary, hirsuties papillaris penis can be removed surgically. There are no particular complications and there is usually a positive course of the disease. The formation of scars can be prevented if the affected person cares for the skin after the surgical procedure and keeps it moist. The patient does not have any special options for self-help. However, the disease does not limit life expectancy.


All You Need to Know About Fatty Heart

All You Need to Know About Fatty Heart

The term fatty heart disease, also called fatty heart or lipomatosis, describes various diseases of the heart region. This causes connective tissue to transform into fat cells. This can have various causes, such as damage to the heart muscle tissue or obesity.

What is fatty heart?

According to DigoPaul, a fatty heart is either a side effect of obesity or an independent degeneration of the heart muscle. In the case of obesity, the right ventricle is particularly affected, which can lead to right heart failure. However, myocardial damage can also occur , for example as a result of chronic alcohol abuse.

The fatty degeneration also affects the left ventricle and is occasionally accompanied by dilated cardiomyopathy. The term must be distinguished from the so-called fatty myocardial degeneration, which occurs, among other things, in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

Furthermore, it is important to distinguish fatty degeneration from coronary heart disease (“calcification” or “fatty degeneration” of the coronary arteries), for which the term is sometimes incorrectly used as a synonym.


As a side effect of general obesity, the heart is surrounded by a thick layer of fat in the case of fatty heart disease. If the disease occurs as an independent degeneration of the heart muscle, this is the result of the gradual conversion of muscle tissue into fatty tissue. The main causes of fatty degeneration in the heart are a high-fat, high-calorie diet and alcohol abuse.

However, persistent overstraining of the heart and diseases of the heart blood vessels can also cause the syndrome. Long-lasting high fever is another risk factor for fatty heart disease. This occurs, for example, in typhus, smallpox or pyaemia. The diseases that can provoke the development of the disease include anemia, pulmonary tuberculosis, scurvy and protracted suppuration and bleeding. Women and older people are particularly affected by fatty heart disease.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

The side effects of fatty heart disease include coronary symptoms such as palpitations and cardiac insufficiency. But general symptoms such as shortness of breath, easy fatigue, asthma, shortness of breath, anxiety, fainting spells and dizziness can also be signs of the disease.

Fatty heart disease as a result of obesity begins with right heart failure. This causes different symptoms, such as congested and dilated neck veins, edema, congested kidneys or congested gastritis. If the left ventricle is affected, this can lead to dilated cardiomyopathy. Among other things, this causes progressive left- sided heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia, embolism and Cheyne-Stokes breathing as a sleep-related breathing disorder.

Diagnosis & disease progression

A fatty heart usually initially leads to right heart failure, which spreads to the entire heart over time. Dilated cardiomyopathy often develops as a long-term consequence. Right heart failure can be diagnosed clinically.

The enlargement of the heart can be shown with the help of an echocardiography and a chest X -ray. Widening of the azygos vein and superior vena cava including the right atrium can be observed at diagnosis. The heart shifts to the left with elevation of the heart apex when the right heart is enlarged.

Dilated cardiomyopathy can also be diagnosed by echocardiography. The dilatation of the ventricles and the left atrium, hypokinesia and wall movement disorders can be determined. An MRI examines anatomy, heart function, and valve function. Biopsy and pathohistology may be used to rule out ischemic causes.

While fatty heart disease can be treated well in the early stages, a severe course with sudden onset of cardiac paralysis can be fatal. Therefore, a doctor should be consulted as soon as the first signs appear. This is the only way to prevent the obesity from causing irreparable damage to the heart.


A fatty heart can cause a number of complications. First, a fatty heart leads to circulatory problems such as high blood pressure, sweating and palpitations. These symptoms are usually accompanied by shortness of breath, fatigue and dizziness. This is often associated with a decrease in general well-being and, depending on the degree of fatty heart disease, the development of psychological problems.

In the further course, right-sided heart failure can also develop, which can later develop into complete heart failure. If the left ventricle is affected, dilated cardiomyopathy can develop later. This can lead to left ventricular failure, cardiac arrhythmia and the development of embolism.

Sleep-related breathing disorders such as Cheyne-Stokes breathing can also occur. A fatty heart as a result of obesity can also lead to dilated neck veins, edema and congested kidneys. In general, fatty heart disease increases the risk of heart attacks and other life-threatening complications.

If the causative disease is not treated, permanent cardiac insufficiency usually develops, which in turn is associated with symptoms. In the case of medical treatment of a fatty heart, major complications are unlikely. Only with rapid fat loss cures and zero diets is there a risk of overloading the heart.

When should you go to the doctor?

If there is increased shortness of breath, shortness of breath, dizziness or palpitations, there may be fatty heart disease. A doctor should be consulted if symptoms persist for more than a few days or other symptoms develop. Disturbances of consciousness and fainting spells must be clarified immediately by a doctor. If there are major symptoms, such as persistent shortness of breath or palpitations, this should also be examined promptly. People who are overweight are particularly at risk.

Patients who eat a generally unhealthy diet, drink a lot of alcohol or have a disease of the metabolic system are particularly likely to develop fatty heart disease. Anyone who counts themselves among these risk groups should consult a doctor if they experience the symptoms mentioned. If there is a suspicion of pronounced cardiac insufficiency, the disease may already be far advanced. Then you should see your family doctor immediately. Other contacts are the cardiologist or a specialist in internal diseases. In case of doubt, the medical emergency service can be contacted first. If the symptoms are severe, we recommend calling the emergency services.

Treatment & Therapy

In the initial stages of fatty heart disease, it is important to take countermeasures quickly in order to stop the progression of the disease. For this purpose, emotional and psychological stress and excessive physical exertion should be avoided. In order to strengthen the heart muscle and prevent the formation of further fat tissue, daily walks with a slowly increasing level of exertion are recommended.

Systematic remedial gymnastics can also drive the recovery process under medical supervision. A long stay in the fresh forest or mountain air is just as beneficial as strict adherence to a diet. Strong alcoholic drinks, coffee, tea or drinking too much water should be avoided, as these put a strain on the cardiovascular system.

While sugar, pastries and potatoes should be eliminated from the menu, the enjoyment of vegetables and fruit is recommended. In any case, the treatment should be supervised by a doctor instead of setting up a therapy plan on your own. Rapid degreasing treatments are not recommended. This causes the fatty tissue around the heart to be eliminated too quickly, causing the heart to lose its support.

Possible consequences are heart enlargement and cardiac insufficiency. In cases that are not too advanced, a careful defatting treatment under medical supervision can lead to the complete healing of the patient. Treatment in later stages is more difficult and usually only promises an alleviation of the symptoms.

Outlook & Forecast

The prospects of recovery from fatty heart disease differ depending on the stage of the disease and the patient’s initiative. At an early stage, the disease can be contained by taking regular walks in the fresh air and eating a balanced diet. Stress and excessive physical exertion are not recommended, as these can put too much strain on the heart and cause other diseases. The diet should be limited to a strict diet, without the consumption of acidic foods such as coffee, sugar and alcoholic beverages.

A stay in the mountains can also support healing. Here, for example, a stay in a spa facility is an option. In addition to sufficient exercise, the focus here is also on nutrition. If these criteria are met, the prognosis at this early stage of the disease is very positive.

However, if the fatty degeneration is advanced, the prospect of complete recovery is very poor. In most cases, this is only about curbing the symptoms and not making them worse. Other serious diseases should be avoided, which is why close medical care is necessary. However, the prognosis is bad. For this reason, a doctor should be consulted at the first sign of the disease.


In order to prevent fatty heart disease as a result of obesity, a health-promoting diet should come first. This includes the extensive renunciation of high-fat food, or their moderate consumption. Fruits and vegetables should make up the bulk of meals to prevent excess fat accumulation.

The fatty heart that develops in the course of alcohol abuse can be prevented by moderate alcohol consumption. In any case, stress should be avoided as much as possible and exercise in the fresh air encouraged. Diseases that put a strain on the cardiovascular system should be treated by a doctor as soon as possible to rule out long-term consequences.


In the case of fatty heart disease, the patient usually only has very few follow-up measures available. The disease should generally be prevented to avoid this complication. In the worst case, the fatty degeneration of the heart can lead to the death of those affected if they are not treated properly. First and foremost, however, the cause of this obesity must be identified and treated so that the symptoms can be properly limited.

Self-healing does not occur in this case. The treatment itself depends very much on the exact cause of the fatty heart disease, with the doctor usually drawing up a nutrition plan for the patient. This must be strictly observed. In general, a healthy lifestyle with a healthy diet and physical activity also has a positive effect on the course of the disease.

Those affected should also refrain from smoking or consuming alcohol. Since fatty heart disease generally weakens the heart, regular examinations by a doctor should take place. Whether the disease reduces life expectancy depends heavily on the severity of this obesity. Contact with other people affected by the disease can also be useful, as this can lead to an exchange of information.


In the case of fatty heart disease, the patient usually only has very few follow-up measures available. The disease should generally be prevented to avoid this complication. In the worst case, the fatty degeneration of the heart can also lead to the death of the person concerned if it is not treated properly.

First and foremost, however, the cause of this obesity must be identified and treated so that the symptoms can be properly limited. Self-healing does not occur in this case. The treatment itself depends very much on the exact cause of the fatty heart disease, with the doctor usually drawing up a nutrition plan for the patient. This must be strictly observed.

In general, a healthy lifestyle with a healthy diet and physical activity also has a positive effect on the course of the disease. The person concerned should also refrain from smoking or consuming alcohol. Since fatty heart disease generally weakens the heart, regular examinations by a doctor should take place.

Whether the disease reduces life expectancy depends very much on the extent of this obesity. Contact with other people affected by the disease can also be useful, as this can lead to an exchange of information.

You can do that yourself

One of the main causes of lipomatosis (fatty heart) is the wrong diet, especially one that is high in fat and energy, and permanent excessive alcohol consumption. In these cases, the patient himself can do a great deal to improve his state of health.

If the fatty heart is due to being overweight, a consistent change in lifestyle is essential. But this is very difficult for many people. The support of the family doctor is usually not enough. Since a lack of knowledge and a lack of motivation are often the main causes of severe obesity, those affected are best looking for professional help. With a nutritionistlearn which foods are healthy and which foods are better avoided. You will also receive a nutrition plan that is tailored to your health problems and your individual life situation. If necessary, those affected also learn how to prepare healthy food correctly. In addition, it helps many overweight people to join a self-help group, since weight reduction is a lengthy and tough process, especially in the case of severe obesity.

In addition to the right diet, regular physical exercise also plays an important role. If the weight already limits mobility, water sports, especially swimming and water aerobics, are recommended. In larger cities there are also gyms that specialize in overweight people. Training with special equipment is particularly effective and the membership fees usually motivate people to actually use the paid offer.

Anyone suffering from alcohol addiction should start therapy as soon as possible, although alcoholics also benefit from membership in an (anonymous) self-help group.

Fatty Heart

All You Need to Know About Gordon Syndrome

All You Need to Know About Gordon Syndrome

Gordon syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that belongs to the distal arthrogryposis group. Among other things, it is associated with joint stiffness, cleft palate and other mobility restrictions and requires comprehensive treatment.

What is Gordon Syndrome?

According to digopaul, gordon syndrome is a genetic disease associated with damage to the joints and the entire musculoskeletal system. The rare disease does not result in any cognitive impairments, but treatment is still necessary to get the diverse symptoms under control. Preventive measures are limited to prenatal examinations of parents and child.


The syndrome itself is characterized by stiffening of the joints, including the arms, legs and knees, elbows, wrists and ankles. If the disease occurs in children, the fingers often become stiff and remain in a bent position. Patients suffer accordingly from further limitations in mobility and can hardly carry out fine motor tasks.

Since Gordon syndrome is a genetic defect, the cause is hereditary. Affected are children who inherit an autosomal dominant trait from both father and mother or who inherit a dominant genetic disorder from one parent. The risk of inheriting the condition is 50 percent, regardless of the gender of the child.

Exudative enteropathy, also known as Gordon syndrome, occurs as a result of a wide variety of diseases. These include Whipple ‘s disease , Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, lymphogranuloomatose, and Ménétrier’s syndrome. The causes for the development of the respective underlying diseases can vary greatly and range from disorders of the gastrointestinal tract to injuries.

The Gordon system itself occurs as a result of a massive loss of protein, more precisely due to a disturbed lymphatic drainage or increased lymph formation, which leads to a loss of protein in the intestinal lumen.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

Gordon syndrome can be diagnosed at birth in most cases. The characteristic physical symptoms such as cleft palate or clubfoot are clear indicators and, in conjunction with a clinical evaluation and the parents’ medical records, allow for a clear diagnosis. If the symptoms are not noticed until later in life, Gordon syndrome can often be diagnosed by those affected themselves.

Diagnosis & History

Since the symptoms vary in severity and can be assigned to different underlying diseases, diagnosis by a doctor is essential. The specialist first talks to the patient and narrows down the symptoms that occur. What complaints arise? How serious are these complaints?

Are there similar illnesses in the family? All these questions must first be clarified before the physical examination begins. The diagnosis can then be made using typical examination procedures for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to blood tests, listening to the abdomen and palpation of the painful region, stool and saliva samples are taken, which are examined in the laboratory for the respective pathogens.

Depending on the suspicion, X -rays and ultrasound examinations can also be used to narrow down the causes. The diagnosis of exudative enteropathy is usually made using a Gordon test. This is a procedure that detects diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and thus enables comprehensive treatment.

The Gordon test itself is carried out using a labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone, with the radioactive material used being tested for the pathogens after it has been excreted. Alternatively, the process is also often carried out with the help of other active ingredients such as Cr human serum albumin. Through this and through the anamnesis mentioned at the beginning and further examinations, the Gordon syndrome and the degree of severity in which it occurs can be clearly diagnosed.


As a rule, Gordon syndrome can be diagnosed shortly after birth, so that early treatment is possible. The patient has suffered from malformations and complaints since birth. So-called cleft palate and clubfoot often occur. These complaints can severely restrict everyday life and lead to mobility problems.

Speech disorders also occur, which can lead to bullying and teasing, especially in young children. In most cases, the motor and mental development of the child is unaffected by Gordon syndrome. Speech disorders can be treated relatively well with the help of therapies, with no further complications occurring.

Certain malformations are removed and treated with the help of surgical procedures. It is not always possible to treat and reconstruct the damaged bones or joints. It is not uncommon for patients to be dependent on walking aids or the help of other people in everyday life.

Painkillers are used for severe pain, but these can damage the stomach in the long run. Parents are also often affected by the psychological stress caused by Gordon syndrome.

When should you go to the doctor?

A doctor’s visit is always necessary for Gordon syndrome. This disease does not heal itself. The doctor can significantly improve the patient’s quality of life. In most cases, the symptoms of the syndrome are visible before birth or immediately after birth.

An additional visit to the doctor for diagnosis is therefore not necessary. However, the doctor should be consulted if the symptoms make everyday life difficult for the child or lead to problems with coordination and concentration.

Regular examinations can often prevent further complications and significantly increase the life expectancy of those affected. Further visits to the doctor are necessary if there are broken bones or other problems with the bones.

Since parents and relatives often suffer from psychological problems or depression as a result of Gordon syndrome, psychological care is often necessary. As a rule, the symptoms can be reduced so that the person concerned can lead a normal life.

Treatment & Therapy

The treatment of Gordon syndrome depends on the type and intensity of the respective symptoms and side effects, which can vary greatly from person to person. Depending on the physical impairments, various specialists such as paediatricians, speech pathologists, surgeons and physiotherapists are then consulted. Surgical procedures are a common means of correcting physical abnormalities such as clubfoot or joint stiffness and reconstructing malformed or damaged joints.

Along with this, physiotherapy can be useful in order to increase the mobility of previously damaged areas of the body. Further measures depend on the symptoms that occur. Patients suffering from damage to the spine and back can cope with the pain with the help of strong painkillers.

On the other hand, patients who suffer from ptosis, i.e. drooping of the eyelids, can have surgery. The same applies to a shortened neck, cryptorchidism and similar damage to the musculoskeletal system. The relatives are often treated therapeutically and given supportive advice.

Since those affected are usually children or infants, the parents are cared for from the time the child is born and referred to the responsible specialists.

Outlook & Forecast

Gordon syndrome can be treated well. If the protein loss in the intestinal lumen is detected early, the symptoms can be effectively alleviated with medication. The symptoms subside within a few days without any long-term effects to be expected. In individual cases, gastrointestinal problems such as fatty stool can occur for a short time. These symptoms also subside quickly if the therapy works and the loss of protein can be stopped.

If this is not successful, serious health problems can occur as a result of Gordon syndrome. Cramps and muscle paralysis can occur, which must be treated immediately. In general, however, Gordon syndrome usually takes a positive course. If the patient is physically fit and has no other health problems, there should be no further problems after the therapy.

Preventive measures prevent recurrence of Gordon syndrome. Life expectancy is not reduced by intestinal protein loss syndrome. However, the quality of life can decrease in the medium term, since the patient often has to be hospitalized during therapy and suffers from physical complaints such as the gastrointestinal problems mentioned and cramps. If the syndrome is not treated, it can take a serious course and sometimes even lead to the death of the patient.


Because Gordon syndrome is a genetic condition, preventive measures are limited. Pregnant women who suffer from the disease themselves have the option of having the unborn child tested for the genetic defect and then taking further measures. In the best case, you can start treating the respective symptoms shortly after birth and enable the baby to receive comprehensive treatment.

Other specialists are often called in to look after the parents and often accompany the sick child for many years. If the symptoms that occur are marginal, preventive measures such as regular physiotherapy and medication can at least contain the symptoms later in life.


Aftercare options are severely limited in Gordon syndrome. It is a genetic disease that cannot be fully treated. Only a purely symptomatic treatment is possible, whereby those affected are usually dependent on lifelong therapy.

In order to prevent the syndrome from being passed on to offspring, genetic counseling should be carried out if you wish to have children. In many cases, those affected are dependent on surgical interventions on the affected joints. The patient should always rest and recover after such an operation.

In any case, you should refrain from exertion or sporting activities. Stress should also be avoided. Furthermore, physiotherapy measures are often necessary to treat Gordon syndrome. Some of the exercises from this therapy can also be performed at home to speed up healing.

Patients depend on the help of their fellow human beings, friends and family to get by in everyday life. Loving care always has a positive effect on the further course of the disease. In most cases, the life expectancy of those affected is not affected by Gordon syndrome.

You can do that yourself

The treatment of Gordon syndrome can be supported by various means of self-help. As a rule, patients are dependent on physiotherapy and physiotherapy after the surgical intervention. The exercises from these therapies can often be carried out at home, which speeds up healing. The same applies to exercises from speech therapy.

Those affected are often severely restricted in their everyday lives and need permanent help. Ideally, this should be done by your own family or friends and support the person concerned in everyday life. Talking to people you trust can often alleviate and avoid possible depression or other mental upsets.

Contact with other people affected by Gordon syndrome can also be worthwhile here, as this leads to an exchange of information, which may make everyday life easier and significantly improve the patient’s quality of life.

Taking strong painkillers can damage the stomach. For this reason, painkillers should only be taken if they are necessary and the doctor has recommended them.

Gordon Syndrome

All You Need to Know About Skin Infection

All You Need to Know About Skin Infection

A skin infection refers to damage to the skin caused by the body’s defense reactions to certain pathogens. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are possible triggers here. There are a variety of different dangerous skin infections.

What is a skin infection?

According to abbreviationfinder, skin infections refer to infections of the skin and associated areas of the body, including infections of the sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and so on. Accordingly, skin infections are not only limited to the dermatological picture, but can go far beyond that. In a broader sense, nail bed infections and, for example, athlete’s foot and nail fungus are also included.

A skin infection is always caused by a pathogen, with bacteria being the most common trigger. In addition, a distinction must also be made as to whether it is a disease that only affects the skin or whether the skin infection is a symptom of another disease. For example, systemic diseases are also often associated with skin infections.

The types of infections can be very different. They range from slight skin irritations to severe necrosis with pus formation. Local skin infections are not uncommon. Acne and the occasional breakout, for example, affect almost everyone. Diaper rash affects almost every baby at some point in their life.


Skin infections basically know four different types of pathogens: bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. The majority of all infections can be traced back to the fact that pathogens get into the skin through the smallest injury. For example, streptococci or staphylococci can nest and lead to an infection. Individual sweat or sebaceous glands as well as hair follicles can also be affected, which then also leads to a (local) infection.

In this context boils are also mentioned. If there is also no internal pus formation, abscesses form, which are also associated with skin infections. Acne is often promoted by other types of bacteria – mostly Propioni bacteria.

In principle, most bacteria can lead to purulent infections in the event of a skin injury, since the bacteria cause inflammation and immune reactions through their metabolic products. These infections can remain superficial or penetrate deeper into the tissue. Above all, inflammation of skin glands, purulent infections, acne and erysipelas are triggered by bacteria. But cellulite (not to be confused with cellulite !) and larger wound infections are also caused by bacteria.

Viral pathogens are among other things the cause of chickenpox, warts, measles, shingles, genital warts and herpes. It is not uncommon for the viral pathogens to get into humans through body fluids. Among the fungi there are numerous species that are native to the human skin flora anyway. Usually, they only become a fungal infection if the immune system of the affected person is (permanently) damaged or the skin flora has changed significantly.

Then various yeast fungi and other skin fungi can lead to fungal lichen. But fungi can also settle in the body, for example in the case of oral thrush. The most prominent example, however, is athlete’s foot (which can also affect the hands, scrotum, and other areas). Filamentous fungi are responsible here. Furthermore, fungi can also be found in or under the nail.

Last but not least, parasites are the rarest cause of skin infections. Lice, bed bugs and the itch mite are the most common pathogens here. In the case of lice and bed bugs, the infection (or inflammatory response) is secondary. In the case of scabies, the infection occurs due to the parasite in the skin.

Sometimes skin infections arise from opportunistic infections: the weakened skin (due to dryness, illness, or injury, for example) then becomes the local focus of infection more by chance. It should also be noted that people have different thicknesses of skin and that the skin flora in some people almost favors certain infections.

Skin infections must also be distinguished from infections that are most likely to occur due to skin trauma. Examples are tetanus and rabies.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

Skin infections are always shown by a change in the appearance of the skin. Redness usually occurs. Itching and uncomfortable sensations in the affected areas are also common.

Otherwise, the symptoms are very different. Bacterial infections sometimes lead to the formation of pus, abscesses, extensive destruction of the skin and so on. The skin can also be completely destroyed as a result of local necrosis.

Viral infections, on the other hand, are never associated with the formation of pus or abscesses and are often easier to identify. Especially the viral skin infections that lead to the so-called children’s diseases have a clear symptom picture. These include, for example, chickenpox and measles.

Fungal infections are very different. Superficial skin infections are usually associated with the formation of spots. These can be of different sizes and more or less raised. Sometimes the pigments of the skin are destroyed, which can lead to discoloration. Fungal skin infections are not always associated with itching.

In most cases they are completely symptom-free (with the exception of the aesthetic change). Foot and nail infections, on the other hand, are often associated with itching and often result in a very penetrating odor development. The parasite infestation on the skin always leads to itching. In the case of scabies, it can be particularly distressing.

A few examples of classic symptoms of well-known skin diseases should be listed here. For example, acne always means the formation of pus in the sebaceous glands (usually on the face or upper trunk), which can be associated with pain. Large abscesses (e.g. after severe wounds) can lead to immense pain and necrosis.

Cellulitis is accompanied by severe reddening of the skin, but can otherwise be asymptomatic. Hand, foot, and mouth disease can cause blisters in the mouth, irritation of the skin on the hands and feet, and loss of appetite. Young children in particular are affected by the viral infection.

Scabies shows up through bore tunnels in particularly warm and well-perfused areas. Sometimes it can be seen as a small dot under the skin. The itching gets worse, especially at night.


Overall, complications from skin infection are rare. Most skin infections can be considered harmless if treated adequately, although the treatment can often take a long time.

Complications are to be feared at most in severely immunosuppressed patients and in the case of extensive infections with the formation of pus and abscesses. For example, a poor immune system can always lead to a worsening of an actually harmless clinical picture. Bacteria and other pathogens can then multiply faster and cause more damage even faster. In the case of bacteria, potentially fatal sepsis can occur under the most unfavorable circumstances. This can also be caused by particularly large abscesses.

If a part of the body is too deeply penetrated by an infection, which may have originated in the skin, amputation is also necessary in rare cases.

In most cases, the complications of skin infection depend on whether the infection is local or spread. For example, a single boil or pimple is unlikely to lead to complications, while fungal infections can.

A frequent consequence of skin infection is that the affected skin areas are attacked and secondary infections occur. If no action is taken, there is a risk of losing the intact skin. Overall, however, complications are rare. It should be noted that particularly susceptible skin types are not well protected against certain skin diseases (especially fungal infections) and the people affected suffer from them again and again.

Further complications depend on the exact disease.

When should you go to the doctor?

Skin changes (with the exception of a single pimple or a faint reddening) are always a reason to see a doctor. This is not only the case because the skin changes can represent skin infections. Rather, there are also various skin changes that indicate other diseases.

For example, a Lyme disease infection causes typical circles on the skin. But other diseases from the idiopathic group of dermatological diseases can also occur and require clarification. A typical example here is neurodermatitis.

Occasional rashes can occur due to allergen exposure. Here, too, it is worth repeating and clarifying. In addition, some skin rashes are associated with infectious diseases. For example with HIV, syphilis and the flu.

A family doctor can be the first point of contact. Above all, he will recognize clear clinical pictures well. If the findings are not clear, a dermatologist can help.

Warning signs that indicate a visit to the doctor are, for example, hardened skin areas, strong swellings, changes in sensation and circulatory disorders.


The diagnosis is usually made by looking at the skin and, if necessary, by taking tissue samples and swabs. In most cases, however, the visual diagnosis is sufficient to determine at least the type of pathogen. An anamnesis is usually obtained when the skin changes are infectious but cannot really be assigned.

If there are abscesses and similarly serious damage, imaging methods may have to be used. In rare cases it is necessary to know the exact type of pathogen (e.g. when the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is advised against). Then laboratory diagnostic tests are used. Parasites can usually be recognized quickly.

Treatment & Therapy

Treatment is cause-oriented, with the exception of viral pathogens. This is how bacteria are treated with antibiotics. There are fungicidal agents against fungi that are either applied externally or used in tablets. Parasites can also usually be combated with creams and ointments.

In some cases it is necessary to intervene directly in the skin. Thus, the treatment also consists in establishing adequate hygiene of the affected area. Abscesses are usually punctured. Severe necroses usually have to be surgically removed. Amputations can be considered in the case of extensive tissue loss with a risk of sepsis.

Treatment in the case of a skin infection can take a long time, for example in the case of inflammatory acts or severe cases of fungal infestation. The therapy usually consists of a combination of medication and certain actions that are intended to protect the skin. This can mean using certain detergents, avoiding certain substances and much more and must be determined individually.

In some cases (especially in the case of fungal infestation), hair removal can also be useful in order to be able to better combat any reserves of the pathogen. This is also useful for head lice and pubic lice. Viral pathogens, on the other hand, are treated symptomatically.

Outlook & Forecast

Skin infections have a good prognosis in most cases. The pathogens can be easily identified in a medical treatment through targeted tests and then treated. Therefore, within a few weeks, a large number of patients experience relief from their symptoms and then freedom from symptoms.

Basically, the sooner treatment is possible, the better the chances of recovery. With some pathogens, there is an improvement in the skin changes even without drug treatment. A good cleansing of the body and a change of clothes can already help to alleviate the symptoms.

However, depending on the cause of the skin infection, without treatment, health can deteriorate. The germs, viruses, fungi or bacteria can multiply and spread on the skin within a short time. In addition, the risk of pathogens entering the organism through open wounds increases. In severe cases, the patient is threatened with blood poisoning and thus a fatal course of the disease.

It is therefore important for a good prognosis to determine the cause of the present skin infection. Based on the test results, a decision can then be made about the need for medical treatment. For some infections, therapies based on natural remedies are entirely sufficient to achieve recovery.


Preventing skin infections is difficult. It applies in the case of infections arising via wounds that wounds and scratches that appear should be cleaned quickly. This should be done with sterilizing agents if possible. Covering the injured area is advisable.

Furthermore, the skin flora and skin health can be supported. Dryness on the skin should be avoided. Sufficient liquid and care creams can help here. In addition, the intake of vitamins A and E has a positive effect on the skin’s ability to regenerate.

Particular attention is also paid to washing the skin. There is a lot of discussion here about how much soap and other agents a skin flora can tolerate. This seems to be different for everyone. For example, people with very sensitive and often damaged skin can try to use less soap when showering. Among other things, this maintains the natural acid protection of the skin and can support the natural skin flora (which competes with invading pathogens).


In the case of a skin infection, the possibilities and measures of aftercare in most cases depend very much on the exact infection, so that no general prediction can be made here. Usually, skin infections can be treated relatively well, but early diagnosis is always necessary to prevent further complications or problems. The sooner a doctor is consulted for this disease, the better the further course is in most cases.

Most infections on the skin are treated by applying creams or ointments. The person concerned should pay attention to regular application and also to the correct dosage of the funds. If antibiotics or other medications are prescribed, these must also be taken and dosed regularly.

When taking antibiotics, it should also be noted that they should not be taken together with alcohol, otherwise their effect will be significantly weakened. In serious cases, talking to friends or your own family is also very advisable to prevent mental upsets or depression. In this context, contact with other affected persons can also be useful. In most cases, a skin infection does not reduce the life expectancy of the person affected.

You can do that yourself

For skin infections that are temporary and show no symptoms, it’s best to keep the affected areas clean. In addition, they should not be touched unnecessarily in order to accelerate healing.

In the event of pus formation, warm, moist compresses can cause the pus to break out more quickly, which leads to faster relief. In principle, people affected by skin infections can take all measures to promote skin health and the immune system. This applies above all to a diet rich in vitamins and minerals.

In addition, individual inflammations of the skin (pimples, inflamed glands, etc.) can be treated with drying and antiseptic agents. Examples are zinc ointments and turpentine oil. However, with remedies like these, their use should be discussed with a doctor.

Fungal infections can be temporarily combated with vinegar. However, this does not eliminate the spore reserves that have already been created. Large-area skin changes, such as those that occur in the case of a large abscess or severe fungal infestation, cannot be treated by yourself. A full visit to the doctor is inevitable here.

Skin Infection

All You Need to Know About Chalazion

All You Need to Know About Chalazion

A chalazion, also known as a chalazion, is a cyst in the eyelid. This is caused by inflammation of a blocked gland on the upper eyelid. A chalazion differs from a stye (hordeola) in that it is a subacute and usually painless nodule.

What is a hailstone?

The glands affected by a chalazion are the meibomian or eyelid glands located in the eyelid. There are between 30 to 40 of these oil glands in each of the upper and lower eyelids. They produce a thick fluid that is contained in the eye’s tear film and lubricates the surface of the eye.

A chalazion is the result of a swollen oil gland in the eyelid caused by chronic inflammation after the gland duct becomes blocked. While the cyst tends to grow larger than a stye, once it swells it is painless and considered harmless.

Adults are more likely to suffer from a chalazion than children. Recurrent chalazia in the same location can sometimes be a symptom of sebaceous carcinoma, a rare type of cancer.


A chalazion is the result of an inflammatory process. The small opening through which a meibomian gland secretes its secretions can become blocked as a result of narrowing of the opening or hardening of the sebum near the opening.

The backflow thickens the walls of the gland and the escaping secretion in the eyelid itself. This leads to inflammation both within the gland and on the eyelid and ultimately to the formation of a cyst (chalazion).

A possible cause of a chalazion is incomplete removal of eye makeup, which collects the oil from the cosmetic product in the glands.

Inflammation of the edge of the eyelid ( blepharitis ) as a result of the overproduction of sebum due to meibomitis or inflammatory skin diseases such as acne vulgaris or acne rosacea can also cause a chalazion.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

A chalazion is a prominent lump on the eyelid. Externally, it resembles the stye, but unlike the latter, it is usually not painful. Unlike this, the course is not acute either, but it develops gradually over several weeks and grows slowly. It is characteristic of the hailstone that it can be moved.

The chalazion is usually about the size of a hailstone, which is why it is also called that. In some cases, much smaller chalazia also occur. The simultaneous presence of several hailstones is unusual. A chalazion does not usually cause any pain, but it can be associated with an uncomfortable feeling of pressure in the eye that can be caused by the friction.

This can sometimes cause eye irritation and inflammation of the conjunctiva ( conjunctivitis ). The affected eye is clearly reddened. There may be increased sensitivity to light and increased tears. In rare cases, hailstones can also be large enough to impair vision. Without treatment, the hailstone usually disappears completely within a few months or years.

Diagnosis & History

Symptoms of the development of a chalazion are swelling of the eyelid combined with sensitivity to pressure, sensitivity to light or a perceived heaviness of the eyelid.

A bump appears clearly on the eyelid. A chalazion usually occurs in the upper eyelid. Smaller chalazions disappear over time, while larger chalazions become permanent or even increase in size.

Enlarged chalazia can increase pressure on the eyeball and cause visual disturbances. There is also a risk that the blocked gland will become secondarily infected, leading to irritation, pain and inflammation. For the relatively unambiguous diagnosis, the eyes are checked with regard to visual function and field of vision.

In order to reliably distinguish between a chalazion and a stye, the doctor treating you will also close the affected eyelid to examine the inside. In addition, a palpation examination will check the mobility of the chalazion.


A hailstone is usually not much larger than a grain of rice and only needs to be treated with eye drops or ointment in the case of severe inflammation. Very often it regresses on its own without any complications, which does not require any further measures. In some cases, however, it can swell. Then the chalazion endangers vision and an operation is necessary to remove the tissue knot.

Larger hailstones otherwise persist for a long time without swelling. Complications with the conjunctiva can also occur. Surgery is not done until the chalazion is causing severe pain or is larger than normal. Rare complications are also possible here. While most of those affected no longer have any symptoms a few days later, postoperative bleeding and infections cannot be ruled out, as is the case with any operation.

Damage to the optic nerve or the eye itself during surgery is also possible. Sometimes a scar also remains, causing the eyelid to warp. Normally, no traces of the operation remain on the eye. Recurring inflammation can indicate underlying diseases such as diabetes mellitus or other metabolic diseases and must be examined accordingly.

When should you go to the doctor?

Normally, a hailstone does not require medical treatment. It is a harmless inflammation of the eye glands that heals on its own after a few days. If the symptoms have not subsided after a week at the latest, a visit to the family doctor or ophthalmologist is indicated.

Accompanying symptoms such as severe pain, pus formation or visual disturbances also require medical treatment in order to avoid the development of serious complications. If another hailstone forms after treatment, a comprehensive investigation is required in any case.

The symptoms may be due to an allergy or a serious medical condition that needs to be diagnosed and treated. In individual cases, a lid tumor can develop from recurring inflammation. Therefore, recurring complaints should be examined by a specialist.

Patients at risk, such as people with chronic eye diseases, allergy sufferers, children, the elderly and pregnant women, are best advised to have a hailstone clarified immediately by their general practitioner. Other contacts are the ophthalmologist, the naturopath and, in the case of severe symptoms, the medical emergency service.

Treatment & Therapy

Treatment will initially be non-invasive. A hot compress can be applied to the affected area or massaged lightly to get the glandular secretions flowing again. Likewise, homeopathic remedies are excellent for treatment.

If antibiotic eye drops or eye ointment such as chloramphenicol or fusidic acid do not clear up a chalazion, surgical intervention is recommended. Removal of a chalazion is an outpatient procedure that usually takes no more than 15 minutes. Due to the risk of infection and serious damage to the eyelid, such procedures should be performed exclusively by a doctor.

The eyelid is numbed with a local anesthetic. A clamp is then placed over the eyelid to hold it securely in place and allow it to be flipped over. The doctor will then make a 3mm incision on the inside of the eyelid to scrape out the chalazion.

Since scarring of the eyelid can cause vision problems, surgery will only be considered as a last resort. Although chalazias are rarely dangerous, it is common for pieces of tissue to be sent in for biopsy for cancer screening.

Outlook & Forecast

The prognosis of a hailstone is favorable. The small or medium-sized hailstones usually completely regress within a few weeks. There are no consequential damages or impairments. Many patients suffer from the visual blemish caused by a hailstone. The emotional state of the affected person usually improves as the foreign body subsides.

Large hailstones temporarily impair vision. Since the eyelid cannot be moved as usual, the affected person’s field of vision is severely limited. Many doctors recommend surgery in these cases. If the patient decides to have the chalazion removed surgically, it is usually considered symptom-free afterwards. If no further complications or delays in the healing process occur, the patient is released from treatment after a few days as cured.

The eyelid can be opened as usual after the wound has healed. With this, the ability to see is completely restored, since the presence of a hailstone has no effect on the functionality of the eyeball or the information processing of the incoming sensory stimuli. Only the field of vision is restricted by the foreign body.

If a hailstone occurs again in the course of life, the prognosis is also favourable. The course of the disease and the treatment options remain unchanged in the event of a recurrence.


Thorough eye hygiene is recommended to prevent hailstones. This includes thorough make-up removal and cleaning of the eyelashes as well as meticulous cleaning of required contact lenses. In principle, strengthening the immune system also helps to counteract inflammatory processes.


In most cases, the person affected with a chalazion has no special or direct measures and options for aftercare. However, these are not necessary either, since it is a harmless disease that usually disappears on its own without the need for treatment. However, if the chalazion occurs for a longer period of time and does not disappear on its own, an ophthalmologist should be consulted.

This can possibly prevent further complications and complaints, which in the worst case would lead to the patient being completely blind. A chalazion can be treated relatively well with eye drops or an eye ointment. These drugs should be used regularly and in the right dosage. If anything is unclear or if you have any questions, always consult a doctor.

If the chalazion does not go away on its own through self-help measures and resources, a doctor should be consulted immediately. The affected eye should be particularly well protected in the case of a chalazion. Eyes are particularly important to protect after an operation. As a rule, this disease does not reduce the life expectancy of the affected person. Furthermore, aftercare measures are no longer necessary.

You can do that yourself

A hailstone can be treated very easily with just a few measures. In order to loosen the accumulation of secretion, it is recommended to apply a warm compress. The heat widens the pores and allows the secretion to drain. Disinfecting and anti-inflammatory plant extracts can also be added to the warm water: These include sage, cistus and chamomile.

If the inflammation spreads to the rest of the eye, eye drops can also be used. Antibiotics are usually not necessary. Eye drops are commercially available with hyaluronic acid – this ensures long-lasting moisturizing – or based on the plant eyebright. Euphrasia – as it is called in Latin – is offered in the form of ampoules or globules. It can be used internally and externally. The intake of selenium – an anti-inflammatory micronutrient – ​​also provides useful internal support.

If the chalazion does not heal and there is a risk of scarring, you need to see an ophthalmologist or surgeon. This would remove the chalazion in an outpatient procedure. However, due to the risk of infection, this is the last resort for treatment.

As a preventative measure, eye make-up should always be removed thoroughly. Thorough hygiene also applies to used contact lenses. In order to care for the edges of the eyelids, those affected can resort to completely natural means: Olive or coconut oil have a disinfecting and caring effect at the same time.


All You Need to Know About Peanut Allergy

All You Need to Know About Peanut Allergy

The peanut allergy is one of the food allergies of type I, that is, the symptoms immediately after eating.

What is a peanut allergy?

Peanuts belong to the legume family and are excellent sources of minerals. However, a peanut allergy is one of the most severe food allergies. Even a very small amount can lead to an allergic reaction. Those affected then suffer from dizziness, nausea, reddening of the skin or rapid heartbeat.


In the case of an allergy, the body’s defenses are directed against substances that are normally harmless. At the first contact a sensitization occurs and the immune system forms antibodies against the allergen. If there is further contact, allergic reactions will occur. The triggers for an allergic reaction are so-called Ara-h allergens, which bind to IgE antibodies. This releases inflammatory mediators.

The antibodies attach to basophilic granulocytes or mast cells. The next time they come into contact with the allergen, the cells release histamine or other substances. Mast cells are found in every body tissue and they are also responsible for the allergic reactions. Basophils are white blood cells. As soon as the allergen gets into the circulation, the granulocytes react, which mainly affects the blood vessels.

A small amount of peanuts is enough for a severe reaction, and in some cases skin contact is enough to cause a rash. Allergies are often genetic. So if one of the parents suffers from a peanut allergy, it is possible that the child can also suffer from it. The risk is even greater if both parents are allergic. Another cause is excessive hygiene, as the immune system is underutilized and looks for another goal.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

A peanut allergy causes symptoms in the digestive system, on the respiratory tract, on the skin or in the cardiovascular system. General symptoms include restlessness, feelings of panic, watery eyes and swelling of the mucous membrane in the throat or mouth. However, a slowed or accelerated pulse, headache or clouded consciousness can also occur in connection with a peanut allergy.

This is often noticeable through frequent sneezing, stuffy nose and coughing, asthma attacks and wheezing. It can also cause nausea, stomach cramps and diarrhea. Redness, wheals or eczema form on the skin; in the worst case, a peanut allergy leads to anaphylactic shock.

Anaphylaxis is life-threatening, so the emergency doctor must be informed immediately in the event of an anaphylactic shock. To avoid a possible circulatory collapse, it is important to put your feet up until the doctor arrives.


As part of an anamnesis, the doctor first learns about the patient’s eating habits, allergies within the family, the psychological state of the person concerned or any previous illnesses.

In order to determine an allergy, the so-called prick test is very often carried out, in which potential allergens are applied to the skin. If allergic reactions appear after about thirty minutes, a potential allergen is present.

Another diagnostic option is a blood test, which examines the total concentration of antibodies in the blood. These antibodies are responsible for triggering an allergic reaction.

In the provocation test, the doctor gives the test person the allergens intranasally or orally, but very severe reactions can occur here, so that this test should never be carried out on your own. In some cases the rub test is also used, in which the allergen is rubbed onto the skin in order to be able to determine any reactions.


A peanut allergy can have various complications. These occur primarily immediately after the peanuts have been consumed and can therefore be detected immediately. The complications are very diverse and can affect the lungs, eyes and digestion. Usually watery eyes, a rising panic and swelling in the mouth occur.

Most often these symptoms are accompanied by a headache and dizziness. If a large amount of peanuts has been ingested, the peanut allergy can also lead to shock. In this case, treatment by the doctor is necessary. In the case of mild allergies, the symptoms usually go away on their own. Swelling should also be examined by a doctor.

Due to the peanut allergy, the patient’s diet is restricted so that he is no longer allowed to eat peanuts. However, this only affects a small fraction of the possible foods that are available to the patient. If there is a peanut allergy, treatment can be carried out with the help of medication.

The symptoms disappear completely after a few hours without any further complications. If the peanut allergy occurs for the first time, an explanation from a doctor is necessary. The patient should also test for other allergies and intolerances in order to avoid complications. Above all, this includes other legumes.

When should you go to the doctor?

At the first suspicion of a peanut allergy, those affected should consult a doctor, preferably an allergist, because in some people even small amounts of peanuts are enough to trigger severe allergic reactions such as anaphylactic shock.

Since peanut parts are also contained in many products where you would not suspect them at first glance, it is important that these people are informed about the allergy and its risks by the doctor and that they are given an emergency kit with an antihistamine, cortisone and adrenaline Always have them with you so that you can react quickly in an emergency.

Since some people react to different allergens, a skin prick test is carried out, possibly also a blood test, since a combination of allergies increases the risk of possible complications. At the doctor’s, those affected are also fully informed about foods that contain peanuts or traces of them; in addition, they usually receive nutritional advice from trained specialists, since the treatment of a peanut allergy largely consists of avoiding the allergen in everyday life, and others Informing people about the allergy in situations that may encourage an allergic reaction. The doctor also informs the relatives what to do in an emergency.

Treatment & Therapy

An allergy to peanuts cannot be cured, but there are a variety of measures to be able to live with this disease. In principle, it is necessary to refrain from using peanuts or products that contain them. This is not always easy because many foods and cosmetics contain traces of it. Particular caution is also required with adhesives, bath oils, soaps, vitamin preparations or linoleum.

In medical treatment, those affected also receive glucocorticoids and antihistamines. Nutritional therapy from an appropriate specialist is also recommended. It is important that those affected or their relatives are well informed so that the first symptoms can be recognized quickly. Peanuts are legumes. Some peanut allergy sufferers are therefore allergic to beans or soy or to tree nuts such as pistachios, almonds or hazelnuts.

Outlook & forecast

Like most allergies, peanut allergy is incurable. As with almost all food allergies, “allergy vaccination” is also not an option. Desensitization does not improve the peanut allergy. The patient will therefore be allergic to peanuts for a lifetime and must exercise caution, because the peanut allergens are among the substances that can cause particularly severe symptoms and even dangerous anaphylactic shock with fatal consequences.

However, it is possible that the peanut allergy changes in the course of life – the person affected usually reacts even more violently to contact with peanuts than before. The peanut allergy is often very severe anyway, so that those affected can expect severe symptoms when they eat peanuts. If you do not have an Epi-Pen with you and come into contact with peanuts, severe reactions can result in the patient’s death if no one can help him in time.

Furthermore, cross-allergies can develop in the course of life, which occur together with the peanut allergy – this does not have to happen, but it is also not possible to determine the time in advance or to name factors that favor the development of cross-allergies. It is all the more important that those affected know the most common cross allergies in connection with their peanut allergy so that they can recognize symptoms quickly.


An allergic reaction to peanuts can be prevented by avoiding products that contain peanuts. These include, for example, cornflakes, savory biscuits, muesli, chocolate bars or fried products. But cold-pressed oils can also contain peanut residues. Refined oils are mostly well tolerated and pumpkin seeds are a very good alternative for people with a peanut allergy.

Since 2005, food containing peanuts has to be labeled accordingly. Therefore, those affected should read the fine print on the packaging carefully, and it is also advisable to always have an emergency kit with you, in which syringes containing cortisone, adrenaline and an antihistamine can be found.

Loose goods from the bakery are, however, exempt from this allergen labeling regulation, so that one is dependent on the information of the seller. Organic products should be preferred as they contain fewer additives. You can also find your own shops on the Internet that offer products for people with peanut allergies.


A peanut allergy is often diagnosed in childhood. Otherwise, this diagnosis comes from anaphylactic shock after eating a peanut. Since peanuts are an acute threat to the life of a peanut allergy sufferer, prevention is far more important than aftercare.

Children who have numerous skin eczemas and who are also allergic to chicken eggs are at high risk of developing a peanut allergy. Such children may only be given peanut products if they are not already suffering from a peanut allergy.

After an anaphylactic shock from peanuts in childhood, the preventive measures are also follow-up measures. After the acute treatment, the family is advised to strictly avoid food containing peanuts and an emergency kit is provided. This can contain drugs such as antihistamines, Jext-Anapen, Infectodexa Krupp and Salbutamol with a breathing mask. These preparations can save lives in the event of accidental ingestion of peanut-containing products.

Follow-up care consists mainly of caring for the parents and making the social environment aware of this problem. Children cannot take care of themselves yet.

You can do that yourself

Those affected by a peanut allergy have no concrete options for countering the effects of their allergy in everyday life with everyday means. This is limited to carrying an emergency kit and avoiding the allergen. However, it is possible for those affected to convey their own needs to the environment in a targeted manner and to gain added value from avoidance behavior with regard to food.

It is important that those affected communicate in situations in which they could come into contact with the allergen that they absolutely have to avoid it. It shouldn’t be around. If this encounters a lack of understanding or even resistance, a remedy can be provided by means of a simple explanation (also with the aid of the emergency kit).

Communicating with friends, relatives and possibly the employer makes it easier to move around safely in an environment full of food. Avoiding many products that may contain traces of peanuts also has positive effects. So the person concerned should feel encouraged to try new foods from time to time. By acquiring a broad knowledge of risky and low-risk foods at the same time, he can also decide faster and better what to eat.

Peanut Allergy

All You Need to Know About Meningitis

All You Need to Know About Meningitis

Meningitis, encephalitis or meningitis is a disease of the meninges, which can be attacked by inflammation and lasting damage. Mostly the cause of meningitis or meningitis is an infection by bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi.

What is meningitis?

Meningitis, meningitis or meningitis is a very serious and complex disease. This leads to an inflammation of the meninges.

Meningitis must be treated quickly, and if discovered, a doctor or hospital should be consulted immediately. If meningitis is present, it is important to act quickly, as the course of therapy depends to a large extent on the development of the disease.

Meningitis is a classic bacterial infection that usually occurs in young children or adolescents. In most cases, three types of bacteria are responsible for the onset of the disease.


Three types of bacteria in particular can lead to meningitis or meningitis. These are the meningococci (Neisseria meningitidis), the pneumococci (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and the Haemophilus influenzae.

Most meningitis can be traced back to the types of bacteria listed above, which are usually transmitted from person to person by a droplet infection, for example by sneezing or coughing. Often a rather uncomplicated and harmless inflammation of the upper respiratory tract occurs beforehand, which then leads to meningitis.

However, vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae is possible in Germany, which is why meningococci in particular are a cause of meningitis today. According to estimates, the meningococci are responsible for half of the recorded cases of meningitis. In newborns, however, other pathogens usually lead to meningitis.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

In the different forms of meningitis (meningitis), the symptoms and complaints are different in their development and severity. With bacterial meningitis, severe headaches almost always occur. Typical of bacterial meningitis is the occurrence of at least one of the following symptoms: stiff neck, decreased consciousness, high fever.

In particular, the stiff neck (meningism) is a clear indication of meningitis. With leg meningism, those affected are unable to move their head or can only move their sternum with considerable pain. Often meningitis also results in sensitivity to noise, aching limbs and photophobia. Vomiting, dizziness, hearing and speech disorders and nausea are also relatively common.

In meningitis caused by meningococci, sepsis occurs in around 30 percent of cases. This blood poisoning can be recognized by red and brown patches of skin. The symptoms of virally induced meningitis are characteristically less pronounced than in bacterial meningitis.

In infants and children suffering from meningitis, there are often only the unspecific signs of fever or nausea, which also occur with other diseases. Neck stiffness as a symptom is atypical at this age. In the rare special cases of tuberculous meningitis and neuroborreliosis, fever is often the only symptom for a long time.


In the case of meningitis, positive developments can usually be brought about. In some cases, however, complications cannot be ruled out. Sometimes the affected person can develop a meningoencephalic. This means that the inflammation spreads from the meninges to the brain.

Since the brain is connected to the spinal cord via the central nervous system, meningoencephalomyelitis, an inflammation of the meninges, the brain and the spinal cord, can also occur. Neurological damage such as loss of hearing or paralysis cannot be ruled out either. In addition, psychological damage (disabilities or behavioral problems) are not uncommon.

An accumulation of pus in a cavity that has formed can also be cited as an example of a negative course. Furthermore, a disruption of the cerebral water circulation cannot be ruled out. Vascular occlusion of the veins due to blood clots is not uncommon.


There is a particular risk of complications in the early course of meningitis. In such cases, special treatment is required. Nevertheless, the prognosis for the disease can be unfavorable. With bacterial meningitis, an average of one to two in ten people have complications.

Blood poisoning (sepsis) is one of the most serious consequences of meningitis. It occurs when the meningitis pathogens multiply in the blood. The toxic waste from the germs poison the blood. The blood poisoning poses a higher risk to life than the meningitis itself.

The bacteria penetrate the bloodstream into other organs and tissues and damage them. In the worst case, the affected person suffers a septic shock. This in turn leads to acute circulatory failure. Because the organs and tissues are poorly supplied with blood, they are damaged.

Furthermore, there is a risk of a blood clot due to the reduced blood flow in the limbs. As the disease progresses, there is a risk of life-threatening organ failure. For this reason, the complications of meningitis must always be treated immediately in the intensive care unit.

Another dangerous consequence is meningoencephalomyelitis, which affects the meninges and brain and spreads to the spinal cord. As a result, the patient can suffer permanent neurological damage. These include loss of hearing, paralysis and intellectual disabilities. Other conceivable complications of meningitis are meningoencephalitis, vascular occlusion and a brain abscess.

When should you go to the doctor?

A doctor should be consulted in the event of decreased performance, listlessness, listlessness, fatigue and general weakness, especially if these complaints persist for several days for no reason or if they increase in intensity. If there is a fever, dizziness, vomiting or nausea, a doctor is needed.

Persistent tiredness, inner restlessness and low resilience should be examined and treated. If sleep disorders occur, concentration or attention problems arise, a doctor’s visit is required. In the event of a disturbance of consciousness, a doctor must be consulted as soon as possible or an ambulance service must be called. Changes in skin appearance, pale complexion, a drop in blood pressure, or cold feet and hands are indications that should be investigated. If the balance is disturbed, further functional or digestive disorders set in or cramps occur, a doctor should be consulted.

If there is pain in the bones or joints, general malaise or a feeling of illness, a kind should be consulted. If you have a headache, a feeling of pressure inside your head, aching limbs or an aversion to normal exposure to light, the person concerned needs medical care. If memory disorders occur or everyday duties can no longer be fulfilled, a doctor must be consulted to clarify the cause.

Treatment & Therapy

The side effects and a negative course in meningitis can, however, be avoided. It is important that the meningitis therapy begins immediately. In most cases, strong antibiotics are administered for therapy. After this initial measure has been taken and the blood test is available to the doctor treating you, the antibiotics are matched to the blood test.

As a rule, it is then taken for 7 to 14 days. In the case of meningitis, the bacteria can also spread in the body, so that blood poisoning can also occur. In such a case, therapy must be carried out in a hospital under close observation and treatment. Such an approach can significantly reduce the risk of serious complications and consequential damage.

For your own safety, therapy should be carried out in a hospital under medical supervision, even if the meningitis is not very advanced.


Inflammation of the meninges is a dangerous and high-risk disease that requires appropriate follow-up care even after the healing process has been overcome. Even during the treatment of such an inflammation of the meninges, regular visits to the doctor should not be missed. Failure to do so can lead to serious complications that cannot be recovered afterwards.

For this reason, appropriate follow-up care is very important and significant. Any complications can be identified, treated and eliminated at an early stage. If the inflammation of the meninges is completely over, further visits to the doctor are necessary. With appropriate follow-up care, later brain damage can be diagnosed at an early stage so that long-term effects can be avoided.

Even several years after surviving meningitis, preventive examinations should always take place. Such examinations can nip serious complications in the bud. Appropriate and regular follow-up care is just as important as the treatment itself. This is the only way to identify and treat long-term effects or other diseases that can be traced back to past inflammation of the meninges. A full and lasting recovery is therefore very much dependent on proper follow-up care.

Outlook & forecast

The course of meningitis depends on whether it is caused by bacteria or viruses. If the disease is mild, in some cases it can even go away without treatment. However, bacterial disease in particular leads to death if not treated quickly. Herpes simplex meningitis caused by the virus can also be life-threatening.

If an illness is suspected, therapeutic measures should be taken as soon as possible. The faster the treatment, the less likely it is that you will no longer be able to cure it. Meningitis-related complications are very common.

If this is caused by bacteria, it can lead to swelling of the brain with increased intracranial pressure, blood clots, paralysis of the nerves or loss of hearing. Also, a blood poisoning can occur. These complications often arise when the disease is caused by meningococci or pneumococci.

As a therapeutic measure, the doctor will use antibiotics to fight the bacteria. If this happens at an early stage of the disease, there is great hope of a cure. However, if the meningitis is viral, antibiotics will not help. If it does not heal by itself, antivirals are used. Even then, the prognosis is to be assessed positively.

You can do that yourself

Self-help or self-treatment leading to healing is not possible with meningitis and is therefore not recommended under any circumstances. Treatment must always be carried out by a doctor.

Absolute calm in the patient’s surroundings, darkened rooms and cold compresses for the head have a relieving effect during the illness. In addition, homeopathic remedies such as Belladonna for headaches and Gelsemium sempervirens for photosensitivity can be administered. The recommendations for a diet that supports the healing process during illness vary.

On the one hand, a consciously protein-rich diet such as meat broth with egg and drinking plenty of milk is recommended in order to maintain physical strength for as long as possible. On the other hand, foods that strengthen the immune system can support the healing process. Foods with antibiotic properties such as echinacea, onions, lemons, radishes, garlic and fresh vegetable juices are particularly helpful here. If vomiting prevents food intake, nutritional enemas can help.

In Germany there are self-help groups on the subject of meningitis. After surviving the illness, those affected and their relatives can exchange their experiences here, talk to each other about various therapy options, memory training and help in everyday life.


All You Need to Know About Biliary Atresia

All You Need to Know About Biliary Atresia

Biliary atresia is the narrowing of the biliary tract, which occurs during development in the womb. The causes of this are largely unknown, but studies have found connections to certain viral diseases. A disease manifests itself in persistent jaundice after childbirth, colorless stools, brown colored urine, an enlarged liver and later an enlarged spleen, water retention and a tendency to bleed.

What is biliary atresia?

Bile duct atresia is a rare disease. It only occurs in newborns, the so-called neonatal period. This is the time from birth to the fourth week of life. It is an atresia of the biliary tract inside or outside the liver.

An atresia generally denotes the closure or non-placement of a body opening or a hollow organ. Regardless of whether the atresia is inside or outside the liver, biliary atresia affects the entire liver and bile ducts. Therefore, in the meantime, it has been decided not to speak of an extra- or intrahepatic form.

The incidence of an illness varies between every 3,000 and every 20,000 births, depending on the area. The greatest susceptibility is in the Pacific, while the rarest cases occur in Western Europe. In general, girls are affected somewhat more often than boys.

In around every tenth case, the occurrence is associated with other malformations such as heart defects or polysplenia. In this case, the diseases are grouped together as a syndromic form. If the bile duct atresia occurs alone, it is referred to as a nonsyndromic form.


Narrowing of the biliary tract, which ultimately leads to its atresia, begins early in the child’s development in the mother’s love. This can be concluded from studies of the liver with ultrasound technology. The reasons for this are largely unknown. However, a connection with certain viral diseases can be recognized from medical examinations.

These include the Ebstein-Barr viruses, which cause Pfeiffer’s glandular fever, and respiratory syncitial viruses, a typical cold virus. However, no connection to the hepatitis A viruses, B or C has been established. Genetic causes also follow from the results of several studies.

Studies show familial or ethnic clusters of occurrence. Certain HLA types are increasingly found in affected children. HLA is a group of genes that are central to the immune system. A cause can also be deduced from this.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

About half of all healthy newborns develop a weakly developed in the first days after jaundice. This is harmless and subsides after a week at the latest. In contrast to this typical neonatal jaundice, jaundice lasts longer in children with biliary atresia. This is due to the bilirubin.

It is a breakdown product of the red blood pigment hemoglobin and a bile pigment. Affected newborns pass acholic, i.e. discolored, stool and the urine takes on a brownish color. Another key symptom is hepatomegaly, an enlargement of the liver. In addition, a disease can be derived from accompanying symptoms such as malformations of the eyes, dysmorphism in the face and heart disease.


The child’s development is not impaired in the first few months. It also shows weight loss and over-excitability. The increase in pressure in the portal vein of the liver causes the spleen to enlarge and water to accumulate in the abdomen. Furthermore, too little bile acid reaches the intestine. This needs the connection for the digestion of fat and for the absorption of vitamins. Vitamin K intake is particularly affected. A lack of this leads to a tendency to bleed.


The symptoms and complications of biliary atresia usually occur immediately after the child is born. The infant suffers from a relatively mild jaundice immediately after birth. There will also be discolored urine and bowel movements.

The spleen and liver can enlarge, and in most cases there is severe pain. As the disease progresses, other symptoms develop, such as heart defects or malformations of the eyes. In the worst case, the patient can become completely blind or suffer from further malformations in the area of the face.

If the biliary atresia is not treated, death will result. As a rule, the treatment is carried out by surgery. If this fails, a liver transplant can also be carried out. Often the parents of the child are also severely affected by biliary atresia and suffer from depression and other mental illnesses.

The support of a psychologist is definitely necessary. The further development of the child is largely normal and does not lead to further complications if the treatment of the biliary atresia has been carried out successfully. Life expectancy is also not minimized as a result.

When should you go to the doctor?

In many cases, facial dysmorphisms and eye misalignments are noticed by obstetricians and doctors in the newborn immediately after birth. This is followed by inpatient examinations, so that a diagnosis of biliary atresia is usually already available at this point in time. If the disease is not diagnosed immediately, the parents should consult a doctor as soon as they notice visual abnormalities on the face within the natural growth process of their child in the first few weeks of life.

Consultation with a doctor is also necessary once the newborn shows yellow skin. In addition, discoloration of the faeces or urine in infants is considered unusual. A doctor should be consulted as soon as the excretions are discolored or the urine has a brownish color. If there are malformations of the skeletal system, a doctor should also be consulted. If the child loses weight despite the recommended diet, there is cause for concern.

A doctor should be consulted as soon as the newborn continues to experience weight loss over several days. Consultation with a doctor is necessary if behavioral problems occur. If the child shows an overreaction, hyperactivity or aggressive behavior, a doctor must be consulted to determine the cause. If the abdominal girth increases abnormally, water can build up. These are to be examined and treated as soon as possible.

Treatment & Therapy

If left untreated, biliary atresia leads to death within the first few years of life. For treatment, an operation according to Kasai is initially performed. In this case, the connective tissue between the two pford vein branches of the liver and the changed bile tissue are removed.

In order to ensure that the intestine is supplied with bile, a loop of the intestine is then sewn onto the portal of the liver. There are also various medicinal products for therapy. These include drugs that slow down the remodeling of the liver, anti-inflammatory preparations and active ingredients that improve the flow of bile. However, their use is controversial.

The success of the Kasai operation is reflected in the increasing brown color of the stool and lighter color of the urine. Nevertheless, even in this case, many patients develop cirrhosis of the liver, which leads to death. It can be traced back to the increasing bile congestion.

At the latest now, or if the operation according to Kasai has failed, a liver transplant is necessary. This usually takes place at the age of two, but some cases require it earlier at six months. The availability of the necessary transplant organs has increased recently.

This is thanks to new processes. Since the liver is able to regenerate itself, donations of life are also possible. For this reason, it is also possible to split one donor organ between two recipients. This so-called split procedure is particularly suitable for children, as there are not many suitable organs for child liver transplants.

Outlook & forecast

If left untreated, biliary atresia has a very poor prognosis. The changes arise in the natural development and growth process of the fetus in the womb. If there is insufficient medical care immediately after the birth, the child will die within the first year of life. Surgical intervention is required, which is associated with the usual risks and complications.

If the operation is successful, there is an improvement in health. Nevertheless, there is a risk of life shortening even in patients whose corrective intervention leads to an adequate supply of bile to the intestine.

There is a risk of secondary diseases such as cirrhosis of the liver. A donor organ is required for this because life expectancy is also reduced without a transplant. The process up to the transplant is lengthy and the procedure is a challenge. The donated organ is not always accepted by the organism.

Despite various therapeutic approaches for biliary atresia and the possibility of alleviating the symptoms, patients with this disease can expect lifelong therapy. Physical resilience is limited in direct comparison to fellow human beings and various complications can be expected. The general lifestyle must be adapted to the health conditions so that survival is assured.


Since the causes of biliary atresia disease are largely unknown, there are no known ways of preventing it. In addition, the fact that it is a congenital disease that occurs early in development poses a problem in the development of preventive measures. To counteract persistent jaundice, a low-fat, high-fiber diet is recommended.


In the case of biliary atresia, the options for follow-up care are severely limited. With this disease, the person affected is primarily dependent on direct medical treatment by a specialist in order not to reduce life expectancy and to avoid further complications. Self-healing is not possible, so medical treatment cannot be avoided.

If the bile duct atresia is not treated, the affected person will die after a few years. With this disease, those affected are mostly dependent on taking medication to alleviate the symptoms. Care must be taken to ensure that these medications are taken regularly and correctly, with the parents in particular having to ensure that they are taken correctly in the case of children.

Often possible interactions with other drugs should also be considered in order not to impair healing. Since the bile duct atresia also affects the internal organs, those affected should undergo regular examinations by a doctor in order to detect damage to the internal organs at an early stage. Contact with other biliary atresia patients can also be useful, as this leads to an exchange of information that can make everyday life easier.

You can do that yourself

Parents whose child has been diagnosed with biliary atresia should refer to the doctor’s suggestions for next steps. In general, several operations are performed. The healing process can be supported by rest and bed rest after an operation.

The child should not be exposed to stress for the first few weeks and must also be closely monitored by parents. Should further complaints or complications arise, a doctor must be consulted immediately. Accommodation in a specialist clinic may be necessary.

After a liver transplant, it should be ensured that the child is drinking enough fluids. In addition, the diet has to be changed. The child should eat as little fat as possible and instead eat a lot of fruit and vegetables. Adequate personal hygiene should also be observed in order to avoid infection and other complications.

Even shortly after the transplant, regular breathing exercises and physiotherapy exercises are useful to prevent infection of the respiratory tract. Regular check-ups by a doctor support these measures and ensure a symptom-free healing process. If unusual symptoms occur, it is best to contact the emergency medical service.

biliary atresi

All You Need to Know About Distal Humeral Fracture

All You Need to Know About Distal Humeral Fracture

According to DigoPaul, a distal humerus fracture is a broken bone that is located in the area of ​​the lower end of the humerus (the medical name of the humerus). In children, such fractures are mainly caused by falls with an outstretched arm, while in adults, falls on the elbow joint are often responsible for distal humerus fractures.

What is a distal humeral fracture?

In the context of a distal humerus fracture, fractures occur in the humerus, with adults and children being affected by the fractures at different rates. In adults, distal humeral fractures make up around three percent of all fractures of the extremities, while in children it is up to ten percent. Thus, the distal humerus fracture is a rarely occurring type of bone fracture.

Distal humeral fractures are difficult to treat fractures. They occur more frequently in children between the ages of five and ten years, accounting for approximately five percent of all fractures but 80 percent of all child fractures of the elbow.


The possible causes for the development of a distal humeral fracture can be different. As with fractures that are external to the joint and partial joint fractures are common, the main causes are direct or indirect force applied to the affected bone. Fractures outside the joint (medical term extra-articular fractures) are divided into various categories depending on the mechanism of the accident.

These include the more common extension fractures and flexion fractures, which are far less common. Most of these occur in children. If the distal humeral fracture is a complete fracture of the joint, the cause is the direct application of force.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

A distal humerus fracture can cause various symptoms and complaints for the affected patient. First and foremost, the people suffer from severe pain. The pain starts from the area of ​​the fracture, but radiates and can reach far beyond the upper arm.

Under these circumstances, movements of the arm affected by the distal humerus fracture are hardly possible. In addition to the pain, swelling, malpositions and palpable and audible crepitation also occur as a rule. This refers to the rubbing of fracture parts together, which in most cases is associated with severe pain.

In addition, the distal humerus fracture can be associated with other complaints, for example if it was caused by a fall and other injuries, for example in the form of abrasions or larger open wounds, have formed. Other symptoms that can arise in connection with a distal humerus fracture are, for example, damage to the brachial artery from the extension fractures.

In addition, a so-called Volkmann contracture can develop on the flexor side due to a lesion of vessels and nerves. Damage to the ulnar nerve and the radial nerve can also be side effects that can occur with a distal humerus fracture. However, these are rarely observed.


Various examination methods are available to diagnose a distal humeral fracture. In most cases, an examination using x-rays is used. The attending physician carries out this examination in two planes in order to be able to analyze the distal humerus fracture from different sides. This diagnostic method is usually sufficient to make a reliable diagnosis as well as to plan a possible operation.

For further clinical concerns it is sufficient to differentiate between a few fracture forms. As a rule, a distinction is made between three forms, namely (metaphyseal) fractures affecting the bone, fractures located in the joint capsule (intra-articular) or outside the joint (extra-articular). This classification has proven itself over the long term and is used by most doctors.

During the clinical examination, the blood flow, sensitivity and motor skills of the affected arm as well as the hands and fingers should be checked. Corresponding diagnoses related to the distal humerus fracture are confirmed by means of X-rays.


The distal humerus fracture describes a rarely occurring complicated bone fracture at the lower end of the humerus. These limb fractures mainly occur when falling with an outstretched arm or on the elbow joint. The symptom is more likely to occur in children than adults.

Affected people suffer from severe pain that extends well over the shoulder. The arm can hardly be moved and is misaligned. When palpating, crackling noises can be heard from the fracture parts. Swellings and bruises also appear, especially if the upper arm artery has been injured.

If the symptom is not treated as soon as possible, the complications will increase. Concomitant symptoms such as severe abrasions or open wounds can become infected. In the flexor side of the arm, nerves and blood vessels can be permanently damaged. The consequences are circulatory and sensitivity disorders, but also permanent motor damage that extends into the fingers.

The distal humerus fracture includes various types of fracture that can affect one or more bones and the joint capsule. Imaging measures clarify the type of break for the operative measure. The operation of the distal humerus fracture is often complicated. The soft tissue jacket must be able to form a new stable connection to the bone structure and a precisely fitting joint surface reconstruction must be carried out. Then the patient has to undergo physiotherapy.

When should you go to the doctor?

If a distal humerus fracture is suspected, a doctor should be consulted immediately, who can clarify the symptoms and, if necessary, treat them directly. If you feel severe pain in your upper arm after a fall or accident, it is best to call an emergency doctor directly.

Swelling, misalignment or bleeding also indicate a medical emergency that must be clarified immediately. At the latest when symptoms of a shock are noticed, the emergency number must be dialed immediately. Open abrasions can sometimes be self-treated.

However, due to the risk of infection alone, this task should be left to the doctor. If nerves or vessels have been injured, this must be treated in hospital in any case. Otherwise, the symptoms will increase and permanent motor damage may occur, which can extend from the shoulder to the fingers.

In the case of nerve damage, further physiotherapeutic treatment may be necessary. The doctor responsible should best answer which specific measures have to be taken to restore the mobility and performance of the upper arm.

Treatment & Therapy

Various methods are available for the treatment of a distal humeral fracture. These are used depending on the type of fracture and the severity of the fracture.

In the majority of cases, the distal humerus fracture is treated surgically by applying a plate fixation or, alternatively, a screw fixation. If the fractures are particularly complex and no longer allow reconstruction, treatment with an elbow joint prosthesis must be considered in individual cases.

Conservative treatment is far less possible in the presence of a distal humerus fracture. For this, the fracture fragments must not be displaced from their original position and there must be no instability. In conservative therapy, an upper arm cast is put on for a period of three to six weeks. If children have a distal humeral fracture, the prognosis is usually good.

Outlook & forecast

The distal humeral fracture heals well in most cases. Children have the best prognostic prospects and can often be symptom-free for life after healing. The older the patient, the worse the fracture heals. Overall, the healing path is extended and there are often restrictions on the range of motion.

In children, complications and consequential damage can occur if the growth plate in the distal humerus fracture is affected. This leads to problems with reduction and can negatively affect the very favorable prognosis.

Adults suffer more and more from permanent mobility restrictions, as the bones no longer grow together in their natural form with increasing age. In addition to the mobility restrictions, a loss of the usual level of performance or sensitivity to the weather is to be expected. Nevertheless, the patient achieves a good quality of life with the distal humerus fracture and does not have to expect paralysis or similar restrictions.

Often there are bad postures or necessary changes to the usual movement sequences. These are necessary to avoid or reduce muscle, tendon or nerve damage. Through targeted training and exercises, the patient can learn to stress his body differently. In this way, it improves general well-being and alleviates existing complaints. This process takes several months until the patient is almost symptom-free.


As with most fractures, the best way to prevent a distal humerus fracture is through paying more attention to potentially dangerous activities. Corresponding joint protectors should be worn, especially in sports where more falls can occur. With sufficient force, however, even these cannot guarantee protection against a distal humerus fracture.


With this disease, in most cases, the patient has very few measures or options for follow-up care available, so that early detection must primarily be carried out in order to prevent further complications or restrictions in movement. The earlier the humerus fracture is diagnosed and treated, the better the further course of the disease will usually be.

Self-healing cannot occur, so a visit to a doctor is necessary. In most cases, the humerus fracture is treated with the help of surgical interventions, which are intended to permanently alleviate the symptoms. It is advisable for those affected to rest after such an operation and take it easy for a while. Refrain from exertion or other stressful activities.

In particular, the affected area on the body should not be unnecessarily stressed. Furthermore, physiotherapy measures are usually very useful. As a rule, the person affected can also perform many exercises from such a therapy in their own home and thus possibly accelerate the healing process. In most cases, the humeral fracture does not reduce the life expectancy of the person affected.

You can do that yourself

If there is a distal humerus fracture, the arm in question is immobilized for several weeks. This is usually done with plaster of paris. As a result, everyday life is severely restricted, as movements are only possible with the other arm.

The prescribed rest is very important, otherwise the arm cannot heal undisturbed. For this reason, the position of the arm should always remain on the upper body – even at night. This is not always easy – but there is no alternative.

Once the fracture has healed and the cast is removed, it is crucial to reactivate the arm with the help of physiotherapeutic measures. This must be done gradually. Excessive demands in everyday life should be avoided at all costs.

In most cases, it takes several months for the arm to be fully resilient. In the beginning, only light objects may be lifted and light work carried out.

Anyone who has previously played sport should wait as long as the doctor recommends. This can take four to six months. It is not uncommon for about a year to pass before the arm is fully functional again. If the weather changes, the former break point can still be noticeable for several years.

Distal Humeral Fracture

All You Need to Know About Depressive Mood

All You Need to Know About Depressive Mood

The depressive mood is unfortunately part of life for more and more people. If the mental illness, which expresses itself through exhaustion, sadness and feelings of weakness, was once considered a taboo subject, it has come into the public eye, not least because of some prominent people affected. However, it must be differentiated from general depression. The depressive mood is curable, but can also cause considerable suffering.

What are depressive moods?

According to DigoPaul, the depressive mood is an illness that causes mental complaints. The depressive mood is therefore a disturbance of the mental equilibrium. As a rule, psychological or even psychiatric treatment of the depressive mood will be necessary, which is usually accompanied by medication.

Often the ailments do not occur continuously, but occur in phases – not infrequently in connection with certain events or seasons. The depressive mood is often associated with a long winter (winter depression) without sunlight. But that is not entirely true, as the depressive mood can be triggered by stress, professional or private problems and a lack of balance to everyday life.


The underlying causes of the depressive mood can only be determined on a case-by-case basis. However, stressful situations of all kinds are often involved in the depressive mood. Financial hardships, professional situations with no way out or other extreme situations are considered to be the triggers of the illness.

In addition, the physical imbalance can also lead to a depressive mood. For example, when the organism does not receive the vitamins or minerals it needs to function properly. Or if you do without balancing sport and exercise in the fresh air.

The depressive mood is usually based on more than one cause. It is not uncommon for long-hidden fears or longings to appear during therapy – they are considered to be the real core of the depressive mood.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

Depressive moods can express themselves both emotionally and physically. Those affected are often sad, depressed and feel an inner restlessness. Constant brooding is characteristic, from which self-doubt and feelings of guilt can develop – since the thoughts cannot be switched off even at night, there are often problems falling asleep or staying asleep.

During the day, a leaden tiredness becomes noticeable, which is associated with impaired concentration and poor performance. Anyone who suffers from a depressive mood can not get up to anything, because on the one hand they lack the strength to do so and on the other hand the meaningfulness of every action is questioned.

Often there are fears that relate specifically to certain situations or that can be felt as a constant state of inner tension. The environment is often very irritable and nervous. A prolonged depressive epoch often leads to social withdrawal, which in the long term intensifies feelings of loneliness and sadness. Occasionally, overactivity up to work or sports addiction can be signs of a depressive mood.

The psychological symptoms are often accompanied by physical complaints such as dizziness, headaches, gastrointestinal disorders and a pronounced feeling of weakness. In contrast to normal mood swings, with which even healthy people react to stressful life situations, depressive moods occur even without a visible trigger and last for a long time.


Normally, the depressive mood is insidious. From the first mostly neglected phases of weakness, feeling upset or dejection, the depressive mood returns more and more often in spurts.

It weighs heavily on the person’s thoughts, blocks the view of ways out and seems to paint life in dreary colors. The depressive mood is often accompanied by a flight into alcohol or drugs.

Since the person concerned rarely expresses himself about his or her suffering, friends, family or other companions only recognize the depressive mood relatively late. Not infrequently too late. As soon as there are signs of the disease, however, the depressive mood should be treated therapeutically.


Occasional depressive mood is normal if it can be traced back to current events. However, if the depression persists, it can be an illness that requires treatment. However, this is not always recognized or admitted by the person concerned. A resulting complication can be suicide attempts or a dramatic aggravation of the mental state. In this state, a depressed mood can lead to consequences that are just as dramatic.

Depressive moods can also be a complication of certain diseases. This can be the case, for example, with problems with your own appearance after accidental or burn injuries or with chronic pain. Postnatal or postoperative depression are also serious complications.

Fears and depressive moods can also be found in cancer patients. Elderly people often suffer from depressive moods or mood swings because of their age-related loneliness and painful old age ailments. These can lead to alcohol abuse or pill abuse.

The administration of antidepressants is also not always helpful straight away if you are depressed. In a full blown depression, however, it is inevitable. Depression can be a sequela, but it can also be the underlying cause of burnout. Complications can also arise from the interactions of antidepressants with other drugs. Such combination of preparations can lead to gastrointestinal bleeding, liver and kidney failure, heart attacks or muscle inflammation.

When should you go to the doctor?

People who have been in a negative mood for weeks or months should seek therapeutic help. If, due to the existing emotional state, the tasks and activities of normal life can no longer be used, it is advisable to consult a doctor. With persistent withdrawal behavior, the unusual avoidance to participate in social life or listlessness, the symptoms should be discussed with a psychologist or psychotherapist.

If the person concerned suffers from changed circumstances, a separation, the loss of a job or if they have to deal with a fateful event, they should seek help. If, for no apparent reason, the person concerned finds it difficult to move physically or to enjoy and enjoy existing activities, this is considered worrying. If the existing sense of enjoyment decreases, the interest in activities that increase well-being or predominantly negative thoughts occur, a doctor should be consulted.

If a pessimistic attitude towards life persists for more than two weeks, a therapist should be contacted. A doctor’s visit is necessary if the person concerned needs mood-enhancing substances in order to cope with everyday life. If there are increasing conflicts within the social environment due to an existing mood, therapeutic advice and hints help.

Treatment & Therapy

The treatment of the depressive mood can be done in different ways. The decisive factor here is the stage at which the disease was diagnosed. If it is diagnosed as not yet serious, the depressive mood can be remedied in outpatient talk therapy.

The focus here is often on the present and previous life of the person concerned: Fears, longings and emergencies are discussed. Even this release from the pent-up burdens can alleviate the symptoms. However, if the depressive mood occurs with more severe suffering, medical support is also possible. In doing so, the patient’s unwanted thoughts are blocked, thereby breaking the mental cycle of the negative.

In-patient treatment is only necessary in severe cases. These are often people who have been affected by the depressive mood for a long time and who take refuge in substitute symptoms – anorexia, alcohol addiction, self-mutilation. These stays in a clinic can, however, also be undertaken voluntarily. On the other hand, the situation is different in the case of concrete dangers to one’s own life or that of strangers: Here, the depressive mood is forcibly treated as an inpatient.

Outlook & forecast

The prognosis of a depressed mood depends on various factors. Basically, there is a cure for the disease. At the same time, if the course of the disease is unfavorable, the symptoms may worsen. The depressive mood is often not recognized in time. The complaints last for years and thus have the opportunity to manifest themselves. This worsens the prognosis, as it can develop into a chronic course without a diagnosis and subsequent treatment.

The depressed mood can turn into a severe depression. This increases the patient’s risk of suicide. If other mental illnesses occur, the prognosis also takes an unfavorable course. In the case of personality, anxiety, eating or mood disorders, the possible healing path can take several years. Some patients do not experience healing over the lifespan.

The depressive mood can be cured with cognitive or behavioral therapy. In addition, the administration of medication can improve symptoms. In recovery, the patient’s cooperation and the will to heal are important. Spontaneous healing can occur at any time. In addition, a sudden recurrence of the depressed mood is also possible. Many patients experience a long period of freedom from symptoms until stressful or traumatic life events lead to the symptoms being triggered again.


The prevention of the depressive mood lies first in a balanced diet, sporting activity (⇒ jogging helps real miracles) and a balance to everyday life. Fresh air and copious consumption of beverages are considered fuel for the brain – if it can work better, the depressive mood is less common. In addition, however, it can also help not to take all problem cases too seriously and thus avoid the depressive mood.

You can do that yourself

Those who suffer from a depressive mood have often lost the joy and purpose of life. With a few self-help tips, you can find your way back out of the low mood and perceive life as more worth living again.

In addition to an active lifestyle with sufficient exercise, a balanced diet is also recommended for those affected. Movement causes the serotonin level in the brain to rise, so that the metabolic disorder in the brain can be compensated for. Above all, endurance sports, such as jogging, walking or cycling, ensure a release of endorphins in the brain and thus contribute to a euphoric mood.

Those affected should attach great importance to a rich diet that provides the body and mind with sufficient nutrients. A well-known mood enhancer is chocolate, which – consumed in small quantities – can have a positive effect on the health of those affected.

An important factor in relieving a depressive mood is also an adequate supply of light. The light minimizes the release of melatonin in the body and increases the serotonin level at the same time. Anyone suffering from a depressive mood should incorporate regular walks in daylight into everyday life. The walk results in light physical activity on the one hand and an adequate supply of light on the other.

Depressive Mood

All You Need to Know About Cotard Syndrome

All You Need to Know About Cotard Syndrome

When Cotard delusion is a mental disorder. The sick patients suffer from the conviction that they are dead. The delusion is associated, for example, with the belief that one has neither blood nor organs or that they are already decaying. Cotard syndrome is a thought disorder and is considered a delusion.

What is Cotard Syndrome?

People with Cotard syndrome are convinced that they no longer exist or are dead. It is a delusional thinking disorder. The disease is often associated with psychoses such as schizophrenia. In addition, the disorder shows up in some cases with certain damage to one hemisphere of the brain and with migraines.

Many patients develop Cotard syndrome due to serious diseases of the brain. The sick people are convinced, for example, that they have neither a soul nor organs. The disease was first described by Jules Cotard and is named after him.


The causes of Cotard syndrome are many. In numerous cases, the disease occurs in connection with other mental disorders. The Cotard syndrome often shows itself, for example, in the context of schizophrenia, depression or psychosis. These disorders are primarily caused by organic damage and disorders of the brain.

For this reason, it can be assumed that Cotard syndrome is also primarily triggered by lesions in certain areas of the brain. External factors in the patient’s living conditions are often responsible for the onset of the disease.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

The symptoms of Cotard syndrome usually clearly indicate the disease. From a neurological perspective, Cotard syndrome is related to so-called Capgras syndrome. Some researchers believe that these mental disorders arise from loss of connection between different areas of the brain.

The areas of the brain that connect emotions and facial recognition are particularly relevant. The limbic system and the amygdala, for example, are responsible for this. When such connections are lost, known people are no longer recognized and do not evoke feelings of familiarity.

A similar phenomenon can also be seen in one’s own face, which is viewed in the mirror. As a result, people with Cotard syndrome suffer from the conviction that they are no longer alive. Cotard syndrome occurs in many cases together with neurological diseases and mental disorders. It is often associated with so-called derealization and general depression.

In addition, some people develop symptoms of Cotard’s syndrome as a side effect of the drug acyclovir. Doctors assume that a certain metabolite of the active substance is responsible for the development of Cotard syndrome. People who suffer from kidney weakness are particularly at risk.


The diagnosis of Cotard syndrome is usually made by a psychologist, psychiatrist, or neurologist. Usually several specialists are involved in diagnosing the disease. Basically, a diagnosis of Cotard’s syndrome is often difficult because the patients do not always cooperate and do not show any insight into the disease. This often results in a long ordeal before Cotard’s syndrome is diagnosed and treated accordingly.

If people suspect that they have Cotard syndrome, they should first contact their general practitioner. They refer the patient to a specialist in mental disorders and neurological diseases. The medical history is usually carried out by a psychologist. The detection of other disorders in the respective person plays an important role, such as schizophrenia or depression.

On the basis of the descriptions of the sick patient, the suspicion often falls quickly on the Cotard syndrome. Neurologists usually study the organic basis of the disease. For example, brain imaging techniques are used for this purpose. This makes it possible to identify anomalies in the connection between different areas of the brain and unusual or absent emotional reactions.


Cotard syndrome is a very serious condition and requires urgent medical attention. In most cases, the patient behaves callous and very dismissive. It is no longer possible to assign familiar people or faces, which is associated with very strong social and psychological problems.

As a rule, the person concerned can no longer recognize his or her own face. Thinking about one’s own death and decomposition leads to severe depression, so that normal everyday life is no longer possible. In most cases, the patient denies that he has Cotard’s syndrome, resulting in a very lengthy and difficult treatment.

In the worst case, depression and withdrawal can lead to death. The treatment itself is carried out by a psychologist. If the patient acts dangerously, the treatment can also be carried out in a closed clinic. In most cases, Cotard syndrome is treated with psychotherapy and medication.

However, it can take several months for the treatment to have a positive effect. Due to the Cotard syndrome, it is often no longer possible for those affected to pursue a regular job.

When should you go to the doctor?

Usually, Cotard syndrome needs to be treated by a doctor. Since this is a very strong and serious mental disorder, in most cases there is no self-healing, so diagnosis and treatment by a doctor is definitely necessary. A doctor should be seen if the person is convinced that they are dead. Other thinking disorders can also indicate the disease and should be examined by a psychologist.

An examination by a doctor must also be carried out if the patient can no longer correctly recognize or identify emotions or other faces due to Cotard syndrome. Kidney weakness can also occur, so this organ should be checked. Diagnosis of Cotard syndrome is usually made by a general practitioner. For further treatment, however, a visit to a special clinic is recommended. It cannot be universally predicted whether the treatment of Cotard syndrome will result in a positive outcome.

Treatment & Therapy

As a rule, various methods are used in the treatment of Cotard syndrome. On the one hand, the patients receive intensive psychotherapeutic care in which the underlying disorder is analyzed. The life situation and past of the patient are also discussed and processed.

In addition, psychotropic drugs are also prescribed for some people in order to influence the organic factors favorably in the development of the delusions. In drug therapy for Cotard’s syndrome, active ingredients from the groups of neuroleptics and antidepressants are primarily used.

In addition, empirical values ​​indicate that electroconvulsive therapies have a beneficial effect on the administration of medication for the treatment of Cotard’s syndrome. The prognosis of Cotard syndrome mostly depends on the type and severity of the associated mental disorders as well as the quality and course of treatment.

Outlook & forecast

With Cotard syndrome, the outlook and prognosis are based on whether there are other mental illnesses and the intensity of the symptoms of Cotard syndrome. In mild cases, the symptoms can be alleviated by psychotherapeutic treatment and medication. Many patients are symptom-free after completing therapy and are also not at risk of relapse. However, if the person concerned suffers from other emotional complaints, the Cotard syndrome can persist for years.

Drug treatment promises to alleviate symptoms, but the patient’s mental state improves only slowly. If Cotard syndrome occurs as part of a serious mental illness such as schizophrenia, the prognosis is rather poor. The suffering can be reduced, for example, with neuroleptics and antidepressants, but here, too, no long-term improvement is possible unless the underlying disease is dealt with and dealt with as part of comprehensive psychotherapeutic measures.

With Cotard syndrome, there is an increased risk of further psychological ailments developing. Some patients become depressed or have severe mood swings and anxiety as a result of increased numbness.


Concrete preventive measures are difficult with regard to Cotard syndrome, as with many other mental disorders. The Cotard syndrome occurs more often in connection with depression as well as psychosis and schizophrenia. Such diseases can also only be prevented to a limited extent. Often there is a genetic component that promotes an outbreak of mental illness in unfavorable living conditions.

Although effective prevention of Cotard’s syndrome is not straightforward, there are effective methods of therapy. Family members or confidants of the patient will help ensure that they seek medical treatment as early as possible.


In most cases, the person affected with Cotard syndrome does not have any special follow-up measures available. This mental illness must first and foremost be treated comprehensively by a doctor so that there are no further complications. The symptoms can only be relieved permanently through correct and professional treatment, as this usually does not lead to an independent healing.

In most cases, the person’s family or friends need to point out the symptoms of Cotard’s syndrome and persuade them to seek treatment. Treatment can also take place in a closed clinic if the syndrome is severe. The disease cannot always be treated completely.

The disease can also be treated by taking medication. The person concerned must ensure that it is taken correctly and regularly, whereby the correct dosage must also be observed. As a rule, the behavior that led to the symptoms of Cotard syndrome must also be avoided. The further course depends very much on the severity of the disease, so that no general prediction can be made.

You can do that yourself

Since the disturbances and complaints in the Cotard syndrome are very strong, the sick person is often not able to help himself to a sufficient extent. He is dependent on outside help. If possible, he should build a stable environment so that he can get support at all times.

With this disease, the main focus is on sufficient self-help for close relatives. They are well advised to find out more about the symptoms of the disease so that they do not find themselves in a sudden situation of excessive stress. Since their influence to alleviate the symptoms is only possible to a limited extent, they should concentrate on a good way of caring for the sick person. In doing so, they give up responsibility and can try to find their own balance. Relatives are encouraged to take care of themselves and not neglect their own wellbeing.

A good social network helps you cope with everyday life, as tasks can be distributed and mutual support is possible. Mental health is a priority for relatives. If you are caring for the sick person, it is advisable that you plan stress-reducing activities in your own leisure time. Relaxation techniques, a healthy lifestyle or an exchange with like-minded people can strengthen your own well-being.

Cotard Syndrome

All You Need to Know About Bronchiolitis Obliterans

All You Need to Know About Bronchiolitis Obliterans

The bronchiolitis obliterans is a chronic disease of the bronchioles. It is progressive and ultimately leads to the bronchioles becoming blocked. Sometimes a lung transplant needs to be performed in end-stage disease.

What is bronchiolitis obliterans?

Bronchiolitis obliterans is characterized by inflammatory processes in the bronchioles that do not recede. The bronchioles represent the small branches of the bronchial tree and already border on the alveoli of the lungs. They only have a single layer of ciliated epithelium and no more goblet cells. Their opening is only guaranteed by elastic fibers.

Furthermore, they further divide into four to five terminal bronchioles, which in turn divide into the approximately 1 to 1.35 millimeter long and 0.4 millimeter wide bronchioli respiratorii. Sometimes their wall is already formed by alveoli (pulmonary alveoli). The bronchioles thus open into the alveoli. Due to the chronic inflammatory processes in the bronchioles, the lung tissue is of course also constantly stressed.

As the inflammation progresses, scarring occurs, which leads to obstructions. The scars are created to contain the inflammation. However, the disease therefore progresses constantly and in the end stage forms a complete blockage of the bronchioles. Gas exchange is then no longer possible.


The causes of bronchiolitis obliterans are diverse. Previous infections, autoimmune diseases or the use of drugs can lead to chronic inflammation. Patients with rheumatic diseases can also develop chronic bronchiolitis. Bronchiolitis obliterans often develops as a result of chronic rejection after a lung transplant.

The Washington Morning Post also reported that workers who work in factories that make microwave popcorn often suffer from this disease. The diacetyl found in the butter aroma was blamed as the cause here. It is possible that allergic reactions to this compound initiate the inflammatory processes in the bronchioles.

In any case, the expression Popcorn Workers’s Lung has already been coined for this phenomenon. In the course of the inflammatory processes, a fibrin-rich exudate forms, which clogs the bronchioles and the outer alveoli. The bronchioles are closed in the long term by scarred remodeling processes with the formation of connective tissue and thus the gas exchange is hindered. The exact cause of these inflammatory processes is not known. However, it is believed that cytokines play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the disease.

The exudate in the alveoli resulting from the inflammation causes the formation of granulation tissue in the bronchioles. However, with this temporary tissue, the openings of the bronchioles gradually become narrowed. In the advanced stage, the inflammation spreads to the neighboring lung parenchyma. This stage is known as bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP).

Symptoms, ailments & signs

Bronchiolitis obliterans is characterized by pathological background noises (stridor) during breathing. The noises occur especially when exhaling. In addition, the disease is characterized by increasing shortness of breath. The patient is also plagued by a constant and excruciating urge to cough. The breathing difficulties lead in the long term to an undersaturation of the blood with oxygen, which shows up as cyanosis in the form of bluish discolored lips.

The thorax is over-inflated. This is followed by states of exhaustion and often confusion as a result of a lack of oxygen supply to the brain. The symptoms are similar to those of bronchial asthma or COPD. The bronchial lumen is covered with tough mucus due to the constant formation of the fibrin-rich exudate. In the untreated final stage, life can only be saved by a lung transplant.

Diagnosis & course

In order to diagnose bronchiolitis obliterans, bronchial asthma and COPD must be excluded from the differential diagnosis. The symptoms of these diseases are the same. Imaging methods are not meaningful here, because here only changes are made visible that can have several causes. Only a lung biopsy can confirm the diagnosis.

Here the bronchiolitis becomes apparent, although there are no signs of inflammatory processes in the alveoli. This implies a clear indication of the chronic course of bronchiolitis, which only later spreads to the lung tissue. If bronchiolitis obliterans develops after a lung transplant, radiological examinations without a lung biopsy are often sufficient to confirm the diagnosis.


In the case of diseases of the bronchi, the function of the lungs can be impaired. Therefore, caution and compliance with medical diagnostics are required, as otherwise complications such as bronchiolitis obliterans will occur. This is especially true for young children, the elderly and patients who are infected by an infection after a lung transplant.

Once the disease has reached the level of the bronchioles, the patient will progressively deteriorate if the symptoms are ignored. The result is that healthy lung tissue is rejected or the transplantation is unsuccessful. The bronchiolitis obstructs the granulation tissue, the flow is obstructed and bulging scars form due to the restricted lung volume.

The scarring happens because the body tries to counteract previous inflammations that are still in the lungs. The healing process is counterproductive and is the most serious rejection reaction after a lung transplant. Antibiotics can no longer work and cortisone therapy lasting several months must be sought. Patients who are at increased risk of contracting inflammatory respiratory diseases need to be particularly careful of viral superinfections.

Small children, whose fine bronchial branches have been damaged, can be seriously endangered by diseases such as measles, influenza viruses or mycoplasma. Even if the symptoms of inflammation are mild, bronchiectasis, bronchopneumonia and complications such as obstructive ventilation disorder can occur in later adult life.

When should you go to the doctor?

Since bronchiolitis obliterans is a very serious disease, it is essential to consult a doctor. As a rule, the doctor should be contacted if there are various background noises and complaints during breathing. Difficulty breathing or gasping for breath can also indicate the disease and should be investigated.

Most patients suffer from persistent coughing and also from a blue discoloration of the skin and lips. A visit to the doctor is necessary even with these symptoms. Furthermore, bronchiolitis obliterans can lead to permanent tiredness or exhaustion. Patients are often confused or have difficulty concentrating. Therefore, if these symptoms occur for no particular reason, a doctor should be consulted to exclude or confirm the bronchiolitis obliterans.

As a rule, the ENT doctor or pulmonologist should be consulted with this disease. He can correctly assign and treat the complaints. However, in severe cases, a lung transplant, which is carried out in a hospital, is also necessary.

Treatment & Therapy

Once the diagnosis has been confirmed, action must be taken quickly to prevent the disease from progressing. Cortisone therapy lasting at least six months is suitable for this. If this treatment is not initiated, serious courses are to be feared. In some cases, cyclophosphamide or cyclosporine can also be used. A lung transplant is sometimes completed at the end of treatment for bronchiolitis obliterans.

In order not to let it get that far, the underlying disease should be looked for in order to treat it. Sometimes it may be enough to switch off the influence of certain environmental toxins. The phenomenon of the “Popcorn Workers’s Lung” has already been reported above. Here, the likely cause of the disease is the active ingredient diacetyl in the butter aroma.

Constant inhalation of toxic gases such as NO2 can also irritate the bronchioles. Preventing exposure to these toxins can in itself lead to an improvement in symptoms.

Outlook & forecast

Bronchiolitis obliterans usually has a poor prognosis. Among other things, it is itself a complication of lung transplantation, whereby the immune system is directed against the lung tissue that is foreign to the body. But also autoimmune reactions against the lungs or chronic inflammation as a result of infections or the influence of drugs irreversibly remodel the lung tissue in the long term. The course of the disease cannot be stopped, but drug treatment with immunosuppressants in the form of cortisone can slow down the remodeling processes.

The constant inflammation leads to the formation of fibrin and thus to scarring and narrowing of the bronchioles and the adjacent alveoli. This process is progressive and irreversible. There is an increasing number of respiratory problems that are getting worse all the time. There is currently no curative therapy.

The course of the disease becomes even more severe when the inflammation spreads to the neighboring lung parenchyma. Then bronchiolitis obliterans develops with organizing pneumonia, which is also known as BOOP. BOOP is characterized by a subacute onset with flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, cough, increasing difficulty breathing and a feeling of severe illness.

In individual cases, this course can be very massive and life-threatening. But the long-term course of the disease also ultimately leads to death. 50 percent of patients die within three years. Only 30 to 50 percent of those affected live five years after diagnosis. Intensive drug therapy can, however, greatly delay the course of the disease.


A general recommendation for preventing bronchiolitis obliterans is to adhere to a healthy lifestyle with plenty of exercise, a balanced diet and refrain from smoking. However, since the causes of this disease are diverse, there is no guarantee that bronchiolitis obliterans will not break out despite a healthy lifestyle.


In most cases, the person affected with bronchiolitis obliterans has no special or direct follow-up measures available. The affected person is dependent on symptomatic treatment, since causal therapy is usually not possible in this disease. The earlier the disease is recognized, however, the better the further course is usually.

However, bronchiolitis obliterans usually leads to the death of the person affected and thus also to a significantly reduced life expectancy. In most cases, treatment of bronchiolitis obliterans is carried out with the help of drugs. The affected person should ensure that they are taken correctly and regularly.

The doctor’s instructions should also be observed, but in case of doubt or anything unclear, the doctor must always be contacted again. In order not to unnecessarily burden the body, one should also not smoke in bronchiolitis obliterans.

You should also refrain from strenuous physical work. In many cases, the disease also leads to physical upset or depression. These should always be treated by a psychologist, although discussions with your own family can also be very helpful.

You can do that yourself

Bronchiolitis obliterans is a very serious disease of the bronchi that often requires a lung transplant, even with professional treatment. Self-treatment of the disease is therefore completely out of the question. Those affected must definitely consult a doctor.

However, patients can also help to improve the disease themselves. Since bronchiolitis obliterans is associated with chronic inflammatory processes that permanently burden the body, those affected should ensure a healthy lifestyle that supports the immune system. A healthy diet, avoidance of excessive alcohol, adequate sleep and, if the patient is able to do so, light endurance sports in the fresh air are helpful. As with all diseases of the bronchi and lungs, smoking of tobacco should be avoided.

Simple home remedies can alleviate the strong and usually excruciating cough that is often associated with bronchiolitis obliterans. In natural medicine, sage- based preparations are used, which are available in the form of tea or lozenges. Gargling with salt water keeps the throat and throat area moist and has a disinfectant effect. This can prevent the area irritated by constant coughing from becoming inflamed.

If the cause of the disease could not be clarified, patients should consider whether there are allergenic substances in their (work) environment, for example chemicals, that could be the trigger for the disease and should make the attending physician aware of this.

Bronchiolitis Obliterans

All You Need to Know About Chagas Disease

All You Need to Know About Chagas Disease

In the Chagas disease, Chagas disease or South American Thrypanosomiasis is an infectious disease that is not caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi, but by a parasite. Chagas disease was first described by Carlos Chagas in 1909.

What is Chagas Disease?

According to DigoPaul, Chagas disease is also known as Chagas disease or South American thrypanosomiasis. It got this name because the disease is mainly common in South and Central America.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that around ten million people in Latin America have Chagas disease. The Brazilian infectiologist Carlos Chagas first came across the strange tropical disease in 1909. He discovered that predatory bugs were responsible for transmitting the infectious disease and gave the parasite the name Trypanosoma cruzi – based on a well-known doctor from Brazil who gave the institute its name at which Chagas worked at the time.

The insidious Chagas disease occurs predominantly in rural areas and is no longer limited to South America. With the increasing mobility of the population, Chagas disease has also been diagnosed in countries such as Canada, the United States, and some European and West Pacific countries.


Chagas disease is a parasitic infectious disease. The unicellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes the disease. Predatory bugs act as intermediate hosts (vectors), ingesting the pathogen through blood meals and excreting it through their feces.

The pathogens of Chagas disease can get into their hosts via the smallest skin injuries or contact with the mucous membrane. In the case of mammals, dogs, cats, isolated rodents, armadillos and possums in particular are affected as hosts. The infection is passed on to humans through the animals.

Here it is again possible that an infection can take place from person to person (for example via an organ transplant, a blood transfusion or in the womb to the unborn child). In Chagas disease, the pathogens enter the bloodstream and attack the cells of the muscles and the heart.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

Chagas disease is accompanied by various general symptoms of infection, although there are also some characteristic symptoms that can point directly to the disease. First and foremost, Chagas disease leads to a very high fever and thus to tiredness and fatigue in the person concerned. Most patients continue to suffer from shortness of breath and are therefore severely restricted in their everyday life.

It also leads to diarrhea and severe abdominal pain. The lymph nodes can also be swollen from Chagas disease, which is often also noticeable on the neck. If the disease is not treated, it usually leads to the retention of water. These occur mainly on the face or feet and can also have a negative impact on the aesthetics of the person affected.

Also heart problems occur here, with most patients suffering from heart palpitations or chest pain. As the disease progresses, it then comes to cardiac death, so that the life expectancy of the person affected is reduced if Chagas disease is not treated. The disease can also break through the intestinal organs and, in the worst case, lead to the death of the person affected.

Diagnosis & course

Chagas disease can be diagnosed particularly well in the first few weeks after infection. The parasite can be detected in a blood smear under the microscope. Chronic Chagas disease can be characterized by the significant enlargement of the affected parts of the organs (for example the enlargement of the heart, the enlargement of the esophagus and the large intestine).

In addition to the microscopic detection of Chagas disease, xenodiagnosis can also be carried out. This means that the blood-sucking predatory bugs are grown in the laboratory and then placed on the patient’s skin. After a few weeks, the Trypanosoma cruzi pathogen can be detected in the faeces of the predatory bugs.

The incubation period for Chagas disease is around three weeks. After this time, skin irritation occurs at the infection site, the so-called chagom. Other symptoms of Chagas disease are edema, fever, difficulty breathing, diarrhea, cramps, abdominal pain, and swelling of the lymph nodes.


Chagas disease can cause changes in the heart if left untreated. This can result in life-threatening complications. This increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias such as atrial or ventricular fibrillation developing. With atrial fibrillation, the blood can no longer be pumped properly, it remains in the atrium (stasis of the blood).

As a result, the blood can clot on the wall of the atrium, forming a thrombus that can loosen and is carried on with the bloodstream. This can lead to further consequences such as a pulmonary embolism, which causes chest pain and shortness of breath in the affected person, or a stroke, which is characterized by a wide variety of paralysis and deficiency symptoms depending on the situation.

In addition, pulmonary edema can develop in Chagas disease. This can lead to inflammation in the lung tissue (pneumonia), which in the worst case can develop into sepsis. In the acute phase of Chagas disease, inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) or heart muscle inflammation (myocarditis) are also possible.

This may result in paralysis or heart failure (heart failure). Some nerve cells, which are required for the muscles and thus the movement of the gastrointestinal organs, are also damaged. This can cause the food to build up, which can cause an ileus or the organs to enlarge. This can lead to a breakthrough of the intestinal organs, which can also lead to death.

When should you go to the doctor?

If typical symptoms such as fever and shortness of breath occur, medical advice is required. The doctor can diagnose Chagas disease with the help of a blood smear and, if necessary, initiate treatment directly. A doctor’s visit is necessary at the latest if further complications arise. An emergency doctor should be called immediately in the event of chest pain and shortness of breath. If pulmonary edema or a stroke occurs, first aid should be given immediately.

The sick person then has to spend some time in the hospital and also needs comprehensive medical and therapeutic care afterwards. Psychological help is also recommended to relatives in the event of a severe course. After contact with dogs, cats and rodents, the risk of contracting Chagas disease is particularly high. Likewise after an organ transplant or a blood transfusion. If these factors apply to you, you should consult a doctor quickly. In addition to the general practitioner, a specialist in infectious diseases can also help. In case of doubt, the medical emergency service or the ambulance service should be contacted.

Treatment & Therapy

Untreated Chagas disease results in death in approximately ten percent of affected patients. Infants, young children, the elderly and people with weak immune systems are most at risk. Chagas disease can only be treated with drugs. However, this treatment is difficult.

Therapy is carried out with the drugs nifortimox or benznidazole. However, these have serious side effects and can even change the patient’s genetic makeup (so-called mutagens). In addition, there are even pathogens that are resistant to the drugs. In the acute phase, i.e. the initial phase of Chagas disease, attempts are made to combat Trypanosoma cruzi directly.

The antibiotic agents nifortimox and benznidazole can in most cases destroy the parasite at the onset of Chagas disease. The duration of treatment is between seven weeks and three months. However, the longer Chagas disease lasts, the more difficult it becomes to find an effective remedy for the infection. In the chronic phase of Chagas disease, it is no longer enough to just want to fight the pathogen.

Only a targeted therapy of the individual symptoms can lead to success in the fight against Chagas disease. The later the treatment is carried out, the more likely it is to cause cardiac arrhythmias, arterial embolisms or pulmonary edema.

Outlook & forecast

In the worst case, Chagas disease can lead to death of the patient and must therefore be treated in any case. However, death usually only occurs if the disease is left completely untreated. Especially people with a weakened immune system or patients of old age are at risk.

The disease itself is treated with medication, which can completely limit the symptoms. In some cases, different drugs need to be tested for effectiveness before the right drug is found.

Chagas disease can also become chronic and cause permanent discomfort. Those affected are then dependent on treatment of the heart and lungs, as these organs are affected by the disease.

An early diagnosis and treatment of Chagas disease always has a positive effect on its course and can avoid further complications or, in the worst case, death of the person concerned. Some home remedies can help relieve symptoms of the disease. The further course of the disease continues to depend on the extent of the organ damage.


For the prophylaxis of Chagas disease, the fight against predatory bugs is mainly used. For example, insecticidal wall paints are used. You can also protect yourself against bedbug bites with suitable clothing and mosquito nets. The predatory bugs like to live in the sleeping areas of pets. These places should be segregated. A vaccination against Chagas disease does not yet exist.


In most cases of Chagas disease, there are very few direct follow-up measures available to those affected. With this disease, a quick and, above all, an early diagnosis is very important so that there are no further complications or complaints. In the worst case, Chagas disease can lead to death.

The patient should not be in the affected areas and should protect himself from mosquitoes as well as possible. Various sprays can be used, but long clothes should be worn, which cover all parts of the body properly. Self-healing cannot occur with this disease.

In most cases, Chagas disease is treated with medication. The person concerned should pay attention to the correct dosage and also to a regular intake of the medication. Since antibiotics are administered in most cases, they must not be taken with alcohol.

Absolute bed rest must also be observed with this disease. The patient should not engage in strenuous or physical activity. The disease itself is not contagious and can only be transmitted through the mosquito bite, so that the support of other people is permitted.

You can do that yourself

A doctor should be consulted immediately if Chagas disease is suspected. Medical treatment is always required due to the severity of the infection. Nevertheless, there are some home remedies and measures that you can use to relieve the symptoms on your own.

In mild cases of the disease, treatment with homeopathic preparations makes sense. The use of globules and the like should always be done in consultation with a doctor and can not completely replace antibiotic treatment. Any medicinal plants should also be used purely symptomatically. Fever help as thyme, elderberry or honorary award, while diarrhea with bloodroot, oak and blueberry can be treated. Diet or purification can help if there are symptoms of the lymphatic system.

However, if medical treatment comes too late, it can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema and other complications. Depending on how severe these complications are, the doctor will then refer the patient to a therapist. This is especially necessary if Chagas disease has caused permanent damage to the internal organs. In any case, the loss of quality of life must be dealt with and accepted in the long term.

Chagas Disease

All You Need to Know About Chondrodyplasia Punctata of the Rhizomelic Type

All You Need to Know About Chondrodyplasia Punctata of the Rhizomelic Type

The chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type belong to the congenital malformations. The disorder is characterized by a noticeable short stature. The life expectancy of the patient is greatly reduced with this disease.

What is rhizomelic type chondrodyplasia punctata?

Chondrodyplasia punctata syndromes are a group of different diseases. All sub-forms are genetically determined diseases with characteristic features. Chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type, RCDP for short, was first documented in 1931.

The most noticeable symptoms of the disease are short stature and intellectual disability. The short stature is already clearly recognizable in the newborn after birth. A prenatal diagnosis is possible if there is a known mutation within the family.

Further symptoms of the disease are restricted mobility and a conspicuous appearance. These include reduced hair growth and a flat face with chubby cheeks. According to the current state of science, the disease cannot be cured. The course can be classified as very difficult.

In most cases, patients die within the first decade of life. Due to the poor prognosis, there is often additional care for close relatives. Dealing with the disease is very difficult for everyone involved.


The cause of chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type lies in a genetic defect. This triggers a metabolic disorder of the peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are involved in the construction of various and important cells in the organism. There are 3 types of genetic defect. In most cases there are changes in the PEX7 gene.

The mutation leads to a change in the PTS2 receptor. Type II is associated with a change in the GNPAT gene. This codes for dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase. In type III there is a change in the AGPS gene. This leads to a modification of the peroxisomal alkyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate synthase.

The present genetic defect is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The recessive inheritance pattern means that the disease does not necessarily have to break out even though the genetic defect is present. However, the defect can also be passed on to offspring without the disease breaking out. The probability of the occurrence of chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type is given as 1: 100,000.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

One of the symptoms of chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type is short stature. A so-called rhizomelic short stature already exists at birth. This manifests itself in shortened upper arms and thighs. The patient has sparse hair and a flat but chubby face. The lenses of both eyes are cloudy.

This leads to a change in eyesight. The patient has an intellectual disability. This is associated with a greatly reduced intelligence. Most patients suffer from scoliosis that is hardly treatable.

The mobility of the joints is severely restricted. This means that the patient is unable to move around on his own or only very inadequately. The physical and psychosocial development is severely delayed. Skin lesions, changes in the vertebrae and a cataract occur.

Diagnosis & course

If there is a genetic mutation in the parents, a prenatal diagnosis is possible. The genetic defect can be determined using prenatal diagnostics. In the other cases, a diagnosis takes place after birth up to toddler age. Imaging procedures such as x-rays show the shortening of the bone and vertebral structure.

Performing a genetic test ultimately reveals the mutation in the affected gene and provides information about the type of gene change that is present. During the course of the disease, there is a deterioration in the state of health. As the child grows, the symptoms worsen. In addition, life expectancy is greatly reduced. Many sick people die in the first decade of life. The most common cause is breathing disorders.


In most cases, the rhizomelic type of chondrodyplasia punctata leads to a severely reduced life expectancy. Those affected suffer from various malformations and deformations that limit everyday life. There is also a short stature.

The arms and thighs are shortened and the patient suffers from greatly reduced hair growth. Children in particular can become victims of bullying and teasing from the symptoms. Eyesight decreases as the disease progresses, which can lead to complete blindness. The chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type also restricts mental development and generally leads to retardation.

The motor development of the patient is also often restricted, so that he does not have to rely on the help of other people in everyday life. It is not uncommon for parents to suffer from chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type due to psychological complaints or depression. A causal treatment is not possible.

Because of this, it only relieves symptoms. In most cases, however, death occurs due to difficulty breathing. The necessary therapies can only alleviate the symptoms and pain.

When should you go to the doctor?

People with chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type should be closely monitored by a doctor. Parents of affected children should therefore consult a specialist in chondrodyplasia immediately after birth. The doctor can clarify the symptoms and, if necessary, call in other specialists. That being said, you should see a doctor with chondrodyplasia punctata if the symptoms increase or new symptoms appear. If breathing difficulties arise as a result of the typical dysmorphism, the emergency services must be called.

The same applies if accidents occur as a result of the deformities. In later life the child should be introduced to a therapist. The child must be supported by a specialist, especially in the event of noticeable growth retardation. If you have visual problems such as cataracts, it is best to contact your ophthalmologist or a specialist in eye diseases. In general: A person with chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type needs support throughout childhood and adolescence and often also in adulthood. It is all the more important to start treatment early.

Treatment & Therapy

There is no known treatment or therapy for Chondrodyplasia punctata, as a cure is not possible according to the current scientific status. The symptoms that occur are treated individually and with the aim of alleviation. Since the disease leads to a very short life expectancy, difficult and lengthy therapeutic measures are avoided when certain measures are taken.

The body is in a weakened state and cannot adequately withstand many treatment methods. Since in most cases death occurs due to breathing disorders, measures are taken in good time to make this journey as pleasant as possible. The disease leads to the fact that the close relatives are exposed to a very high level of stress.

Your entire life is changed by the diagnosis. In addition, the shortened life expectancy of the child creates an emotional challenge that young parents find very difficult to deal with. For this reason, the parents are cared for in parallel with the patient. In order to be able to deal with the situation and the development of the disease, therapeutic measures are offered for all involved.

Outlook & forecast

Chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type has an unfavorable prognosis. The enzyme defect is triggered by genetic causes and is considered incurable despite medical progress and the numerous therapeutic options available.

The treatment plan is designed by the doctor to relieve the patient’s existing symptoms. The congenital malformations are individual and largely responsible for the further course of each newborn. In addition to the prospect of little alleviation of the symptoms, the disease also has a high mortality rate. Most patients die within the first decade of their lives due to the severe impairment.

Respiratory disorders are mostly responsible for this. In order to make this path more pleasant, appropriate precautions are taken or interventions are made to prevent unnecessary agony. However, this can only be done if the patient’s state of health allows the necessary steps.

Since a prenatal test already gives the possibility of a diagnosis in the case of the genetic disease, the mother-to-be can initiate an abortion if desired. After the birth, due to the poor prognosis, medical treatment focuses on improving the existing quality of life and extending the average expected life span. Complex therapeutic measures or lengthy methods do not take place due to the lack of success and the newborn.


With all syndromes of chondrodyplasia punctata, preventive measures cannot be taken to avoid the disease. Chondrodyplasia punctata is based on a genetic defect. For legal reasons, interventions and changes in human genetics are not permitted.

People with the genetic defect can dispense with fathering biological offspring. This prevents the defective gene from being passed on. In addition, prenatal examinations of the unborn child are possible. These enable the diagnosis of chondrodyplasia punctata in the newborn in the womb.


In most cases of chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type, the patient has very few follow-up measures available. The patient is primarily dependent on an early diagnosis of the disease so that there are no further complications. Since this disease is a congenital disease, there is no complete cure.

As a rule, if you want to have children, genetic counseling and testing can also be carried out so that the chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type does not recur in the children. The earlier the disease is recognized and treated, the better the further course will usually be. The affected children are permanently dependent on the help and support of their parents in their lives.

Loving care has a positive effect on the course of the disease. Since it can often lead to depression and psychological upset, intensive and loving discussions with the person affected are necessary. Some therapeutic measures can also be carried out in your own home, which makes life easier for the patient. Chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type has a very negative effect on the life expectancy of the child.

You can do that yourself

Chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type are not considered to be causally treatable; patients cannot take self-help measures to combat the disorder causally. Since it is a serious hereditary disease, genetic counseling is useful for couples in whose families rhizomelic type chondrodyplasia punctata has already occurred. The couples are then informed about the likelihood that the syndrome will manifest in their offspring and what health impairments can be expected in this case.

Expectant parents whose families are affected by this hereditary disease can also be specifically searched for this genetic defect as part of the prenatal diagnosis. If the embryo is diseased, a medically induced abortion can be carried out. Parents who decide to carry the pregnancy to term must be aware that there is a high probability that their child will not reach the age of ten. This circumstance is usually more burdensome for the family members than for the child, to whom the illness cannot be understood due to the often severe mental handicap.

Affected couples should seek psychological help at an early stage. In addition, all organizational measures should be taken during pregnancy that are necessary to integrate the care of a physically and mentally handicapped child into everyday family and work life.

Chondrodyplasia Punctata of the Rhizomelic Type

All You Need to Know About Barber-Say Syndrome

All You Need to Know About Barber-Say Syndrome

The Barber-Say syndrome is a rare inherited disorder with increased hair and striking facial physiognomy. So far, only ten cases have been documented since it was first described, so research into the syndrome is in its infancy. Neither the heredity nor the cause of the disease is known so far.

What is Barber Say Syndrome?

In 1982, N. Barber and his colleagues first described a disease called Barber-Say Syndrome. The disease has only been documented in ten patients since it was first described. It is estimated that the incidence for the syndrome is less than one case in 1,000,000 people. Barber-Say syndrome is believed to be a hereditary disease.

The exact type of inheritance is not yet known, but an autosomal dominant inheritance is suspected. The clinical picture is mainly characterized by hypertrichosis, which goes far beyond normal hair. As a rule, in combination with this, there is atrophy of the skin, which makes the person affected appear emaciated and emaciated. In addition, misalignments of the eyelids and excessively wide mouth areas are often observed.

Because of the small number of documented cases, the Barber-Say syndrome is far from being conclusively researched. In particular, research into the causes has so far been in its infancy, as the poorly documented cases do not provide a sound basis for a more in-depth etiology.


Previous research suggests a hereditary basis for Barber-Say syndrome. In one case, the symptom complex was transmitted from mother to son in a manner documented so far. In the case documented in this way, the mother also had a cleft palate and conductive hearing loss. Theoretically, the case mentioned could therefore also have been a completely different syndrome.

Research to date has not shown whether the syndrome is based on an autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant or X-linked dominant inheritance. There is speculation in current medicine about a connection with the equally rare Ablepharon macrostomy syndrome. The two syndromes do not appear to be from the same group, but despite their differences, they appear to affect the same gene.

Presumably, the two diseases are different mutations of the same gene. However, nothing more is known about the gene locus in Ablepharon macrostomy syndrome.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

The Barber-Say syndrome manifests itself primarily in a congenital generalized hypertrichosis. The extreme hairiness of the patient is usually noticeable immediately after birth. The same applies to the conspicuous face of the person affected, which catches the eye with a broad bridge of the nose, an anteverted nose and particularly thin lips.

Despite the otherwise extreme hairiness, the patients lack or at least have less eyebrows. The eyelids are affected by misalignments or are completely absent. In addition, there is often hypertelorism or telekanthus. The same goes for malformed ears and overstretchable or excess skin. There may also be hypoplasia of the nipples. The complete absence of the mammary glands is an equally conceivable symptom.

Often times, teeth eruption is delayed in patients with Barber-Say syndrome. Presumably, in individual cases, additional symptoms may appear that have not yet been recorded due to the small number of documented cases.

Diagnosis & course

Diagnosing Barber-Say syndrome can be difficult. Since no specific gene has been held responsible for the syndrome so far, the molecular genetic examination of the patient is nowhere near. At best, the doctor makes the diagnosis on the basis of visual diagnosis, as he lacks solid diagnostic criteria.

The differential diagnosis and differentiation from the equally rare Ablepharon macrostomy syndrome is a difficult undertaking. Neither for the Barber-Say syndrome nor for the Ablepharon macrostomy syndrome has the etiology been conclusively clarified or narrowed down to a specific gene locus. The distinction between the two syndromes is mainly determined by the minor genital anomalies in Barber-Say syndrome. So far, medicine has assumed a rather favorable course of the disease for Barber-Say syndrome.


The clinical models of Barber-Say syndrome are increased hairiness and a conspicuous facial physiognomy. The hairiness of the patient goes far beyond the normal hairiness of healthy people, while the eyebrows are absent or less pronounced. The eyelids are misaligned or missing entirely.

An enlarged distance marks the eyes or the inner corners of the eyes. The mouth and nose area is exceptionally wide. The same abnormalities apply to malformed ears. In addition, there is tissue shrinkage in the skin, which makes the patient look emaciated and emaciated.

In some of those affected, tooth eruption occurs too late. Since the Barber-Say syndrome has so far only been documented ten times worldwide, medicine is far from individual therapeutic approaches. Although the life expectancy of the patient is not necessarily limited, the physiological complications are accompanied by a high level of psychological distress. Various cosmetic treatments and invasive interventions to remove excessive hair and conspicuous deformities are conceivable.

Drug therapy is also possible. However, in these cases there are often side effects that cause additional complications. The prognosis for a complete cure is negative, because the conspicuous symptoms and side effects of Barber-Say syndrome cannot be completely eliminated. To alleviate the psychosomatic complications that treatment by a psychotherapist is conceivable.

When should you go to the doctor?

Since Barber-Say syndrome is an extremely rare hereditary disease, it is difficult to diagnose it by a doctor. Typical symptoms such as the extreme hairiness and the conspicuous face of the patient are usually noticed immediately after the birth. Signs such as a wide bridge of the nose, missing eyebrows or particularly thin lips give cause for a more detailed examination. The clinical picture usually leads automatically to a routine physical diagnosis.

However, due to the small number of cases, a specific diagnosis of the syndrome is usually not possible. However, physical characteristics in the parents – in one documented case a cleft palate was found – as well as possible concomitant diseases can provide decisive clues for the diagnosis of Barber-Say syndrome.

Parents with previous genetic diseases or cases of hereditary diseases in their extended family should address this in the context of pregnancy counseling and the associated medical examinations. This allows the child to be examined before birth and tested for possible genetic diseases such as Barber-Say syndrome.

Treatment & Therapy

The etiology of Barber-Say syndrome remains a mystery. For this reason, medicine is currently far from providing a causal treatment for the disease. As for the Ablepharon macrostomy syndrome, only symptomatic treatment options are possible. The treatment usually consists of mainly reconstructive-surgical interventions.

In Barber-Say syndrome, reconstruction is usually limited to the patient’s eyelids and ears. If necessary, hypoplasias of the nipples can also be treated surgically. The noticeably wide nose can also be corrected by a surgical intervention if necessary. Patients do not necessarily have to have the nose treated if they are not bothered by the width.

Basically, the ablepharon macrostomy syndrome has worse misalignments and anomalies than the Barber-Say syndrome. Various therapeutic approaches are available to combat the heavy hairiness of the Barber-Say syndrome. In addition to external treatments using cosmetic and aesthetic medicine methods, drug treatments are conceivable, but because of the side effects, these are only recommended for people with severe suffering.

Cosmetic procedures such as waxing or other methods such as laser treatment are usually gentler than long-term medication and are associated with significantly fewer side effects. Patients may face psychological challenges, especially during puberty. If this is the case, early contact with a psychotherapist ideally prevents those affected from withdrawing from society.

Outlook & forecast

The prognosis of the Barber-Say syndrome is considered unfavorable according to the medical and scientific possibilities to date. Although the patient’s life expectancy is not reduced, there is no cure for the disease. The genetic disease can be treated symptomatically. However, causal therapy is not possible for the patient.

Researchers and scientists are not allowed to manipulate human genetics when looking for therapeutic approaches. As a result, different options are attempted to treat the individual symptoms.

In addition to medical care, various alternative forms of treatment are available to the patient. The unusual and unwanted hair can be removed briefly via waxing or targeted shaving. There is no permanent relief. Nevertheless, the methods can help to improve the patient’s well-being in everyday life.

In addition to the cosmetic approaches, medical support is provided. The aim is to further improve health. The aim is to minimize the effects of the visual flaw. Some patients choose to have cosmetic surgery in addition. Corrections to the face can be made to create a permanent change.

When making an overall prognosis, it must be taken into account that the surgical interventions are subject to the usual risks and side effects of an operation under general anesthesia.


The causes of Barber-Say syndrome are largely unknown. Since so little research is available for the symptom, the disease cannot yet be prevented. The same is true for the related disorder called Ablepharon Macrostomy Syndrome.

You can do that yourself

The Barber-Say syndrome is extremely rare, so far there are neither conventional medical nor alternative healing methods that have a causal effect.

People affected by Barber-Say syndrome usually suffer very badly from their external appearance, which significantly affects their quality of life. The social interaction is impaired, among other things, by the extremely strong hair growth all over the body. At the sight of these people, third parties are often frightened or consider the person concerned to be extremely neglected.

The excessive body hair can be dealt with with cosmetic means. The easiest way to get a close daily shave is with the help of a disposable razor and shaving foam or shaving gel from the drugstore. Annoying body hair can also be removed with depilatory creams based on potassium or ammonium salts of thioglycolic acid or thiolactic acid.

Longer lasting success can be achieved with methods in which the hair and the root are pulled out. The most common methods include ” waxing ” and “sugaring”. The body hair is removed with the help of wax or sugar. Such treatments are offered by cosmetic studios.

Since these methods are very painful, they are not suitable for all those affected and not for all areas of the body. Laser hair removal, on the other hand, is permanent and comparatively gentle. Interested parties can find out more from the dermatologist.

If there are other noticeable features in addition to the heavy hair, such as anomalies on the face, a plastic surgeon should be consulted.

Psychotherapy can be helpful if those affected suffer emotionally from their appearance.

All You Need to Know About Barber-Say Syndrome

All You Need to Know About Eyebrow Loss

All You Need to Know About Eyebrow Loss

Loss of eyebrows can be a symptom of various diseases or genetic predispositions. The problem occurs extremely rarely and is mostly of a purely cosmetic nature. The most effective means of treatment is prevention.

What does eyebrow loss mean?

According to DigoPaul, eyebrow loss is defined as excessive hair loss on the eyebrows, which leads to severe thinning of the eyebrows. The causes of the disease are diverse and range from a simple hypersensitivity to certain substances to mineral deficiencies and vitamin deficiencies to side effects of drugs and psychological stress.

The treatment methods are just as varied, ranging from dietary measures to medication and a wide variety of home remedies. Preventive measures against eyebrow loss can be achieved through a healthy lifestyle with a healthy diet and sufficient exercise. If the eyebrows fail anyway, a doctor should always be consulted, who can determine the cause based on the symptoms and initiate adequate treatment.


If the eyebrows fall out, this is often due to hereditary or hormonal reasons. If the eyebrow loss occurs around the menopause, the falling estrogen level may be the cause. During pregnancy, the loss of eyebrows is often due to hormonal changes, the so-called postpartum effluvium.

In addition, severe infections or poisoning as well as metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus can weaken the hair roots. The number one trigger, however, is stress, often in connection with nutritional deficiencies or nutritional deficiencies.

Medicines for high blood pressure, high blood lipid levels (ACE inhibitors, beta blockers) or cancer are also possible triggers. Otherwise, eyebrow loss can also be caused by allergies to cosmetic products, contact with irritating substances or a dysfunction of the thyroid gland. Also, chemotherapy can, among other side effects lead to a failure of the hair and the eyebrows.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

Eyebrow loss is shown by the fact that the hair becomes thinner in certain areas of the eyebrows and the hair density generally decreases. Often the hair only falls out on one side or in a certain area or becomes brittle and dull at first. Those affected can usually observe this directly and thus diagnose the hair loss themselves.

It can also be determined that the hair loss only affects the eyebrows, while the hair on the head and other body hair grows as usual. The complaints are mostly of a purely visual nature. However, depending on the underlying cause, various side effects can occur.

Itching, redness and the appearance of deficiency symptoms are typical. With chronic occurrence, the loss of eyebrow hair can lead to a reduced self-esteem and possibly also to depressive thoughts.

Diagnosis & course

Most of the time, the pattern of the eyebrow loss already gives clues about the possible cause. The actual diagnosis can be made by a doctor with the help of various examinations, such as blood and hair analyzes, anamnesis and, in rare cases, a scalp biopsy. The doctor will first examine the eyebrows, scalp hair and nails in detail to determine whether there is a skin disease.

The pattern of eyebrow loss allows for a first suspicion. Then the doctor will perform a clinical epilation test or a pull test, depending on the suspicion. Does the hair come loose just by gently plucking it? Is the eyebrow hair brittle? Does the hair fall out evenly or do the light spots only appear on one eyebrow?

All of these questions not only provide information about the diagnosis, but also about the prognosis. If, for example, scarring hair loss is found, the hair may no longer grow evenly. If, on the other hand, the hair falls out without any noticeable redness or discomfort, it usually grows back again.

Furthermore, individual hairs and their structure can be viewed more closely under the microscope. Finally, a tissue sample is taken from the scalp under local anesthesia (scalp biopsy) in order to be able to clearly confirm the initial suspicion. In conjunction with a blood test, inflammation levels, the level of iron in the blood, immune phenomena and other factors can be determined.

Men may also have sex hormones tested if androgenic alopecia is suspected. Provided a quick and clear diagnosis is made, eyebrow loss can be treated without long-term consequences. The symptoms are mostly of a purely cosmetic nature and appear in attacks. Only symptoms accompanying the underlying disease can, depending on the cause, take a negative course and lead, for example, to inflammation that must be treated independently.


In most cases, eyebrow loss does not lead to medical complications that could be dangerous to the body. However, after the eyebrow loss, the patient no longer finds himself aesthetically pleasing. This can lead to depression and feelings of stress afterwards, as the affected person is no longer satisfied with their appearance.

There is a reduction in self-esteem and thus often a depressed mood. Should these psychological problems arise, a psychologist should be consulted. The eyebrow loss itself cannot be prevented, but the psychological thoughts are curbed.

Direct treatment is not possible. However, it is possible to use cosmetics to draw the eyebrows back over the eyes. Most of the time, the eyebrow loss is only caused by a shampoo or an improper diet, so that it can be combated again very easily and the disease progresses positively.

If the hair falls out in addition to the eyebrows, a doctor should be consulted. A doctor must also be consulted if the eyebrow loss occurs alongside another disease. It is not uncommon for the body to lack iron and protein when the eyebrows fall out, so that the patient should take in more of these ingredients through food. Most of the time, the eyebrows grow back completely after several weeks.

When should you go to the doctor?

If eyebrow hairs fall occasionally, this is not a reason for a doctor’s visit. The cause is usually stress, an intolerance or hormonal changes – factors that should return to normal after a while. However, if the complaints persist for several months or become alarming, medical help is required. The light spots in the eyebrows are then possibly due to a serious metabolic disease (e.g. diabetes mellitus). Often, an underlying cause of eyebrow loss is malnutrition, which needs to be diagnosed and treated.

A visit to a doctor is recommended if other symptoms such as fatigue, dandruff or reddening of the eyebrows develop. If the eyebrow loss persists for no apparent reason or side effects, you should also speak to your doctor.

There may be an undetected allergy to cosmetic products or an allergy that must be dealt with accordingly. The causes of the hair loss should always be determined in order to rule out further complications. At the latest when the eyebrow loss is associated with physical or psychological complaints, the causes must be clarified.

Treatment & Therapy

Eyebrow loss is treated depending on the cause. Often the causes are relatively harmless, such as an irritating shampoo or poor diet, which can usually be dealt with by simple measures. Allergies and intolerances of all kinds can be treated by simply avoiding the allergens and pollutants. An early visit to the doctor will help prevent further hair from falling out.

Outlook & forecast

The prognosis for eyebrow loss depends on the underlying causes of the disease. If the loss of the eyebrows was the result of a contact allergy, it is usually sufficient to consistently avoid the substance to which you are hypersensitive. The eyebrows then usually grow back within a few weeks.

The same applies in the case of a food intolerance. A negative prognosis is only to be expected if the allergen cannot be identified or is difficult to avoid for professional or practical reasons.

Even in cases in which the brow loss can be attributed to malnutrition, the person affected can assume that the eyebrows will grow back as soon as the missing nutrient has been identified and is replenished in sufficient quantities. A problematic course can only be expected if the nutritional deficiency is the result of an eating disorder such as bulimia or anorexia.

Then very often psychotherapeutic treatment of the underlying disease is necessary in order to permanently eliminate the deficiency. Loss of eyebrows can also be the result of drug treatment. In these cases, too, the hair usually grows back after stopping the medication.

A permanent loss of the eyebrows is usually only to be expected if there has been injuries to the face, for example chemical burns or burns. In these cases, cosmetic or plastic surgery may be required to reconstruct the eyebrows.


The eyebrow loss can only be prevented to a limited extent, as it is usually hereditary. However, the risk can be minimized by leading a healthy lifestyle with a varied diet and plenty of exercise.

This can at least prevent a lack of protein and iron, which can lead to hair loss. At the first sign of eyebrow loss, introspection can often determine what may weaken or irritate the hair roots.


After successful treatment of eyebrow loss, no follow-up care is usually necessary. That’s because the typical symptoms don’t come back. Only in rare and severe cases can it be useful to consult a doctor again. Blood tests, which can be used to determine a protein and iron deficiency, are particularly suitable.

As a rule, a prolonged and incorrect diet is the reason for the weakening of the hair roots. Loss of the eyebrows is not a life-threatening disease; rather, those affected suffer from the psychological consequences of hair loss. Once shame and reduced self-esteem have set in, often only accompanying psychotherapy can help. This allows patients to return to their natural everyday life.

A recurrence of the symptoms can usually only be countered inadequately. This is due to the fact that the eyebrow loss is hereditary or comes from the professional and private environment. Such factors cannot be adequately eliminated.

In practice, eating a healthy and adequate diet, as well as avoiding certain triggers, can mitigate the effects. The cosmetics industry can also help prevent the failure from becoming visible. However, after a medical briefing, no follow-up care is absolutely necessary.

You can do that yourself

The eyebrow loss is an unpleasant symptom and usually brings with it aesthetic problems. While a steady slight loss of hair and brows is considered normal, a doctor should be consulted in the event of increased hair loss.

A balanced diet that supplies the body with sufficient nutrients is considered self-help against stressful hair loss. If you supply the body with all the nutrients it needs, you can avoid deficiencies and thus prevent further symptoms. Furthermore, the use of mild cosmetic and washing products is recommended, as aggressive shampoos, make-ups, etc. can trigger hair loss.

Since hair and eyebrow loss can often be triggered by stress and psychological stress, sufficient relaxation in everyday life is also important. With relaxation exercises, meditations, yoga etc. the mind can calm down and leave the stresses of everyday life behind.

Some people also need exercise in order to regenerate and compensate for stress. The little tips for self-help can easily be incorporated into everyday life and thus counteract the loss of eyebrows. If the self-help tips show little or no effect, a doctor should find out the background to the eyebrow loss and treat the patient accordingly.

Eyebrow Loss

All You Need to Know About Avitaminosis

All You Need to Know About Avitaminosis

Despite the oversupply of food, the number of people suffering from vitamin deficiencies or even avitaminosis is steadily increasing. In Germany, the vitamin D deficiency is particularly pronounced. One of the main causes of avitaminosis or hypovitaminosis is malnutrition and an excessive amount of denatured foods.

What is Avitaminosis?

According to digopaul, Avitaminosis is the complete absence of one or more vitamins in the body. This distinguishes the deficiency disease from the so-called hypovitaminosis, in which the vitamin is still present in at least a small amount. Since the body can only produce vitamins to a very limited extent, it is dependent on daily intake from food.

The vitamin reserves last for different lengths of time depending on the vitamin. For example, if they don’t take vitamin C at all for 2 to 4 monthsto(the body cannot store the vital substance), consequential damage such as scurvy occurs . Vitamin B1 lasts for about one to two weeks.

Consequences of certain avitaminoses are, for example, anemia ( anemia ) with vitamin B2, B6 and B9 deficiency, beriberi (vitamin B1 deficiency), night blindness ( vitamin A deficiency ) and neural tube defects in the fetus (“open back”) caused by a Vitamin B9 deficiency.


Avitaminosis or hypovitaminosis can have many causes. In most cases, malnutrition (junk food, sachet soups) or malnutrition (mainly in third world countries) is to blame. A lasting antibiotics -Einnahme can lead to a vitamin deficiency, namely when it causes damage to the intestinal flora.

Chronic or acute illnesses or surgical interventions (bowel resection) can also lead to a reduced absorption of vitamins. Frequent infections , the use of some medications, and congenital defects are responsible for other avitaminoses. People who work hard physically, do competitive sports, pregnant and breastfeeding women generally need more vitamins and develop deficiency symptoms if the increased need is not adequately met.

The same goes for smokers and people with existing alcohol addiction . Old people who “forget” to take in enough vital substances and those who suffer from poor appetite are also particularly at risk of developing avitaminosis. Persistent diarrhea can sometimes lead to avitaminosis.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

In the case of avitaminoses / hypovitaminoses, unspecific symptoms such as a lack of concentration , nervous exhaustion and sleep disorders occur. In addition, the lack of vitamins can lead to hair loss , anemia, brittle bones and falling teeth.

Cardiovascular disorders and cracked fingernails can also be signs of prolonged extreme vitamin deficiency. In addition, there are the typical symptoms of the specific vitamin deficiency disease. In anemia, these are paleness of the face, light-colored mucous membranes and fatigue .

Diagnosis & course

The hair mineral analysis that is often offered is completely unsuitable for determining acute vitamin deficiency, as it only reflects the condition that prevailed two to three months previously. The complete blood count and the determination of all vitamin values ​​provide a more precise picture. However, it is usually sufficient to check certain blood values.

These include vitamins B6, B9 and B12 (can be determined from the homocysteine ​​content), C, D, E and the minerals selenium and zinc. Vegans and vegetarians particularly often suffer from B12 avitaminosis / hypovitaminosis. The content of this vital substance in the blood can be determined more precisely with the help of the Holo-TC method than with a conventional blood serum analysis.

See a doctor immediately if you experience visual disturbances , muscle cramps , prolonged diarrhea, confusion, and paralysis . With a specialist in orthomolecular medicine, the patient with their vitamin deficiency is in the best of hands.


If left untreated, avitaminosis inevitably leads to various complications. Typical complaints as a result of avitaminosis are visual disturbances, muscle cramps and long-lasting gastrointestinal complaints. In addition, there is confusion and paralysis, but also language and movement disorders . As a result of untreated avitaminosis, well-being also decreases significantly.

Those affected suffer from the various symptoms of a vitamin deficiency and are often mentally damaged as a result. Depending on the missing vitamin, the disease can trigger scurvy (C-avitaminosis), rickets or osteomalacia (D-avitaminosis). If the vitamin deficiency persists over a longer period of time, the development of the diseases mentioned at the beginning is favored.

As a result, avitaminosis can lead to hair loss, anemia and brittle bones. It can also lead to falling teeth, cracked fingernails and cardiovascular disorders. In addition, there are the complications typical for the respective secondary illness.

In an anemia it may be about to fatigue and pallor come as scurvy long term leads to various bone diseases. Treatment of avitaminosis is usually without complications. Only in the event of a misdiagnosis or an undetected underlying condition can further problems arise, which then have to be treated individually.

When should you go to the doctor?

Symptoms of malnutrition (fatigue, paleness, cracked fingernails, etc.) should be discussed with the family doctor . A visit to the doctor is recommended at the latest when physical or mental complaints increase.

If sleep disorders, hair loss, and cardiovascular disorders occur in connection with an unbalanced diet, it may be avitaminosis. The person affected can first try to remedy the deficiency symptoms through dietary measures. If this does not succeed, for example because the nutrient deficiency is due to illness, a doctor must be consulted.

If visual disturbances, muscle cramps, confusion or paralysis are added to the symptoms mentioned, an immediate doctor’s visit is required. In the event of a circulatory collapse or a heart attack, the emergency doctor must be called. If the disease remains untreated, it can lead to serious complications and secondary diseases such as scurvy, broken bones and depression.

If you notice wobbling teeth, brittle bones or depressive moods, go to a doctor immediately and have the cause determined. Children, pregnant women, the elderly and patients with a pre-existing cardiovascular system or digestive tract should see a doctor at the first signs of avitaminosis.

Treatment & Therapy

Avitaminoses / hypovitaminoses are usually treated successfully by supplying the appropriate amount of the missing vitamin. It is often enough to consume it in the form of fresh fruit and vegetables. Freshly squeezed juices are also suitable. Vegetables should not be heated for a long time so as not to destroy some vitamins.

A cure with the appropriate dietary supplement can also help to replenish the vitamin reserves. Vitamin C has to be taken in daily because the body cannot store it. Other vitamins are best absorbed together with other vital substances so that the body can use them better. Vitamins A, D, E and K must not be overdosed under any circumstances.

It is advisable to take them with fatty foods as they can then be better absorbed by the body. In the case of severe vitamin deficiency symptoms caused by chronic diseases ( cancer , HIV / AIDS ), the patient receives his multivitamin preparations on prescription from the doctor. Infants suffering from vitamin D avitaminosis are given vitamin D3 in the form of drops or tablets to prevent rickets from the second week of life until the end of the first year of life.

If the vitamin deficiency symptoms are caused by illnesses, the illnesses must of course also be treated by a doctor. If they do not go back despite the supply of the missing vitamin, the attending physician must look for malabsorption in his patient.

This is the case, for example, when the intestine cannot absorb certain vital substances well or pass them on to the bloodstream. If the patient with avitaminosis / hypovitaminosis takes food supplements, he should always bear in mind that they cannot be a substitute for a balanced diet rich in vitamins.

Outlook & forecast

The prognosis prospects for avitaminosis can be described as very good. As soon as the deficiency of the appropriate vitamins has been detected and measured, comprehensive treatment can begin. The success can usually be clearly felt within a few weeks. The patient is usually considered cured within a short time and his symptoms have disappeared.

The cooperation of the patient and a change in lifestyle are necessary in order to experience a permanent recovery. It is your own responsibility to adhere to and improve the analyzed points in the future so that your health is maintained in the long term. Alternatively, there is a risk of relapse and avitaminosis breaks out again.

For the fastest possible healing, it is helpful to have a blood test carried out by a doctor. The laboratory examination shows in detail which irregularities are present in the organism. This is helpful in order to be able to compensate for the shortage of supply in a targeted manner. Subsequent nutritional advice should be started immediately.

In order not to cause oversupply or other problems, it is advisable to discuss the consumption of additional vitamin supplements with a doctor. After a few weeks or months, a new control test should be carried out to document the results of the changes. If necessary, further adjustments can be made. It is advisable to carry out a control test after several months to document the long-term change.


In order to prevent avitaminosis or an undersupply of certain vitamins, the consumer should ensure a healthy, balanced diet with plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables. Vegetables are best processed in a way that preserves vitamins. If you work a lot, ideally ensure that you have enough leisure time (sport, relaxation baths).


After a diagnosis of avitaminosis, it is up to the patient to prevent the disease from recurring. He didn’t build immunity. The complete absence of certain vitamins can recur. The best prevention is a balanced diet. Plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables should be on the menu.

If you have any nutritional questions, you can contact your family doctor. He is there to advise. He can also arrange for specialist instruction. Due to the oversupply of nutrients, avitaminosis rarely occurs in the western world. Mostly alcohol and nicotine addicts as well as seniors are affected. The doctor can investigate a suspicion by taking a blood sample.

If the unhealthy diet is continued, this behavior favors other diseases. The body is permanently weakened. A patient finds himself in a vicious cycle from which he can no longer get out. Long-term damage to different body organs is the result.

After an established avitaminosis, the patient has the main responsibility to prevent a recurrence of the disease. He should be careful with his food consumption behavior. The doctor can only order accompanying therapies, prevent further organ damage and document the current situation through blood tests. In contrast, fruit and vegetables are not available on prescription.

You can do that yourself

In the western world, when a vitamin is completely lacking, it is usually due to continued malnutrition , which can have various causes.

In the case of reduction diets, it is essential to ensure that the body is supplied with sufficient vitamins and micronutrients despite the reduced energy intake. Since fruits and vegetables are rich in vitamins and low in calories, these two goals do not conflict with each other.

However, caution is advised with one-sided diets in which only certain foods are allowed to be eaten. Such diets should never be carried out over a long period of time or at regular, short intervals.

In certain life situations, more vitamins are required than usual. This is particularly true during pregnancy and in the puerperium, during other major physical exertion and during a serious illness and the subsequent convalescence. In such situations, the use of dietary supplements can be useful, but this should only be done after consulting a doctor.

Vitamin D deficiency is particularly widespread in Germany . Since the body needs sunlight in order to produce it itself, a deficiency can be prevented by staying outdoors regularly. In the winter months, however, the intensity of solar radiation is usually not sufficient in our latitudes. Then an occasional visit to the solarium can be helpful.

Vegan people must not forget to substitute vitamin B12 , as this substance is not supplied through purely plant-based food.


All You Need to Know About Akinetic Mutism

All You Need to Know About Akinetic Mutism

The neurologist understands Akinetic Mutism to be a severe drive disorder, which is characterized by persistent silence and immobility. This phenomenon usually occurs as a result of damage to the frontal lobe or the cingulate gyrus. The treatment, but also the prognosis, depends on the causes.

What is Akinetic Mutism?

The neurologist understands Akinetic Mutism to be a severe drive disorder, which is characterized by persistent silence and immobility.

Akinetic mutism is a complex of neurological symptoms that manifest themselves in a serious drive disorder. Patients are persistently silent, which is also known as mutism. In addition, they do not make any movements and show no emotional involvement. Their immobility is also known as akinesia and externally gives the impression of paralysis .

However, their behavior is not due to physiological paralysis or disorders of the speech center, but rather they lack the drive to carry out all actions . The patient’s perception is preserved. Although they are actually conscious, according to current research, a large part of what is happening does not reach their consciousness. The memory is not affected by the appearance, although the patients cannot remember most of the events during their illness period.


Akinetic mutism is usually preceded by an injury to the brain. Either the frontal lobe or the cingulate gyrus is damaged. The cingulate gyrus is part of the endbrain and belongs to the limbic system. These areas of the brain are particularly damaged by a stroke with bilateral occlusion of the cerebral artery. A traumatic brain injury can also damage the frontal lobe and the cingulate gyrus.

Other conceivable causes are tumors or a head of water . In these diseases, a pressure effect on the diencephalon can arise, which manifests itself in akinetic mutism. Spongiform encephalopathies such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can also produce the symptom complex of akinetic mutism. However, spongiform encephalopathy usually only has a corresponding effect at a very late stage.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

A variety of neurological symptoms are grouped under the term akinetic mutism. The patients appear paralyzed, but are fully conscious. Even so, they show no emotional involvement in the situations around them. They neither move on their own, nor can they be made to speak. For a long time, researchers suspected disorders of consciousness and disorders of perception as the cause of this phenomenon.

However, according to recent research, this is not the case. In a conversation with sufferers of akinetic mutism, the neuroscientist Damasio found that the patients can perceive and understand the situation around them, but feel no drive to take action. The cingulate gyrus serves as an interface between cognition and emotion. This part of the brain plays an important role in motivation, which confirms Domasio’s findings.

Diagnosis & course

As part of the diagnosis, if akinetic mutism is suspected, an MRI of the skull should be ordered. Inflammatory and infectious causes must be ruled out through a lumbar puncture and the laboratory diagnostic analysis of the cerebral fluid obtained in this way. Electroencephalography can be used to examine the electrical activity of the brain.

In the differential diagnosis, catatonia and Apallic syndrome must be taken into account. If there is akinetic mutism, the prognosis is relatively favorable. Full recovery is usually possible as long as the damage to the brain is not serious. Even after months, an improvement can still be expected if the cause of the physiologically induced lack of drive can be treated satisfactorily.


Akinetic mutism is a neurological disease that manifests itself through silence, lack of drive, no emotional involvement and immobility similar to paralysis. Nevertheless, events seem to penetrate into consciousness, and those affected certainly have memories, provided that they have overcome the period of illness. The symptom indicates damage to the frontal lobe, but it can also affect the belt curl of the limbic system.

It is caused by a traumatic brain injury, as a result of a tumor infestation in the brain, a stroke and the congenital water head. Children show strong cognitive developmental delays and appear lethargic. The rapid medical clarification prevents lasting complications.

If adults show severe changes in personality, which are accompanied by a loss of active participation as well as language and motor skills, medical help must be called in. The consequences of complications would be disorientation, loss of perception, reaction and knowledge as well as fever attacks and complete inability to move. The course of recovery of akinetic mutism is conditioned by the cause of the outbreak.

With sufficient medical therapeutic inpatient care, there are full chances of recovery. If there are severe brain injuries as a result of an accident, complete healing is minimized. If a tumor is found, surgical removal and, if necessary, radiation therapy are carried out.

This can cause physical problems for the person concerned due to tolerance and hair loss. When laying a cerebrospinal fluid drainage, those affected by the head of water experience stress from the unfamiliar foreign body and the partial hair removal. In contrast, Creutzfeldt-Jakob patients have no prospects of recovery.

When should you go to the doctor?

As a rule, this disease does not represent a dangerous situation for the person concerned. The life expectancy is not changed as a rule, although the patient no longer speaks and usually no longer moves. Most of the time, unfortunately, no treatment is possible. In most cases, this mutism is diagnosed directly in the hospital.

The person concerned is treated beforehand for damage to the brain. The mutism occurs directly through this damage and is determined and diagnosed directly. For this reason, there is no need to see a doctor. Here, however, various therapies can be used to alleviate the complaints and symptoms. However, it cannot be predicted whether the disease will progress positively. However, if this mutism occurs over time, it may be a tumor. In any case, medical treatment is necessary if the symptoms progress and reduce the quality of life of the person concerned.

Treatment & Therapy

Treatment for akinetic mutism is based on the cause. For example, if there is a tumor such as the plexus papilloma , then the tumor is completely surgically removed. If the benign tumor is atypical or cannot be completely removed, additional radiation therapy is given . In the case of hydrocephalus, the intracranial pressure is reduced via a liquor drainage. A ventriculostomy is also conceivable. In the event of a stroke, it is important to wait and hope that the affected area will recover on its own.

Immunosuppressive drugs may be given to avoid complications after a stroke. In craniocerebral trauma of the second or higher degree, the increasing intracranial pressure must be counteracted by administering glucocorticoids. If sedation is required, this is achieved through drugs such as barbiturate, benzodiazepine or propofol. In this way, in addition to immobilization, there is a decrease in intracranial pressure.

If the intracranial pressure rises sharply despite these therapeutic measures, a relief craniectomy is also performed. As part of this surgical procedure, the surgeon removes parts of the skull to give the brain space to expand. When the swelling has subsided , the removed parts of the skull are reattached. In diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease , there is no chance of a cure. Death usually occurs within a few months, with patients remaining trapped in the terminal end-stage of the disease for some time.

Outlook & forecast

With this disease there is an extreme limitation of the patient in everyday life. The affected person cannot speak or move because the brain is severely damaged. These restrictions lead to an extreme reduction in the quality of life and those affected are usually dependent on the help of other people in everyday life. The patient is still fully conscious , but cannot participate in the incident. Furthermore, it can also lead to perception disorders.

With this disease, the treatment is always causal. The underlying disease must be treated, which in most cases is a tumor. However, it cannot be predicted here whether the disease will progress positively in every case. In some cases, treatment is not possible and the affected person has to spend their entire life with the symptoms.

After a stroke , medication may help relieve symptoms. In general, however, no universal prediction of the course of the disease is possible. Often the relatives of the patient are affected by the disease and sometimes suffer from psychological complaints.


Akinetic mutism due to causes such as hydrocephalus or cranial brain trauma cannot be prevented. The risk of strokes can, however, be reduced by getting enough exercise, eating a healthy diet, reducing obesity and avoiding cigarettes and alcohol.


In most cases, there are no or very few follow-up measures available to those affected by this disease. Therefore, the person concerned is primarily dependent on an early diagnosis with subsequent treatment so that there are no further complications or complaints. The earlier the disease is recognized and treated, the better the further course is usually.

Therefore, early diagnosis is the main focus of this disease. The treatment itself is usually done with the help of radiation therapy, with most of those affected also relying on medication. When taking medication, it must be ensured that the correct dosage and the correct frequency of use are adhered to.

If anything is unclear or if you have any questions, a doctor should always be contacted first so that there are no complications or other complaints. Furthermore, most patients with this disease depend on the support and care of their own family and friends. Psychotic support is also very useful in order to prevent such complaints. In some cases, the life expectancy of the person affected is reduced by this disease.

You can do that yourself

The measures that patients with akinetic mutism can take themselves depend on the cause of the disease and the respective treatment strategy. In principle, close monitoring is necessary in the case of tumor diseases. The patient should look out for unusual symptoms such as bleeding or tenderness and address them during the medical examination.

Furthermore, measures must be taken to alleviate the actual symptoms. In addition to drug therapy, pressure pain can be alleviated with cool pads or gentle massages . In consultation with the doctor, various means from nature can be used. For example, the analgesic devil’s claw and the homeopathic remedy belladonna, which reduce inflammation and relieve pain, have proven themselves .

If neurological disorders arise as a result of the tumor disease, surgery is usually carried out. After an operation, the patient needs rest. The surgical wound is treated in the hospital for the first few days and must be carefully cared for at home so that there are no wound healing disorders or scarring . In addition, further medical examinations are indicated to ensure that the tumor has not recurred or metastasized.

Akinetic Mutism

All You Need to Know About Adenitis

All You Need to Know About Adenitis

A Adenitis called an inflammatory disease of the glands. Since there are many glands in the human body, it is an umbrella term for different diseases. The reasons for this can be varied.

What is adenitis?

Doctors understand the term adenitis to mean inflammation of the glands. The name therefore stands for a collective term that includes various inflammations of the glands.

Doctors understand the term adenitis to mean inflammation of the glands. The name therefore does not stand for an independent disease, but for a collective term that includes various glandular inflammations.

Glands have various tasks in the body and, among other things, form important secretions or hormones that the organism needs to function properly. Due to the diverse tasks of the different glands, the clinical pictures of adenitis can also vary greatly.

Inflamed glands always indicate the presence of a disease. The causes can be just as diverse as the accompanying symptoms. Since the disease can also be more serious, glanditis should always be clarified by a medical examination.


The causes of adenitis can be caused by bacteria or viruses , or they can be based on a build-up of secretion in the glandular area. Some autoimmune or genetic diseases result in inflamed glands.

For example, if the pancreas is inflamed, this is usually due to a lack of secretion transport, which can develop into potentially life-threatening pancreatitis . One of the viral triggers for adenitis is the childhood disease mumps , which particularly affects the parotid glands . The liver is one of the largest glands in the human body .

If it is inflamed, experts speak of hepatitis . Since the liver in particular contributes significantly to the detoxification of the organism, this disease can also be potentially life-threatening if left untreated. Symptoms of adenitis include swelling, tiredness , abdominal pain , general symptoms of intoxication or abscesses .

Symptoms, ailments & signs

Depending on its cause, adenitis can cause various symptoms and symptoms. Liver disease usually leads to fatigue and typical symptoms of poisoning such as fever, sweating and nausea . If a gland in the stomach area is affected (pancreatitis), the adenitis manifests itself as abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea .

Also to constipation can occur if the disease is not treated. An inflammation of the salivary gland manifests itself as swelling in the face and pain. In bacterial infections, abscesses form that can become inflamed and are usually also associated with severe pain. Thyroid adenitis can cause a variety of symptoms, including hormonal imbalances , skin irritation and serious gastrointestinal problems.

Organ disorders can also occur if the course is severe. Externally, adenitis may show up as paleness and sunken eye sockets. Other signs depend on which gland is affected, including hair loss , acne, and brittle fingernails.

Adenitis can be clearly diagnosed based on the symptoms and symptoms mentioned. The localization of the glandular disorder must be determined on the basis of a detailed discussion with the person concerned and further examination methods. If the disease is detected early, no further symptoms will normally occur.

Diagnosis & course

If adenitis is suspected, the attending physician will have a comprehensive discussion with the patient and also take their medical history into account. A precise description of the symptoms is often enough to identify the affected gland.

A blood test will also take place. An ultrasound examination, especially in the abdominal region, can also provide information about whether the liver or pancreas are affected. The course of adenitis depends largely on which gland is inflamed and to what extent. Inflammation of the salivary glands is usually painful, but in many cases goes away within a few days.

Pancreatitis, on the other hand, if left untreated, leads to decomposition of the pancreas by its own digestive secretions and can be fatal. If hepatitis remains undetected and if it progresses, cirrhosis of the liver is also fatal .

When should you go to the doctor?

If you suspect adenitis, you should definitely see your doctor . Warning signs that speak for a medical evaluation are typical general symptoms such as fatigue, mood swings or headaches.

Recurring fever as well as nausea and apathy indicate a serious underlying disease that must be clarified. If these or similar complaints occur again and again that cannot be traced back to another cause, a doctor should be consulted. This is especially true if the symptoms increase rapidly or if the various symptoms accumulate.

Anyone who feels increasingly weak should also speak to a doctor. In addition to adenitis, other glandular diseases can be the cause, which must also be diagnosed and, if necessary, treated. If there are accompanying skin changes, swellings or abscesses, an immediate doctor’s visit is recommended. Anyone who notices tissue changes or a puffy face after waking up should go to the emergency room with the symptoms. In the event of severe complaints, an emergency doctor should be alerted.

Treatment & Therapy

If adenitis was found during the medical examination, the attending physician will initiate appropriate therapy. If the infection is bacterial, it is usually treated with antibiotics , which causes the inflammation to heal quickly.

Particularly mild forms of adenitis can also heal on their own without any problems, without even requiring medical treatment; a clarification by the doctor is nevertheless advisable. If there is severe pancreatitis, the organ must be spared temporarily; the food is then consumed through a nasogastric tube. Depending on the extent to which the pancreas is damaged, surgery may be necessary. During this, the damaged tissue is removed.

Hepatitis is treated depending on the individual trigger. If there is a viral cause, symptomatic therapy is usually advisable. If there is a risk that the disease could take a chronic course, strong drugs are also used. At an advanced stage, i.e. if the liver is severely damaged, a liver transplant may also be necessary as a life-saving measure.

If the adenitis is due to an autoimmune disease , it is advisable to use immunosuppressive drugs. These reduce the activity of the immune system and thus prevent the body or the affected glands from reacting. In this case, however, it is important to avoid other infections, which can occur more frequently due to the weakened immune system.

Outlook & forecast

Adenitis can cause various symptoms and complications. The further course depends heavily on the cause of the inflammation. In most cases, there is severe pain with inflammation of the salivary glands . In the worst case scenario, this can lead to death if the salivary gland is decomposed by the digestive secretions. It can also lead to fatal cirrhosis of the liver. For this reason, the diagnosis and treatment of adenitis must be carried out early and comprehensively so that there are no consequential damages and complications.

In most cases, the treatment of adenitis is carried out with the help of antibiotics. This can lead to various side effects. If it is only a mild form of the disease, it usually heals on its own and there are no further symptoms. In severe forms, surgery may be necessary to remove the damaged tissue . If the liver is damaged in a complicated way, a transplant of the organ is necessary in order for the patient to survive. Depending on the severity of the adenitis, the life expectancy of the patient can be reduced by the disease.


Preventing adenitis is not possible across the board, as these are different diseases that affect very different glands and regions of the body. Of course, as always, a healthy lifestyle with a balanced diet and sufficient exercise is recommended, as this can prevent the development of numerous diseases.

An inflammation of the liver and the pancreas can best be prevented by a low-fat diet and especially by moderate use of alcohol. In many cases, these diseases can be traced back to improper consumption of the stimulant. If symptoms such as swelling of the face , abdominal pain or constant tiredness occur, a doctor should be consulted to prevent the disease from progressing.


Adenitis is the inflammation of a specific gland in the human body. If adenitis is present, there is often an underlying disease that must be treated by an appropriate doctor. Appropriate follow-up care is very important and important in the presence of adenitis. It is important that the person concerned eliminates the cause of an existing adenitis.

Even in such a case, appropriate follow-up examinations are very important so that a new adenitis can be detected and treated at an early stage. If the sick person does not undergo follow-up examinations, there is a high risk of recurrence. Anyone who attends follow-up examinations immediately after recovering from the illness avoids unnecessary complications.

If no appropriate follow-up examinations are carried out, there is a very high probability that complications will occur, which in particularly severe cases could even be life-threatening. Corresponding follow-up care is therefore very important and important in the case of existing adenitis, so that serious complications can be avoided.

You can do that yourself

If adenitis is diagnosed, drug treatment is initiated first. Those affected can support antibiotic therapy through a number of measures.

First and foremost, it is important to take care of yourself. Cool compresses can help with symptoms such as tiredness or abdominal pain. Diseases of the ears or internal organs require medical treatment. Medical treatment is not necessarily required for particularly mild forms of adenitis. Often times, the symptoms go away on their own once the trigger has been resolved. Severe pancreatitis, on the other hand, requires individually tailored therapy. The doctor will first suggest a change in diet or allow the patient to eat through a nasogastric tube.

Depending on how badly the pancreas is damaged, surgery can also be useful. Afterwards, the patient should first take it easy. The body is very weak, especially in the first few days after an operation.

The person concerned should initially not do any sport and support recovery through a healthy and balanced diet. Since there is an increased risk of recurrence, regular visits to the doctor are advisable. In the event of unusual complaints, the responsible doctor should be spoken to immediately.


All You Need to Know About Alcoholism

All You Need to Know About Alcoholism

Studies of alcoholism and alcoholism in Germany indicate a certain age group that is most exposed to the risk of alcohol abuse. The results of these studies clearly indicate that the main consumers of alcoholic beverages are between the ages of 18 and 40 years. In this age group, the excessive drinkers are particularly common. At the same time, this means that we will have to reckon with an increasing number of alcoholics in the pathological sense in the coming decades if we do not achieve a change in their behavior towards alcohol in this age group today .

General information about alcoholism

Alcohol can lead to a wide variety of consequences in those affected, both acutely and chronically. The liver is particularly affected.

In further analysis of our investigations, it was found that it is mainly single people and working and unemployed women and men that are at risk (with women this is an equality trend that we certainly do not want). We keep finding in the polls that people know little about alcohol and alcoholism. This is not surprising, since the majority of doctors themselves know very little about the causes of alcoholism.

Although alcoholic beverages have been consumed for centuries, it was not until the 19th and 20th centuries that scientific research into the problem of alcohol was undertaken without, however, sufficiently clarifying the causes of alcoholism.

The determination of the blood alcohol content – an important prerequisite for the quantitative measurement of the qualitative change in human behavior – was made possible mainly by certain discoveries in the 1920s. However, a specific method, that is, a method that only determines ethyl alcohol (ethyl alcohol), was only developed independently by German and Swedish scientists in 1951.

This fact means that – strictly scientifically – we did not have a specific method for detecting ethyl alcohol until the 1950s. Today we are able to prove the physiological as well as the increased blood alcohol content with absolute certainty. Yes, we can even determine the concentration of alcohol in the blood that was present during the “time of the crime” by back-calculation, and in this way indirectly determine the degree of influence. Only our current methods of determining the level of drunkenness are accurate and reliable.

This gratifying fact, however, is at the same time an indication of the extent to which we still have to stick to the beginnings of other questions of alcoholism – for example the question of principle for our society: Why do certain people develop into alcoholics?

The exact proof of alcohol can record the current situation – but not the phase in which someone develops into an alcoholic; nor can he give an answer as to the extent to which this state has already progressed in the persons concerned. We do not want to list the different theories on this question here – emphasize theories – because we do not yet know why and when a person becomes an alcoholic.

Alcoholic types according to Jellinek

We consider it necessary, however, to briefly outline at this point the most widely recognized theory of the developmental phases of alcoholism – elaborated by EM Jellinek. We are convinced that this theory corresponds most to reality and is typical of any alcoholic in some respect.

Problem drinkers (alpha drinkers)

Drinking has a social motive for us. People drink on various social occasions. Not only the future alcoholic notices after a certain period of time that drinking gives him a relief, a relaxation.

At first he is quite right of the opinion that this comes about through the happy mood in society, i.e. through the accompanying circumstances and the ritual of drinking, and less through the consumption of the alcoholic drink itself. (This can be explained by the development of conditioned reflexes, in which all the factors that coincide with a positive reaction process in time, after regular repetition, alone cause the entire behavior and sensation process.

So – after someone has repeatedly felt relaxation while drinking alcohol in company – alcohol alone can also trigger relaxation in him.)

Occasional Drinkers (Beta Drinkers)

The casual drinker soon feels the connection between the drink and the relief. He drinks larger quantities than the others, because he needs more and more alcohol in order to induce the feeling of relaxation – which in the beginning was actually partly due to society; that is, his drinking becomes regular. This is the initial phase of alcoholism, which flows smoothly into the second, the warning phase. Now people are becoming aware of the fact that they drink differently than their fellow citizens and need larger amounts of alcohol to induce relaxation. He found that drinking is not a social issue for him, but a need – he feels guilty.

Addiction drinker (gamma drinker)

A characteristic symptom for the warning phase (addict drinkers) should be the so-called memory gaps ; man can no longer remember certain processes that happened while drunk. He fears criticism, is also ashamed and therefore begins to withdraw from his social circle. In this phase he still overlooks his situation and could get out of it if he knew that he is at this stage of development. Unfortunately, most people who believe that drinking can solve their troublesome problems do not suspect that after a few years this stage will flow smoothly into the critical phase of alcoholism.

Loss of control over drinking is characteristic of this phase. If the person in question already has an alcoholic drink, he feels the need to keep drinking – until he is completely drunk. After the first glass he cannot refuse the other glasses; but now he can still decide whether to take the first sip at all. So at this stage he is able to live without alcohol for weeks or even months.

After this time, however, he believes that he can satisfy himself with just one sip and has no idea that the inevitable loss of control over his drinking does not arise from his weak will, but is the result of abuse of his body, a complicated, pathological one Mechanism of pathological reflections that he can no longer control. To get out of this situation, he tries to justify his drunkenness more and more under some pretext. He is looking for credible reasons why he had to get drunk in this or that specific case. He needs this justification primarily for himself, then more and more for his surroundings.

Mirror Drinker (Delta Drinker)

His drinking has attracted general attention – society is starting to take an interest in his drinking. That is why he evades society and his family and isolates himself. We have to call this person an alcoholic. He already starts the day with the morning drink, during the day he needs a few maintenance drinks and only drinks himself full in the evening. It is very clear that this way of life does not allow normal work performance, that he gets into financial and social difficulties and one day sees no way out. And so begins the final phase of alcoholism: Now he gets drunk while working, for which very small amounts are sufficient, which he used to tolerate without further ado.

A typical sign of this phase is the drop in alcohol tolerance. His lies and self-deception collapse; he is abandoned by family and friends and stands helplessly alone. A cure in the truest sense of the word is only possible here if the person concerned has not touched an alcoholic drink for the rest of his life, because he can never learn to drink moderately in society. As EM Jellinek and other scientists after him have shown, the individual phases always last years.


But why one becomes an alcoholic and the other does not, is still unknown today. So far we have not been able to determine in the initial phase whether this person will develop into an alcoholic or not. One fact, however, has been absolutely proven: without alcohol , there can be no alcoholism. That is why we demand that all people come into contact with alcohol as late as possible – hence the legal provisions that make alcohol consumption impossible or difficult for children and young people.

But medical requirements and legal provisions alone will never be enough to decisively curb alcohol abuse. The fight against alcoholism is a social problem in which everyone must participate. It already begins in the family, in the work group, etc. Perhaps this or that person may be of the opinion that drinking is not that bad after all. How wrong this trivializing is has been shown by the presentation of the developmental phases of alcoholism.

If we have to estimate today that one percent of the population is chronically impaired by alcohol, i.e. belongs to the last phase described, then this is reason enough for all levels of society down to the smallest family circles to review their customs and consider whether it is appropriate to “douse alcohol” at every opportunity.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

An alcoholic illness is primarily noticeable through the behavior of an addict. Affected people have the desire to consume alcohol and then often lose control over their drinking behavior. In addition to these classic signs, there are other physical and psychological symptoms. Externally, the disease is noticeable, among other things, through a reddened and puffy face, bags under the eyes and a coated tongue.

Addicts also suffer from excessive sweating , especially on their hands and face. In addition, it can lead to a weight loss come and glassy eyes. If those affected do not drink, the hands begin to tremble (tremor) and further withdrawal symptoms occur. Affected people are often irritable and suffer from depressive moods when they do not consume.

Also, anxiety , forgetfulness and lack of concentration are typical psychological symptoms. Alcohol can also cause sleep disorders and impotence in those affected . If these complaints appear over a period of several weeks or months and are accompanied by neglect of the environment, dependence can be assumed. In the further course, alcoholism manifests itself through severe liver damage and sometimes also through a decrease in physical and mental performance.


Alcoholism (alcoholism) can have a wide variety of consequences, both acute and chronic. The liver is particularly affected. With chronic alcohol consumption, more fats can accumulate in the liver, resulting in a yellowish, doughy-looking fatty liver that can develop into cirrhosis in the course of the process.

This is primarily characterized by dysfunctional synthesis, fewer proteins are produced for the blood, including the important coagulation factors, which increases the bleeding time. But the blood circulation in the liver is also disturbed. The blood is increasingly directed into bypass circuits. This creates varicose veins in the esophagus, which can burst and lead to profuse internal bleeding.

Also hemorrhoids may result. In addition, the detoxification function of the liver is disturbed. Toxins increasingly accumulate in the body, especially the dangerous ammonia, which can lead to hepatic encephalopathy. As a result, bacteria can also spread in the blood and thus lead to sepsis.

In addition, the brain is damaged by alcohol consumption, so that it can lead to Korsakoff syndrome . The person concerned no longer has any relation to reality, no longer knows where he is and who he is. Confabulations often appear here, which means that the person concerned is covering up gaps in their memory by spontaneously invented circumstances.

When should you go to the doctor?

As long as there is no psychological or physical dependence on alcohol, the problem can in many cases be overcome by a consistent change in drinking habits without medical help. A doctor visit should be done if the need for alcohol is persistent and alcohol consumption is spiraling out of control.

Physical withdrawal symptoms such as sweating, tremors and sleep disturbances with reduced alcohol consumption or complete abstinence give rise to a medical examination as well as the necessary continuous increase in alcohol intake in order to avoid the occurrence of these complaints. Talking to a doctor is also advisable if alcoholism determines large parts of life and other areas such as family, hobbies and work are neglected.

Regular participation in road traffic under the influence of alcohol or repeated appearances in the workplace under the influence of alcohol also indicate alcohol addiction, which must be treated with the help of a doctor. The first point of contact is usually the family doctor , with whom there is already a trusting relationship:

Depending on the extent of the addiction problem, this person can initiate a referral to a psychologist or an inpatient admission. The liver, stomach, intestines, heart and brain are severely affected by constant excessive consumption of alcohol – any symptoms that arise as a result require immediate clarification by a family doctor, internist or neurologist .

Outlook & forecasts

Alcohol is a very unhealthy condition for the patient’s body and, in the worst case, can even lead to death. In many cases, prolonged consumption of alcohol leads to irreversible damage to the internal organs of the body and also to the brain . Furthermore, the alcohol disease can also lead to psychological complaints. Many of those affected suffer from depression and other psychological complaints.

It is not uncommon for patients to become aggressive under the influence of alcohol and can seriously injure themselves or other people. Life expectancy is significantly restricted and reduced by alcoholism. Those affected also suffer from constant fatigue and exhaustion. The risk of a heart attack also increases enormously.

The treatment of alcoholism can be done by a psychologist or in a closed clinic. In some cases, the person concerned can also carry out the treatment himself. However, it cannot be universally predicted whether this will lead to a positive course of the disease. In many cases the damage cannot be reversed. This can lead to psychological and neurological restrictions.


In order to ensure the long-term success of withdrawal therapy, the patient should continue to seek psychological support even after it has been completed. This usually takes place on an outpatient basis in addiction counseling centers or with resident doctors and therapists; an exchange with other affected persons in a self-help group can also be helpful.

The alcoholic is shown ways to resolve conflicts and withstand everyday stresses without looking for help in alcohol. If there is a high risk of relapse, temporary accommodation in a special residential facility for addicts may be appropriate. Furthermore, aftercare includes reintegration measures that enable a return to work and social life.

Social isolation and boredom are a great danger in the dry phase of an alcoholic illness – it is therefore advisable to accept help in structuring the daily routine and in spending free time. Family and friends should support the patient in a fresh start without alcohol and respect his abstinence: under no circumstances should he be encouraged to drink.

In many cases it is necessary to break away from the old circle of acquaintances and build up a new circle of friends – the promotion of social contacts therefore plays an essential role in aftercare. Regular medical examinations are just as important in order to identify and treat organ damage caused by alcohol at an early stage.

You can do that yourself

An alcoholic illness must always be treated under professional supervision. In addition, the typical symptoms of withdrawal can be alleviated with a few home remedies and tricks.

First of all, it is advisable to identify and eliminate possible triggers for the addictive desire. A pleasant environment and contact with understanding people are important cornerstones for successful withdrawal. Stress and physical exertion should be avoided if possible in the first few days. Measures such as meditation or light relaxation exercises , which support the body and psyche with alcohol withdrawal, are more sensible .

With regard to nutrition, the following applies: only food that is low in irritation and low in salt and low in animal fats. The menu should consist of fiber-rich whole grain products, a lot of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamins A , C and E as well as zinc and thiamine .

In addition, liver-friendly teas made from milk thistle seeds or Heidelberg powder are recommended. Also valerian and St. John’s wort can be used for their calming effect. After consultation with the doctor, light sleeping pills or pain relievers are also recommended , always depending on the severity of the alcoholism and the physical condition. In order to avoid complications, all measures should be discussed in advance with the doctor.

All You Need to Know About Alcoholism