Category: Medical

All You Need to Know About Chondrodyplasia Punctata of the Rhizomelic Type

All You Need to Know About Chondrodyplasia Punctata of the Rhizomelic Type

The chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type belong to the congenital malformations. The disorder is characterized by a noticeable short stature. The life expectancy of the patient is greatly reduced with this disease.

What is rhizomelic type chondrodyplasia punctata?

Chondrodyplasia punctata syndromes are a group of different diseases. All sub-forms are genetically determined diseases with characteristic features. Chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type, RCDP for short, was first documented in 1931.

The most noticeable symptoms of the disease are short stature and intellectual disability. The short stature is already clearly recognizable in the newborn after birth. A prenatal diagnosis is possible if there is a known mutation within the family.

Further symptoms of the disease are restricted mobility and a conspicuous appearance. These include reduced hair growth and a flat face with chubby cheeks. According to the current state of science, the disease cannot be cured. The course can be classified as very difficult.

In most cases, patients die within the first decade of life. Due to the poor prognosis, there is often additional care for close relatives. Dealing with the disease is very difficult for everyone involved.


The cause of chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type lies in a genetic defect. This triggers a metabolic disorder of the peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are involved in the construction of various and important cells in the organism. There are 3 types of genetic defect. In most cases there are changes in the PEX7 gene.

The mutation leads to a change in the PTS2 receptor. Type II is associated with a change in the GNPAT gene. This codes for dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase. In type III there is a change in the AGPS gene. This leads to a modification of the peroxisomal alkyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate synthase.

The present genetic defect is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The recessive inheritance pattern means that the disease does not necessarily have to break out even though the genetic defect is present. However, the defect can also be passed on to offspring without the disease breaking out. The probability of the occurrence of chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type is given as 1: 100,000.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

One of the symptoms of chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type is short stature. A so-called rhizomelic short stature already exists at birth. This manifests itself in shortened upper arms and thighs. The patient has sparse hair and a flat but chubby face. The lenses of both eyes are cloudy.

This leads to a change in eyesight. The patient has an intellectual disability. This is associated with a greatly reduced intelligence. Most patients suffer from scoliosis that is hardly treatable.

The mobility of the joints is severely restricted. This means that the patient is unable to move around on his own or only very inadequately. The physical and psychosocial development is severely delayed. Skin lesions, changes in the vertebrae and a cataract occur.

Diagnosis & course

If there is a genetic mutation in the parents, a prenatal diagnosis is possible. The genetic defect can be determined using prenatal diagnostics. In the other cases, a diagnosis takes place after birth up to toddler age. Imaging procedures such as x-rays show the shortening of the bone and vertebral structure.

Performing a genetic test ultimately reveals the mutation in the affected gene and provides information about the type of gene change that is present. During the course of the disease, there is a deterioration in the state of health. As the child grows, the symptoms worsen. In addition, life expectancy is greatly reduced. Many sick people die in the first decade of life. The most common cause is breathing disorders.


In most cases, the rhizomelic type of chondrodyplasia punctata leads to a severely reduced life expectancy. Those affected suffer from various malformations and deformations that limit everyday life. There is also a short stature.

The arms and thighs are shortened and the patient suffers from greatly reduced hair growth. Children in particular can become victims of bullying and teasing from the symptoms. Eyesight decreases as the disease progresses, which can lead to complete blindness. The chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type also restricts mental development and generally leads to retardation.

The motor development of the patient is also often restricted, so that he does not have to rely on the help of other people in everyday life. It is not uncommon for parents to suffer from chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type due to psychological complaints or depression. A causal treatment is not possible.

Because of this, it only relieves symptoms. In most cases, however, death occurs due to difficulty breathing. The necessary therapies can only alleviate the symptoms and pain.

When should you go to the doctor?

People with chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type should be closely monitored by a doctor. Parents of affected children should therefore consult a specialist in chondrodyplasia immediately after birth. The doctor can clarify the symptoms and, if necessary, call in other specialists. That being said, you should see a doctor with chondrodyplasia punctata if the symptoms increase or new symptoms appear. If breathing difficulties arise as a result of the typical dysmorphism, the emergency services must be called.

The same applies if accidents occur as a result of the deformities. In later life the child should be introduced to a therapist. The child must be supported by a specialist, especially in the event of noticeable growth retardation. If you have visual problems such as cataracts, it is best to contact your ophthalmologist or a specialist in eye diseases. In general: A person with chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type needs support throughout childhood and adolescence and often also in adulthood. It is all the more important to start treatment early.

Treatment & Therapy

There is no known treatment or therapy for Chondrodyplasia punctata, as a cure is not possible according to the current scientific status. The symptoms that occur are treated individually and with the aim of alleviation. Since the disease leads to a very short life expectancy, difficult and lengthy therapeutic measures are avoided when certain measures are taken.

The body is in a weakened state and cannot adequately withstand many treatment methods. Since in most cases death occurs due to breathing disorders, measures are taken in good time to make this journey as pleasant as possible. The disease leads to the fact that the close relatives are exposed to a very high level of stress.

Your entire life is changed by the diagnosis. In addition, the shortened life expectancy of the child creates an emotional challenge that young parents find very difficult to deal with. For this reason, the parents are cared for in parallel with the patient. In order to be able to deal with the situation and the development of the disease, therapeutic measures are offered for all involved.

Outlook & forecast

Chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type has an unfavorable prognosis. The enzyme defect is triggered by genetic causes and is considered incurable despite medical progress and the numerous therapeutic options available.

The treatment plan is designed by the doctor to relieve the patient’s existing symptoms. The congenital malformations are individual and largely responsible for the further course of each newborn. In addition to the prospect of little alleviation of the symptoms, the disease also has a high mortality rate. Most patients die within the first decade of their lives due to the severe impairment.

Respiratory disorders are mostly responsible for this. In order to make this path more pleasant, appropriate precautions are taken or interventions are made to prevent unnecessary agony. However, this can only be done if the patient’s state of health allows the necessary steps.

Since a prenatal test already gives the possibility of a diagnosis in the case of the genetic disease, the mother-to-be can initiate an abortion if desired. After the birth, due to the poor prognosis, medical treatment focuses on improving the existing quality of life and extending the average expected life span. Complex therapeutic measures or lengthy methods do not take place due to the lack of success and the newborn.


With all syndromes of chondrodyplasia punctata, preventive measures cannot be taken to avoid the disease. Chondrodyplasia punctata is based on a genetic defect. For legal reasons, interventions and changes in human genetics are not permitted.

People with the genetic defect can dispense with fathering biological offspring. This prevents the defective gene from being passed on. In addition, prenatal examinations of the unborn child are possible. These enable the diagnosis of chondrodyplasia punctata in the newborn in the womb.


In most cases of chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type, the patient has very few follow-up measures available. The patient is primarily dependent on an early diagnosis of the disease so that there are no further complications. Since this disease is a congenital disease, there is no complete cure.

As a rule, if you want to have children, genetic counseling and testing can also be carried out so that the chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type does not recur in the children. The earlier the disease is recognized and treated, the better the further course will usually be. The affected children are permanently dependent on the help and support of their parents in their lives.

Loving care has a positive effect on the course of the disease. Since it can often lead to depression and psychological upset, intensive and loving discussions with the person affected are necessary. Some therapeutic measures can also be carried out in your own home, which makes life easier for the patient. Chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type has a very negative effect on the life expectancy of the child.

You can do that yourself

Chondrodyplasia punctata of the rhizomelic type are not considered to be causally treatable; patients cannot take self-help measures to combat the disorder causally. Since it is a serious hereditary disease, genetic counseling is useful for couples in whose families rhizomelic type chondrodyplasia punctata has already occurred. The couples are then informed about the likelihood that the syndrome will manifest in their offspring and what health impairments can be expected in this case.

Expectant parents whose families are affected by this hereditary disease can also be specifically searched for this genetic defect as part of the prenatal diagnosis. If the embryo is diseased, a medically induced abortion can be carried out. Parents who decide to carry the pregnancy to term must be aware that there is a high probability that their child will not reach the age of ten. This circumstance is usually more burdensome for the family members than for the child, to whom the illness cannot be understood due to the often severe mental handicap.

Affected couples should seek psychological help at an early stage. In addition, all organizational measures should be taken during pregnancy that are necessary to integrate the care of a physically and mentally handicapped child into everyday family and work life.

Chondrodyplasia Punctata of the Rhizomelic Type

All You Need to Know About Barber-Say Syndrome

All You Need to Know About Barber-Say Syndrome

The Barber-Say syndrome is a rare inherited disorder with increased hair and striking facial physiognomy. So far, only ten cases have been documented since it was first described, so research into the syndrome is in its infancy. Neither the heredity nor the cause of the disease is known so far.

What is Barber Say Syndrome?

In 1982, N. Barber and his colleagues first described a disease called Barber-Say Syndrome. The disease has only been documented in ten patients since it was first described. It is estimated that the incidence for the syndrome is less than one case in 1,000,000 people. Barber-Say syndrome is believed to be a hereditary disease.

The exact type of inheritance is not yet known, but an autosomal dominant inheritance is suspected. The clinical picture is mainly characterized by hypertrichosis, which goes far beyond normal hair. As a rule, in combination with this, there is atrophy of the skin, which makes the person affected appear emaciated and emaciated. In addition, misalignments of the eyelids and excessively wide mouth areas are often observed.

Because of the small number of documented cases, the Barber-Say syndrome is far from being conclusively researched. In particular, research into the causes has so far been in its infancy, as the poorly documented cases do not provide a sound basis for a more in-depth etiology.


Previous research suggests a hereditary basis for Barber-Say syndrome. In one case, the symptom complex was transmitted from mother to son in a manner documented so far. In the case documented in this way, the mother also had a cleft palate and conductive hearing loss. Theoretically, the case mentioned could therefore also have been a completely different syndrome.

Research to date has not shown whether the syndrome is based on an autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant or X-linked dominant inheritance. There is speculation in current medicine about a connection with the equally rare Ablepharon macrostomy syndrome. The two syndromes do not appear to be from the same group, but despite their differences, they appear to affect the same gene.

Presumably, the two diseases are different mutations of the same gene. However, nothing more is known about the gene locus in Ablepharon macrostomy syndrome.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

The Barber-Say syndrome manifests itself primarily in a congenital generalized hypertrichosis. The extreme hairiness of the patient is usually noticeable immediately after birth. The same applies to the conspicuous face of the person affected, which catches the eye with a broad bridge of the nose, an anteverted nose and particularly thin lips.

Despite the otherwise extreme hairiness, the patients lack or at least have less eyebrows. The eyelids are affected by misalignments or are completely absent. In addition, there is often hypertelorism or telekanthus. The same goes for malformed ears and overstretchable or excess skin. There may also be hypoplasia of the nipples. The complete absence of the mammary glands is an equally conceivable symptom.

Often times, teeth eruption is delayed in patients with Barber-Say syndrome. Presumably, in individual cases, additional symptoms may appear that have not yet been recorded due to the small number of documented cases.

Diagnosis & course

Diagnosing Barber-Say syndrome can be difficult. Since no specific gene has been held responsible for the syndrome so far, the molecular genetic examination of the patient is nowhere near. At best, the doctor makes the diagnosis on the basis of visual diagnosis, as he lacks solid diagnostic criteria.

The differential diagnosis and differentiation from the equally rare Ablepharon macrostomy syndrome is a difficult undertaking. Neither for the Barber-Say syndrome nor for the Ablepharon macrostomy syndrome has the etiology been conclusively clarified or narrowed down to a specific gene locus. The distinction between the two syndromes is mainly determined by the minor genital anomalies in Barber-Say syndrome. So far, medicine has assumed a rather favorable course of the disease for Barber-Say syndrome.


The clinical models of Barber-Say syndrome are increased hairiness and a conspicuous facial physiognomy. The hairiness of the patient goes far beyond the normal hairiness of healthy people, while the eyebrows are absent or less pronounced. The eyelids are misaligned or missing entirely.

An enlarged distance marks the eyes or the inner corners of the eyes. The mouth and nose area is exceptionally wide. The same abnormalities apply to malformed ears. In addition, there is tissue shrinkage in the skin, which makes the patient look emaciated and emaciated.

In some of those affected, tooth eruption occurs too late. Since the Barber-Say syndrome has so far only been documented ten times worldwide, medicine is far from individual therapeutic approaches. Although the life expectancy of the patient is not necessarily limited, the physiological complications are accompanied by a high level of psychological distress. Various cosmetic treatments and invasive interventions to remove excessive hair and conspicuous deformities are conceivable.

Drug therapy is also possible. However, in these cases there are often side effects that cause additional complications. The prognosis for a complete cure is negative, because the conspicuous symptoms and side effects of Barber-Say syndrome cannot be completely eliminated. To alleviate the psychosomatic complications that treatment by a psychotherapist is conceivable.

When should you go to the doctor?

Since Barber-Say syndrome is an extremely rare hereditary disease, it is difficult to diagnose it by a doctor. Typical symptoms such as the extreme hairiness and the conspicuous face of the patient are usually noticed immediately after the birth. Signs such as a wide bridge of the nose, missing eyebrows or particularly thin lips give cause for a more detailed examination. The clinical picture usually leads automatically to a routine physical diagnosis.

However, due to the small number of cases, a specific diagnosis of the syndrome is usually not possible. However, physical characteristics in the parents – in one documented case a cleft palate was found – as well as possible concomitant diseases can provide decisive clues for the diagnosis of Barber-Say syndrome.

Parents with previous genetic diseases or cases of hereditary diseases in their extended family should address this in the context of pregnancy counseling and the associated medical examinations. This allows the child to be examined before birth and tested for possible genetic diseases such as Barber-Say syndrome.

Treatment & Therapy

The etiology of Barber-Say syndrome remains a mystery. For this reason, medicine is currently far from providing a causal treatment for the disease. As for the Ablepharon macrostomy syndrome, only symptomatic treatment options are possible. The treatment usually consists of mainly reconstructive-surgical interventions.

In Barber-Say syndrome, reconstruction is usually limited to the patient’s eyelids and ears. If necessary, hypoplasias of the nipples can also be treated surgically. The noticeably wide nose can also be corrected by a surgical intervention if necessary. Patients do not necessarily have to have the nose treated if they are not bothered by the width.

Basically, the ablepharon macrostomy syndrome has worse misalignments and anomalies than the Barber-Say syndrome. Various therapeutic approaches are available to combat the heavy hairiness of the Barber-Say syndrome. In addition to external treatments using cosmetic and aesthetic medicine methods, drug treatments are conceivable, but because of the side effects, these are only recommended for people with severe suffering.

Cosmetic procedures such as waxing or other methods such as laser treatment are usually gentler than long-term medication and are associated with significantly fewer side effects. Patients may face psychological challenges, especially during puberty. If this is the case, early contact with a psychotherapist ideally prevents those affected from withdrawing from society.

Outlook & forecast

The prognosis of the Barber-Say syndrome is considered unfavorable according to the medical and scientific possibilities to date. Although the patient’s life expectancy is not reduced, there is no cure for the disease. The genetic disease can be treated symptomatically. However, causal therapy is not possible for the patient.

Researchers and scientists are not allowed to manipulate human genetics when looking for therapeutic approaches. As a result, different options are attempted to treat the individual symptoms.

In addition to medical care, various alternative forms of treatment are available to the patient. The unusual and unwanted hair can be removed briefly via waxing or targeted shaving. There is no permanent relief. Nevertheless, the methods can help to improve the patient’s well-being in everyday life.

In addition to the cosmetic approaches, medical support is provided. The aim is to further improve health. The aim is to minimize the effects of the visual flaw. Some patients choose to have cosmetic surgery in addition. Corrections to the face can be made to create a permanent change.

When making an overall prognosis, it must be taken into account that the surgical interventions are subject to the usual risks and side effects of an operation under general anesthesia.


The causes of Barber-Say syndrome are largely unknown. Since so little research is available for the symptom, the disease cannot yet be prevented. The same is true for the related disorder called Ablepharon Macrostomy Syndrome.

You can do that yourself

The Barber-Say syndrome is extremely rare, so far there are neither conventional medical nor alternative healing methods that have a causal effect.

People affected by Barber-Say syndrome usually suffer very badly from their external appearance, which significantly affects their quality of life. The social interaction is impaired, among other things, by the extremely strong hair growth all over the body. At the sight of these people, third parties are often frightened or consider the person concerned to be extremely neglected.

The excessive body hair can be dealt with with cosmetic means. The easiest way to get a close daily shave is with the help of a disposable razor and shaving foam or shaving gel from the drugstore. Annoying body hair can also be removed with depilatory creams based on potassium or ammonium salts of thioglycolic acid or thiolactic acid.

Longer lasting success can be achieved with methods in which the hair and the root are pulled out. The most common methods include ” waxing ” and “sugaring”. The body hair is removed with the help of wax or sugar. Such treatments are offered by cosmetic studios.

Since these methods are very painful, they are not suitable for all those affected and not for all areas of the body. Laser hair removal, on the other hand, is permanent and comparatively gentle. Interested parties can find out more from the dermatologist.

If there are other noticeable features in addition to the heavy hair, such as anomalies on the face, a plastic surgeon should be consulted.

Psychotherapy can be helpful if those affected suffer emotionally from their appearance.

All You Need to Know About Barber-Say Syndrome

All You Need to Know About Eyebrow Loss

All You Need to Know About Eyebrow Loss

Loss of eyebrows can be a symptom of various diseases or genetic predispositions. The problem occurs extremely rarely and is mostly of a purely cosmetic nature. The most effective means of treatment is prevention.

What does eyebrow loss mean?

According to DigoPaul, eyebrow loss is defined as excessive hair loss on the eyebrows, which leads to severe thinning of the eyebrows. The causes of the disease are diverse and range from a simple hypersensitivity to certain substances to mineral deficiencies and vitamin deficiencies to side effects of drugs and psychological stress.

The treatment methods are just as varied, ranging from dietary measures to medication and a wide variety of home remedies. Preventive measures against eyebrow loss can be achieved through a healthy lifestyle with a healthy diet and sufficient exercise. If the eyebrows fail anyway, a doctor should always be consulted, who can determine the cause based on the symptoms and initiate adequate treatment.


If the eyebrows fall out, this is often due to hereditary or hormonal reasons. If the eyebrow loss occurs around the menopause, the falling estrogen level may be the cause. During pregnancy, the loss of eyebrows is often due to hormonal changes, the so-called postpartum effluvium.

In addition, severe infections or poisoning as well as metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus can weaken the hair roots. The number one trigger, however, is stress, often in connection with nutritional deficiencies or nutritional deficiencies.

Medicines for high blood pressure, high blood lipid levels (ACE inhibitors, beta blockers) or cancer are also possible triggers. Otherwise, eyebrow loss can also be caused by allergies to cosmetic products, contact with irritating substances or a dysfunction of the thyroid gland. Also, chemotherapy can, among other side effects lead to a failure of the hair and the eyebrows.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

Eyebrow loss is shown by the fact that the hair becomes thinner in certain areas of the eyebrows and the hair density generally decreases. Often the hair only falls out on one side or in a certain area or becomes brittle and dull at first. Those affected can usually observe this directly and thus diagnose the hair loss themselves.

It can also be determined that the hair loss only affects the eyebrows, while the hair on the head and other body hair grows as usual. The complaints are mostly of a purely visual nature. However, depending on the underlying cause, various side effects can occur.

Itching, redness and the appearance of deficiency symptoms are typical. With chronic occurrence, the loss of eyebrow hair can lead to a reduced self-esteem and possibly also to depressive thoughts.

Diagnosis & course

Most of the time, the pattern of the eyebrow loss already gives clues about the possible cause. The actual diagnosis can be made by a doctor with the help of various examinations, such as blood and hair analyzes, anamnesis and, in rare cases, a scalp biopsy. The doctor will first examine the eyebrows, scalp hair and nails in detail to determine whether there is a skin disease.

The pattern of eyebrow loss allows for a first suspicion. Then the doctor will perform a clinical epilation test or a pull test, depending on the suspicion. Does the hair come loose just by gently plucking it? Is the eyebrow hair brittle? Does the hair fall out evenly or do the light spots only appear on one eyebrow?

All of these questions not only provide information about the diagnosis, but also about the prognosis. If, for example, scarring hair loss is found, the hair may no longer grow evenly. If, on the other hand, the hair falls out without any noticeable redness or discomfort, it usually grows back again.

Furthermore, individual hairs and their structure can be viewed more closely under the microscope. Finally, a tissue sample is taken from the scalp under local anesthesia (scalp biopsy) in order to be able to clearly confirm the initial suspicion. In conjunction with a blood test, inflammation levels, the level of iron in the blood, immune phenomena and other factors can be determined.

Men may also have sex hormones tested if androgenic alopecia is suspected. Provided a quick and clear diagnosis is made, eyebrow loss can be treated without long-term consequences. The symptoms are mostly of a purely cosmetic nature and appear in attacks. Only symptoms accompanying the underlying disease can, depending on the cause, take a negative course and lead, for example, to inflammation that must be treated independently.


In most cases, eyebrow loss does not lead to medical complications that could be dangerous to the body. However, after the eyebrow loss, the patient no longer finds himself aesthetically pleasing. This can lead to depression and feelings of stress afterwards, as the affected person is no longer satisfied with their appearance.

There is a reduction in self-esteem and thus often a depressed mood. Should these psychological problems arise, a psychologist should be consulted. The eyebrow loss itself cannot be prevented, but the psychological thoughts are curbed.

Direct treatment is not possible. However, it is possible to use cosmetics to draw the eyebrows back over the eyes. Most of the time, the eyebrow loss is only caused by a shampoo or an improper diet, so that it can be combated again very easily and the disease progresses positively.

If the hair falls out in addition to the eyebrows, a doctor should be consulted. A doctor must also be consulted if the eyebrow loss occurs alongside another disease. It is not uncommon for the body to lack iron and protein when the eyebrows fall out, so that the patient should take in more of these ingredients through food. Most of the time, the eyebrows grow back completely after several weeks.

When should you go to the doctor?

If eyebrow hairs fall occasionally, this is not a reason for a doctor’s visit. The cause is usually stress, an intolerance or hormonal changes – factors that should return to normal after a while. However, if the complaints persist for several months or become alarming, medical help is required. The light spots in the eyebrows are then possibly due to a serious metabolic disease (e.g. diabetes mellitus). Often, an underlying cause of eyebrow loss is malnutrition, which needs to be diagnosed and treated.

A visit to a doctor is recommended if other symptoms such as fatigue, dandruff or reddening of the eyebrows develop. If the eyebrow loss persists for no apparent reason or side effects, you should also speak to your doctor.

There may be an undetected allergy to cosmetic products or an allergy that must be dealt with accordingly. The causes of the hair loss should always be determined in order to rule out further complications. At the latest when the eyebrow loss is associated with physical or psychological complaints, the causes must be clarified.

Treatment & Therapy

Eyebrow loss is treated depending on the cause. Often the causes are relatively harmless, such as an irritating shampoo or poor diet, which can usually be dealt with by simple measures. Allergies and intolerances of all kinds can be treated by simply avoiding the allergens and pollutants. An early visit to the doctor will help prevent further hair from falling out.

Outlook & forecast

The prognosis for eyebrow loss depends on the underlying causes of the disease. If the loss of the eyebrows was the result of a contact allergy, it is usually sufficient to consistently avoid the substance to which you are hypersensitive. The eyebrows then usually grow back within a few weeks.

The same applies in the case of a food intolerance. A negative prognosis is only to be expected if the allergen cannot be identified or is difficult to avoid for professional or practical reasons.

Even in cases in which the brow loss can be attributed to malnutrition, the person affected can assume that the eyebrows will grow back as soon as the missing nutrient has been identified and is replenished in sufficient quantities. A problematic course can only be expected if the nutritional deficiency is the result of an eating disorder such as bulimia or anorexia.

Then very often psychotherapeutic treatment of the underlying disease is necessary in order to permanently eliminate the deficiency. Loss of eyebrows can also be the result of drug treatment. In these cases, too, the hair usually grows back after stopping the medication.

A permanent loss of the eyebrows is usually only to be expected if there has been injuries to the face, for example chemical burns or burns. In these cases, cosmetic or plastic surgery may be required to reconstruct the eyebrows.


The eyebrow loss can only be prevented to a limited extent, as it is usually hereditary. However, the risk can be minimized by leading a healthy lifestyle with a varied diet and plenty of exercise.

This can at least prevent a lack of protein and iron, which can lead to hair loss. At the first sign of eyebrow loss, introspection can often determine what may weaken or irritate the hair roots.


After successful treatment of eyebrow loss, no follow-up care is usually necessary. That’s because the typical symptoms don’t come back. Only in rare and severe cases can it be useful to consult a doctor again. Blood tests, which can be used to determine a protein and iron deficiency, are particularly suitable.

As a rule, a prolonged and incorrect diet is the reason for the weakening of the hair roots. Loss of the eyebrows is not a life-threatening disease; rather, those affected suffer from the psychological consequences of hair loss. Once shame and reduced self-esteem have set in, often only accompanying psychotherapy can help. This allows patients to return to their natural everyday life.

A recurrence of the symptoms can usually only be countered inadequately. This is due to the fact that the eyebrow loss is hereditary or comes from the professional and private environment. Such factors cannot be adequately eliminated.

In practice, eating a healthy and adequate diet, as well as avoiding certain triggers, can mitigate the effects. The cosmetics industry can also help prevent the failure from becoming visible. However, after a medical briefing, no follow-up care is absolutely necessary.

You can do that yourself

The eyebrow loss is an unpleasant symptom and usually brings with it aesthetic problems. While a steady slight loss of hair and brows is considered normal, a doctor should be consulted in the event of increased hair loss.

A balanced diet that supplies the body with sufficient nutrients is considered self-help against stressful hair loss. If you supply the body with all the nutrients it needs, you can avoid deficiencies and thus prevent further symptoms. Furthermore, the use of mild cosmetic and washing products is recommended, as aggressive shampoos, make-ups, etc. can trigger hair loss.

Since hair and eyebrow loss can often be triggered by stress and psychological stress, sufficient relaxation in everyday life is also important. With relaxation exercises, meditations, yoga etc. the mind can calm down and leave the stresses of everyday life behind.

Some people also need exercise in order to regenerate and compensate for stress. The little tips for self-help can easily be incorporated into everyday life and thus counteract the loss of eyebrows. If the self-help tips show little or no effect, a doctor should find out the background to the eyebrow loss and treat the patient accordingly.

Eyebrow Loss

All You Need to Know About Avitaminosis

All You Need to Know About Avitaminosis

Despite the oversupply of food, the number of people suffering from vitamin deficiencies or even avitaminosis is steadily increasing. In Germany, the vitamin D deficiency is particularly pronounced. One of the main causes of avitaminosis or hypovitaminosis is malnutrition and an excessive amount of denatured foods.

What is Avitaminosis?

According to digopaul, Avitaminosis is the complete absence of one or more vitamins in the body. This distinguishes the deficiency disease from the so-called hypovitaminosis, in which the vitamin is still present in at least a small amount. Since the body can only produce vitamins to a very limited extent, it is dependent on daily intake from food.

The vitamin reserves last for different lengths of time depending on the vitamin. For example, if they don’t take vitamin C at all for 2 to 4 monthsto(the body cannot store the vital substance), consequential damage such as scurvy occurs . Vitamin B1 lasts for about one to two weeks.

Consequences of certain avitaminoses are, for example, anemia ( anemia ) with vitamin B2, B6 and B9 deficiency, beriberi (vitamin B1 deficiency), night blindness ( vitamin A deficiency ) and neural tube defects in the fetus (“open back”) caused by a Vitamin B9 deficiency.


Avitaminosis or hypovitaminosis can have many causes. In most cases, malnutrition (junk food, sachet soups) or malnutrition (mainly in third world countries) is to blame. A lasting antibiotics -Einnahme can lead to a vitamin deficiency, namely when it causes damage to the intestinal flora.

Chronic or acute illnesses or surgical interventions (bowel resection) can also lead to a reduced absorption of vitamins. Frequent infections , the use of some medications, and congenital defects are responsible for other avitaminoses. People who work hard physically, do competitive sports, pregnant and breastfeeding women generally need more vitamins and develop deficiency symptoms if the increased need is not adequately met.

The same goes for smokers and people with existing alcohol addiction . Old people who “forget” to take in enough vital substances and those who suffer from poor appetite are also particularly at risk of developing avitaminosis. Persistent diarrhea can sometimes lead to avitaminosis.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

In the case of avitaminoses / hypovitaminoses, unspecific symptoms such as a lack of concentration , nervous exhaustion and sleep disorders occur. In addition, the lack of vitamins can lead to hair loss , anemia, brittle bones and falling teeth.

Cardiovascular disorders and cracked fingernails can also be signs of prolonged extreme vitamin deficiency. In addition, there are the typical symptoms of the specific vitamin deficiency disease. In anemia, these are paleness of the face, light-colored mucous membranes and fatigue .

Diagnosis & course

The hair mineral analysis that is often offered is completely unsuitable for determining acute vitamin deficiency, as it only reflects the condition that prevailed two to three months previously. The complete blood count and the determination of all vitamin values ​​provide a more precise picture. However, it is usually sufficient to check certain blood values.

These include vitamins B6, B9 and B12 (can be determined from the homocysteine ​​content), C, D, E and the minerals selenium and zinc. Vegans and vegetarians particularly often suffer from B12 avitaminosis / hypovitaminosis. The content of this vital substance in the blood can be determined more precisely with the help of the Holo-TC method than with a conventional blood serum analysis.

See a doctor immediately if you experience visual disturbances , muscle cramps , prolonged diarrhea, confusion, and paralysis . With a specialist in orthomolecular medicine, the patient with their vitamin deficiency is in the best of hands.


If left untreated, avitaminosis inevitably leads to various complications. Typical complaints as a result of avitaminosis are visual disturbances, muscle cramps and long-lasting gastrointestinal complaints. In addition, there is confusion and paralysis, but also language and movement disorders . As a result of untreated avitaminosis, well-being also decreases significantly.

Those affected suffer from the various symptoms of a vitamin deficiency and are often mentally damaged as a result. Depending on the missing vitamin, the disease can trigger scurvy (C-avitaminosis), rickets or osteomalacia (D-avitaminosis). If the vitamin deficiency persists over a longer period of time, the development of the diseases mentioned at the beginning is favored.

As a result, avitaminosis can lead to hair loss, anemia and brittle bones. It can also lead to falling teeth, cracked fingernails and cardiovascular disorders. In addition, there are the complications typical for the respective secondary illness.

In an anemia it may be about to fatigue and pallor come as scurvy long term leads to various bone diseases. Treatment of avitaminosis is usually without complications. Only in the event of a misdiagnosis or an undetected underlying condition can further problems arise, which then have to be treated individually.

When should you go to the doctor?

Symptoms of malnutrition (fatigue, paleness, cracked fingernails, etc.) should be discussed with the family doctor . A visit to the doctor is recommended at the latest when physical or mental complaints increase.

If sleep disorders, hair loss, and cardiovascular disorders occur in connection with an unbalanced diet, it may be avitaminosis. The person affected can first try to remedy the deficiency symptoms through dietary measures. If this does not succeed, for example because the nutrient deficiency is due to illness, a doctor must be consulted.

If visual disturbances, muscle cramps, confusion or paralysis are added to the symptoms mentioned, an immediate doctor’s visit is required. In the event of a circulatory collapse or a heart attack, the emergency doctor must be called. If the disease remains untreated, it can lead to serious complications and secondary diseases such as scurvy, broken bones and depression.

If you notice wobbling teeth, brittle bones or depressive moods, go to a doctor immediately and have the cause determined. Children, pregnant women, the elderly and patients with a pre-existing cardiovascular system or digestive tract should see a doctor at the first signs of avitaminosis.

Treatment & Therapy

Avitaminoses / hypovitaminoses are usually treated successfully by supplying the appropriate amount of the missing vitamin. It is often enough to consume it in the form of fresh fruit and vegetables. Freshly squeezed juices are also suitable. Vegetables should not be heated for a long time so as not to destroy some vitamins.

A cure with the appropriate dietary supplement can also help to replenish the vitamin reserves. Vitamin C has to be taken in daily because the body cannot store it. Other vitamins are best absorbed together with other vital substances so that the body can use them better. Vitamins A, D, E and K must not be overdosed under any circumstances.

It is advisable to take them with fatty foods as they can then be better absorbed by the body. In the case of severe vitamin deficiency symptoms caused by chronic diseases ( cancer , HIV / AIDS ), the patient receives his multivitamin preparations on prescription from the doctor. Infants suffering from vitamin D avitaminosis are given vitamin D3 in the form of drops or tablets to prevent rickets from the second week of life until the end of the first year of life.

If the vitamin deficiency symptoms are caused by illnesses, the illnesses must of course also be treated by a doctor. If they do not go back despite the supply of the missing vitamin, the attending physician must look for malabsorption in his patient.

This is the case, for example, when the intestine cannot absorb certain vital substances well or pass them on to the bloodstream. If the patient with avitaminosis / hypovitaminosis takes food supplements, he should always bear in mind that they cannot be a substitute for a balanced diet rich in vitamins.

Outlook & forecast

The prognosis prospects for avitaminosis can be described as very good. As soon as the deficiency of the appropriate vitamins has been detected and measured, comprehensive treatment can begin. The success can usually be clearly felt within a few weeks. The patient is usually considered cured within a short time and his symptoms have disappeared.

The cooperation of the patient and a change in lifestyle are necessary in order to experience a permanent recovery. It is your own responsibility to adhere to and improve the analyzed points in the future so that your health is maintained in the long term. Alternatively, there is a risk of relapse and avitaminosis breaks out again.

For the fastest possible healing, it is helpful to have a blood test carried out by a doctor. The laboratory examination shows in detail which irregularities are present in the organism. This is helpful in order to be able to compensate for the shortage of supply in a targeted manner. Subsequent nutritional advice should be started immediately.

In order not to cause oversupply or other problems, it is advisable to discuss the consumption of additional vitamin supplements with a doctor. After a few weeks or months, a new control test should be carried out to document the results of the changes. If necessary, further adjustments can be made. It is advisable to carry out a control test after several months to document the long-term change.


In order to prevent avitaminosis or an undersupply of certain vitamins, the consumer should ensure a healthy, balanced diet with plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables. Vegetables are best processed in a way that preserves vitamins. If you work a lot, ideally ensure that you have enough leisure time (sport, relaxation baths).


After a diagnosis of avitaminosis, it is up to the patient to prevent the disease from recurring. He didn’t build immunity. The complete absence of certain vitamins can recur. The best prevention is a balanced diet. Plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables should be on the menu.

If you have any nutritional questions, you can contact your family doctor. He is there to advise. He can also arrange for specialist instruction. Due to the oversupply of nutrients, avitaminosis rarely occurs in the western world. Mostly alcohol and nicotine addicts as well as seniors are affected. The doctor can investigate a suspicion by taking a blood sample.

If the unhealthy diet is continued, this behavior favors other diseases. The body is permanently weakened. A patient finds himself in a vicious cycle from which he can no longer get out. Long-term damage to different body organs is the result.

After an established avitaminosis, the patient has the main responsibility to prevent a recurrence of the disease. He should be careful with his food consumption behavior. The doctor can only order accompanying therapies, prevent further organ damage and document the current situation through blood tests. In contrast, fruit and vegetables are not available on prescription.

You can do that yourself

In the western world, when a vitamin is completely lacking, it is usually due to continued malnutrition , which can have various causes.

In the case of reduction diets, it is essential to ensure that the body is supplied with sufficient vitamins and micronutrients despite the reduced energy intake. Since fruits and vegetables are rich in vitamins and low in calories, these two goals do not conflict with each other.

However, caution is advised with one-sided diets in which only certain foods are allowed to be eaten. Such diets should never be carried out over a long period of time or at regular, short intervals.

In certain life situations, more vitamins are required than usual. This is particularly true during pregnancy and in the puerperium, during other major physical exertion and during a serious illness and the subsequent convalescence. In such situations, the use of dietary supplements can be useful, but this should only be done after consulting a doctor.

Vitamin D deficiency is particularly widespread in Germany . Since the body needs sunlight in order to produce it itself, a deficiency can be prevented by staying outdoors regularly. In the winter months, however, the intensity of solar radiation is usually not sufficient in our latitudes. Then an occasional visit to the solarium can be helpful.

Vegan people must not forget to substitute vitamin B12 , as this substance is not supplied through purely plant-based food.


All You Need to Know About Akinetic Mutism

All You Need to Know About Akinetic Mutism

The neurologist understands Akinetic Mutism to be a severe drive disorder, which is characterized by persistent silence and immobility. This phenomenon usually occurs as a result of damage to the frontal lobe or the cingulate gyrus. The treatment, but also the prognosis, depends on the causes.

What is Akinetic Mutism?

The neurologist understands Akinetic Mutism to be a severe drive disorder, which is characterized by persistent silence and immobility.

Akinetic mutism is a complex of neurological symptoms that manifest themselves in a serious drive disorder. Patients are persistently silent, which is also known as mutism. In addition, they do not make any movements and show no emotional involvement. Their immobility is also known as akinesia and externally gives the impression of paralysis .

However, their behavior is not due to physiological paralysis or disorders of the speech center, but rather they lack the drive to carry out all actions . The patient’s perception is preserved. Although they are actually conscious, according to current research, a large part of what is happening does not reach their consciousness. The memory is not affected by the appearance, although the patients cannot remember most of the events during their illness period.


Akinetic mutism is usually preceded by an injury to the brain. Either the frontal lobe or the cingulate gyrus is damaged. The cingulate gyrus is part of the endbrain and belongs to the limbic system. These areas of the brain are particularly damaged by a stroke with bilateral occlusion of the cerebral artery. A traumatic brain injury can also damage the frontal lobe and the cingulate gyrus.

Other conceivable causes are tumors or a head of water . In these diseases, a pressure effect on the diencephalon can arise, which manifests itself in akinetic mutism. Spongiform encephalopathies such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can also produce the symptom complex of akinetic mutism. However, spongiform encephalopathy usually only has a corresponding effect at a very late stage.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

A variety of neurological symptoms are grouped under the term akinetic mutism. The patients appear paralyzed, but are fully conscious. Even so, they show no emotional involvement in the situations around them. They neither move on their own, nor can they be made to speak. For a long time, researchers suspected disorders of consciousness and disorders of perception as the cause of this phenomenon.

However, according to recent research, this is not the case. In a conversation with sufferers of akinetic mutism, the neuroscientist Damasio found that the patients can perceive and understand the situation around them, but feel no drive to take action. The cingulate gyrus serves as an interface between cognition and emotion. This part of the brain plays an important role in motivation, which confirms Domasio’s findings.

Diagnosis & course

As part of the diagnosis, if akinetic mutism is suspected, an MRI of the skull should be ordered. Inflammatory and infectious causes must be ruled out through a lumbar puncture and the laboratory diagnostic analysis of the cerebral fluid obtained in this way. Electroencephalography can be used to examine the electrical activity of the brain.

In the differential diagnosis, catatonia and Apallic syndrome must be taken into account. If there is akinetic mutism, the prognosis is relatively favorable. Full recovery is usually possible as long as the damage to the brain is not serious. Even after months, an improvement can still be expected if the cause of the physiologically induced lack of drive can be treated satisfactorily.


Akinetic mutism is a neurological disease that manifests itself through silence, lack of drive, no emotional involvement and immobility similar to paralysis. Nevertheless, events seem to penetrate into consciousness, and those affected certainly have memories, provided that they have overcome the period of illness. The symptom indicates damage to the frontal lobe, but it can also affect the belt curl of the limbic system.

It is caused by a traumatic brain injury, as a result of a tumor infestation in the brain, a stroke and the congenital water head. Children show strong cognitive developmental delays and appear lethargic. The rapid medical clarification prevents lasting complications.

If adults show severe changes in personality, which are accompanied by a loss of active participation as well as language and motor skills, medical help must be called in. The consequences of complications would be disorientation, loss of perception, reaction and knowledge as well as fever attacks and complete inability to move. The course of recovery of akinetic mutism is conditioned by the cause of the outbreak.

With sufficient medical therapeutic inpatient care, there are full chances of recovery. If there are severe brain injuries as a result of an accident, complete healing is minimized. If a tumor is found, surgical removal and, if necessary, radiation therapy are carried out.

This can cause physical problems for the person concerned due to tolerance and hair loss. When laying a cerebrospinal fluid drainage, those affected by the head of water experience stress from the unfamiliar foreign body and the partial hair removal. In contrast, Creutzfeldt-Jakob patients have no prospects of recovery.

When should you go to the doctor?

As a rule, this disease does not represent a dangerous situation for the person concerned. The life expectancy is not changed as a rule, although the patient no longer speaks and usually no longer moves. Most of the time, unfortunately, no treatment is possible. In most cases, this mutism is diagnosed directly in the hospital.

The person concerned is treated beforehand for damage to the brain. The mutism occurs directly through this damage and is determined and diagnosed directly. For this reason, there is no need to see a doctor. Here, however, various therapies can be used to alleviate the complaints and symptoms. However, it cannot be predicted whether the disease will progress positively. However, if this mutism occurs over time, it may be a tumor. In any case, medical treatment is necessary if the symptoms progress and reduce the quality of life of the person concerned.

Treatment & Therapy

Treatment for akinetic mutism is based on the cause. For example, if there is a tumor such as the plexus papilloma , then the tumor is completely surgically removed. If the benign tumor is atypical or cannot be completely removed, additional radiation therapy is given . In the case of hydrocephalus, the intracranial pressure is reduced via a liquor drainage. A ventriculostomy is also conceivable. In the event of a stroke, it is important to wait and hope that the affected area will recover on its own.

Immunosuppressive drugs may be given to avoid complications after a stroke. In craniocerebral trauma of the second or higher degree, the increasing intracranial pressure must be counteracted by administering glucocorticoids. If sedation is required, this is achieved through drugs such as barbiturate, benzodiazepine or propofol. In this way, in addition to immobilization, there is a decrease in intracranial pressure.

If the intracranial pressure rises sharply despite these therapeutic measures, a relief craniectomy is also performed. As part of this surgical procedure, the surgeon removes parts of the skull to give the brain space to expand. When the swelling has subsided , the removed parts of the skull are reattached. In diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease , there is no chance of a cure. Death usually occurs within a few months, with patients remaining trapped in the terminal end-stage of the disease for some time.

Outlook & forecast

With this disease there is an extreme limitation of the patient in everyday life. The affected person cannot speak or move because the brain is severely damaged. These restrictions lead to an extreme reduction in the quality of life and those affected are usually dependent on the help of other people in everyday life. The patient is still fully conscious , but cannot participate in the incident. Furthermore, it can also lead to perception disorders.

With this disease, the treatment is always causal. The underlying disease must be treated, which in most cases is a tumor. However, it cannot be predicted here whether the disease will progress positively in every case. In some cases, treatment is not possible and the affected person has to spend their entire life with the symptoms.

After a stroke , medication may help relieve symptoms. In general, however, no universal prediction of the course of the disease is possible. Often the relatives of the patient are affected by the disease and sometimes suffer from psychological complaints.


Akinetic mutism due to causes such as hydrocephalus or cranial brain trauma cannot be prevented. The risk of strokes can, however, be reduced by getting enough exercise, eating a healthy diet, reducing obesity and avoiding cigarettes and alcohol.


In most cases, there are no or very few follow-up measures available to those affected by this disease. Therefore, the person concerned is primarily dependent on an early diagnosis with subsequent treatment so that there are no further complications or complaints. The earlier the disease is recognized and treated, the better the further course is usually.

Therefore, early diagnosis is the main focus of this disease. The treatment itself is usually done with the help of radiation therapy, with most of those affected also relying on medication. When taking medication, it must be ensured that the correct dosage and the correct frequency of use are adhered to.

If anything is unclear or if you have any questions, a doctor should always be contacted first so that there are no complications or other complaints. Furthermore, most patients with this disease depend on the support and care of their own family and friends. Psychotic support is also very useful in order to prevent such complaints. In some cases, the life expectancy of the person affected is reduced by this disease.

You can do that yourself

The measures that patients with akinetic mutism can take themselves depend on the cause of the disease and the respective treatment strategy. In principle, close monitoring is necessary in the case of tumor diseases. The patient should look out for unusual symptoms such as bleeding or tenderness and address them during the medical examination.

Furthermore, measures must be taken to alleviate the actual symptoms. In addition to drug therapy, pressure pain can be alleviated with cool pads or gentle massages . In consultation with the doctor, various means from nature can be used. For example, the analgesic devil’s claw and the homeopathic remedy belladonna, which reduce inflammation and relieve pain, have proven themselves .

If neurological disorders arise as a result of the tumor disease, surgery is usually carried out. After an operation, the patient needs rest. The surgical wound is treated in the hospital for the first few days and must be carefully cared for at home so that there are no wound healing disorders or scarring . In addition, further medical examinations are indicated to ensure that the tumor has not recurred or metastasized.

Akinetic Mutism

All You Need to Know About Adenitis

All You Need to Know About Adenitis

A Adenitis called an inflammatory disease of the glands. Since there are many glands in the human body, it is an umbrella term for different diseases. The reasons for this can be varied.

What is adenitis?

Doctors understand the term adenitis to mean inflammation of the glands. The name therefore stands for a collective term that includes various inflammations of the glands.

Doctors understand the term adenitis to mean inflammation of the glands. The name therefore does not stand for an independent disease, but for a collective term that includes various glandular inflammations.

Glands have various tasks in the body and, among other things, form important secretions or hormones that the organism needs to function properly. Due to the diverse tasks of the different glands, the clinical pictures of adenitis can also vary greatly.

Inflamed glands always indicate the presence of a disease. The causes can be just as diverse as the accompanying symptoms. Since the disease can also be more serious, glanditis should always be clarified by a medical examination.


The causes of adenitis can be caused by bacteria or viruses , or they can be based on a build-up of secretion in the glandular area. Some autoimmune or genetic diseases result in inflamed glands.

For example, if the pancreas is inflamed, this is usually due to a lack of secretion transport, which can develop into potentially life-threatening pancreatitis . One of the viral triggers for adenitis is the childhood disease mumps , which particularly affects the parotid glands . The liver is one of the largest glands in the human body .

If it is inflamed, experts speak of hepatitis . Since the liver in particular contributes significantly to the detoxification of the organism, this disease can also be potentially life-threatening if left untreated. Symptoms of adenitis include swelling, tiredness , abdominal pain , general symptoms of intoxication or abscesses .

Symptoms, ailments & signs

Depending on its cause, adenitis can cause various symptoms and symptoms. Liver disease usually leads to fatigue and typical symptoms of poisoning such as fever, sweating and nausea . If a gland in the stomach area is affected (pancreatitis), the adenitis manifests itself as abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea .

Also to constipation can occur if the disease is not treated. An inflammation of the salivary gland manifests itself as swelling in the face and pain. In bacterial infections, abscesses form that can become inflamed and are usually also associated with severe pain. Thyroid adenitis can cause a variety of symptoms, including hormonal imbalances , skin irritation and serious gastrointestinal problems.

Organ disorders can also occur if the course is severe. Externally, adenitis may show up as paleness and sunken eye sockets. Other signs depend on which gland is affected, including hair loss , acne, and brittle fingernails.

Adenitis can be clearly diagnosed based on the symptoms and symptoms mentioned. The localization of the glandular disorder must be determined on the basis of a detailed discussion with the person concerned and further examination methods. If the disease is detected early, no further symptoms will normally occur.

Diagnosis & course

If adenitis is suspected, the attending physician will have a comprehensive discussion with the patient and also take their medical history into account. A precise description of the symptoms is often enough to identify the affected gland.

A blood test will also take place. An ultrasound examination, especially in the abdominal region, can also provide information about whether the liver or pancreas are affected. The course of adenitis depends largely on which gland is inflamed and to what extent. Inflammation of the salivary glands is usually painful, but in many cases goes away within a few days.

Pancreatitis, on the other hand, if left untreated, leads to decomposition of the pancreas by its own digestive secretions and can be fatal. If hepatitis remains undetected and if it progresses, cirrhosis of the liver is also fatal .

When should you go to the doctor?

If you suspect adenitis, you should definitely see your doctor . Warning signs that speak for a medical evaluation are typical general symptoms such as fatigue, mood swings or headaches.

Recurring fever as well as nausea and apathy indicate a serious underlying disease that must be clarified. If these or similar complaints occur again and again that cannot be traced back to another cause, a doctor should be consulted. This is especially true if the symptoms increase rapidly or if the various symptoms accumulate.

Anyone who feels increasingly weak should also speak to a doctor. In addition to adenitis, other glandular diseases can be the cause, which must also be diagnosed and, if necessary, treated. If there are accompanying skin changes, swellings or abscesses, an immediate doctor’s visit is recommended. Anyone who notices tissue changes or a puffy face after waking up should go to the emergency room with the symptoms. In the event of severe complaints, an emergency doctor should be alerted.

Treatment & Therapy

If adenitis was found during the medical examination, the attending physician will initiate appropriate therapy. If the infection is bacterial, it is usually treated with antibiotics , which causes the inflammation to heal quickly.

Particularly mild forms of adenitis can also heal on their own without any problems, without even requiring medical treatment; a clarification by the doctor is nevertheless advisable. If there is severe pancreatitis, the organ must be spared temporarily; the food is then consumed through a nasogastric tube. Depending on the extent to which the pancreas is damaged, surgery may be necessary. During this, the damaged tissue is removed.

Hepatitis is treated depending on the individual trigger. If there is a viral cause, symptomatic therapy is usually advisable. If there is a risk that the disease could take a chronic course, strong drugs are also used. At an advanced stage, i.e. if the liver is severely damaged, a liver transplant may also be necessary as a life-saving measure.

If the adenitis is due to an autoimmune disease , it is advisable to use immunosuppressive drugs. These reduce the activity of the immune system and thus prevent the body or the affected glands from reacting. In this case, however, it is important to avoid other infections, which can occur more frequently due to the weakened immune system.

Outlook & forecast

Adenitis can cause various symptoms and complications. The further course depends heavily on the cause of the inflammation. In most cases, there is severe pain with inflammation of the salivary glands . In the worst case scenario, this can lead to death if the salivary gland is decomposed by the digestive secretions. It can also lead to fatal cirrhosis of the liver. For this reason, the diagnosis and treatment of adenitis must be carried out early and comprehensively so that there are no consequential damages and complications.

In most cases, the treatment of adenitis is carried out with the help of antibiotics. This can lead to various side effects. If it is only a mild form of the disease, it usually heals on its own and there are no further symptoms. In severe forms, surgery may be necessary to remove the damaged tissue . If the liver is damaged in a complicated way, a transplant of the organ is necessary in order for the patient to survive. Depending on the severity of the adenitis, the life expectancy of the patient can be reduced by the disease.


Preventing adenitis is not possible across the board, as these are different diseases that affect very different glands and regions of the body. Of course, as always, a healthy lifestyle with a balanced diet and sufficient exercise is recommended, as this can prevent the development of numerous diseases.

An inflammation of the liver and the pancreas can best be prevented by a low-fat diet and especially by moderate use of alcohol. In many cases, these diseases can be traced back to improper consumption of the stimulant. If symptoms such as swelling of the face , abdominal pain or constant tiredness occur, a doctor should be consulted to prevent the disease from progressing.


Adenitis is the inflammation of a specific gland in the human body. If adenitis is present, there is often an underlying disease that must be treated by an appropriate doctor. Appropriate follow-up care is very important and important in the presence of adenitis. It is important that the person concerned eliminates the cause of an existing adenitis.

Even in such a case, appropriate follow-up examinations are very important so that a new adenitis can be detected and treated at an early stage. If the sick person does not undergo follow-up examinations, there is a high risk of recurrence. Anyone who attends follow-up examinations immediately after recovering from the illness avoids unnecessary complications.

If no appropriate follow-up examinations are carried out, there is a very high probability that complications will occur, which in particularly severe cases could even be life-threatening. Corresponding follow-up care is therefore very important and important in the case of existing adenitis, so that serious complications can be avoided.

You can do that yourself

If adenitis is diagnosed, drug treatment is initiated first. Those affected can support antibiotic therapy through a number of measures.

First and foremost, it is important to take care of yourself. Cool compresses can help with symptoms such as tiredness or abdominal pain. Diseases of the ears or internal organs require medical treatment. Medical treatment is not necessarily required for particularly mild forms of adenitis. Often times, the symptoms go away on their own once the trigger has been resolved. Severe pancreatitis, on the other hand, requires individually tailored therapy. The doctor will first suggest a change in diet or allow the patient to eat through a nasogastric tube.

Depending on how badly the pancreas is damaged, surgery can also be useful. Afterwards, the patient should first take it easy. The body is very weak, especially in the first few days after an operation.

The person concerned should initially not do any sport and support recovery through a healthy and balanced diet. Since there is an increased risk of recurrence, regular visits to the doctor are advisable. In the event of unusual complaints, the responsible doctor should be spoken to immediately.


All You Need to Know About Alcoholism

All You Need to Know About Alcoholism

Studies of alcoholism and alcoholism in Germany indicate a certain age group that is most exposed to the risk of alcohol abuse. The results of these studies clearly indicate that the main consumers of alcoholic beverages are between the ages of 18 and 40 years. In this age group, the excessive drinkers are particularly common. At the same time, this means that we will have to reckon with an increasing number of alcoholics in the pathological sense in the coming decades if we do not achieve a change in their behavior towards alcohol in this age group today .

General information about alcoholism

Alcohol can lead to a wide variety of consequences in those affected, both acutely and chronically. The liver is particularly affected.

In further analysis of our investigations, it was found that it is mainly single people and working and unemployed women and men that are at risk (with women this is an equality trend that we certainly do not want). We keep finding in the polls that people know little about alcohol and alcoholism. This is not surprising, since the majority of doctors themselves know very little about the causes of alcoholism.

Although alcoholic beverages have been consumed for centuries, it was not until the 19th and 20th centuries that scientific research into the problem of alcohol was undertaken without, however, sufficiently clarifying the causes of alcoholism.

The determination of the blood alcohol content – an important prerequisite for the quantitative measurement of the qualitative change in human behavior – was made possible mainly by certain discoveries in the 1920s. However, a specific method, that is, a method that only determines ethyl alcohol (ethyl alcohol), was only developed independently by German and Swedish scientists in 1951.

This fact means that – strictly scientifically – we did not have a specific method for detecting ethyl alcohol until the 1950s. Today we are able to prove the physiological as well as the increased blood alcohol content with absolute certainty. Yes, we can even determine the concentration of alcohol in the blood that was present during the “time of the crime” by back-calculation, and in this way indirectly determine the degree of influence. Only our current methods of determining the level of drunkenness are accurate and reliable.

This gratifying fact, however, is at the same time an indication of the extent to which we still have to stick to the beginnings of other questions of alcoholism – for example the question of principle for our society: Why do certain people develop into alcoholics?

The exact proof of alcohol can record the current situation – but not the phase in which someone develops into an alcoholic; nor can he give an answer as to the extent to which this state has already progressed in the persons concerned. We do not want to list the different theories on this question here – emphasize theories – because we do not yet know why and when a person becomes an alcoholic.

Alcoholic types according to Jellinek

We consider it necessary, however, to briefly outline at this point the most widely recognized theory of the developmental phases of alcoholism – elaborated by EM Jellinek. We are convinced that this theory corresponds most to reality and is typical of any alcoholic in some respect.

Problem drinkers (alpha drinkers)

Drinking has a social motive for us. People drink on various social occasions. Not only the future alcoholic notices after a certain period of time that drinking gives him a relief, a relaxation.

At first he is quite right of the opinion that this comes about through the happy mood in society, i.e. through the accompanying circumstances and the ritual of drinking, and less through the consumption of the alcoholic drink itself. (This can be explained by the development of conditioned reflexes, in which all the factors that coincide with a positive reaction process in time, after regular repetition, alone cause the entire behavior and sensation process.

So – after someone has repeatedly felt relaxation while drinking alcohol in company – alcohol alone can also trigger relaxation in him.)

Occasional Drinkers (Beta Drinkers)

The casual drinker soon feels the connection between the drink and the relief. He drinks larger quantities than the others, because he needs more and more alcohol in order to induce the feeling of relaxation – which in the beginning was actually partly due to society; that is, his drinking becomes regular. This is the initial phase of alcoholism, which flows smoothly into the second, the warning phase. Now people are becoming aware of the fact that they drink differently than their fellow citizens and need larger amounts of alcohol to induce relaxation. He found that drinking is not a social issue for him, but a need – he feels guilty.

Addiction drinker (gamma drinker)

A characteristic symptom for the warning phase (addict drinkers) should be the so-called memory gaps ; man can no longer remember certain processes that happened while drunk. He fears criticism, is also ashamed and therefore begins to withdraw from his social circle. In this phase he still overlooks his situation and could get out of it if he knew that he is at this stage of development. Unfortunately, most people who believe that drinking can solve their troublesome problems do not suspect that after a few years this stage will flow smoothly into the critical phase of alcoholism.

Loss of control over drinking is characteristic of this phase. If the person in question already has an alcoholic drink, he feels the need to keep drinking – until he is completely drunk. After the first glass he cannot refuse the other glasses; but now he can still decide whether to take the first sip at all. So at this stage he is able to live without alcohol for weeks or even months.

After this time, however, he believes that he can satisfy himself with just one sip and has no idea that the inevitable loss of control over his drinking does not arise from his weak will, but is the result of abuse of his body, a complicated, pathological one Mechanism of pathological reflections that he can no longer control. To get out of this situation, he tries to justify his drunkenness more and more under some pretext. He is looking for credible reasons why he had to get drunk in this or that specific case. He needs this justification primarily for himself, then more and more for his surroundings.

Mirror Drinker (Delta Drinker)

His drinking has attracted general attention – society is starting to take an interest in his drinking. That is why he evades society and his family and isolates himself. We have to call this person an alcoholic. He already starts the day with the morning drink, during the day he needs a few maintenance drinks and only drinks himself full in the evening. It is very clear that this way of life does not allow normal work performance, that he gets into financial and social difficulties and one day sees no way out. And so begins the final phase of alcoholism: Now he gets drunk while working, for which very small amounts are sufficient, which he used to tolerate without further ado.

A typical sign of this phase is the drop in alcohol tolerance. His lies and self-deception collapse; he is abandoned by family and friends and stands helplessly alone. A cure in the truest sense of the word is only possible here if the person concerned has not touched an alcoholic drink for the rest of his life, because he can never learn to drink moderately in society. As EM Jellinek and other scientists after him have shown, the individual phases always last years.


But why one becomes an alcoholic and the other does not, is still unknown today. So far we have not been able to determine in the initial phase whether this person will develop into an alcoholic or not. One fact, however, has been absolutely proven: without alcohol , there can be no alcoholism. That is why we demand that all people come into contact with alcohol as late as possible – hence the legal provisions that make alcohol consumption impossible or difficult for children and young people.

But medical requirements and legal provisions alone will never be enough to decisively curb alcohol abuse. The fight against alcoholism is a social problem in which everyone must participate. It already begins in the family, in the work group, etc. Perhaps this or that person may be of the opinion that drinking is not that bad after all. How wrong this trivializing is has been shown by the presentation of the developmental phases of alcoholism.

If we have to estimate today that one percent of the population is chronically impaired by alcohol, i.e. belongs to the last phase described, then this is reason enough for all levels of society down to the smallest family circles to review their customs and consider whether it is appropriate to “douse alcohol” at every opportunity.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

An alcoholic illness is primarily noticeable through the behavior of an addict. Affected people have the desire to consume alcohol and then often lose control over their drinking behavior. In addition to these classic signs, there are other physical and psychological symptoms. Externally, the disease is noticeable, among other things, through a reddened and puffy face, bags under the eyes and a coated tongue.

Addicts also suffer from excessive sweating , especially on their hands and face. In addition, it can lead to a weight loss come and glassy eyes. If those affected do not drink, the hands begin to tremble (tremor) and further withdrawal symptoms occur. Affected people are often irritable and suffer from depressive moods when they do not consume.

Also, anxiety , forgetfulness and lack of concentration are typical psychological symptoms. Alcohol can also cause sleep disorders and impotence in those affected . If these complaints appear over a period of several weeks or months and are accompanied by neglect of the environment, dependence can be assumed. In the further course, alcoholism manifests itself through severe liver damage and sometimes also through a decrease in physical and mental performance.


Alcoholism (alcoholism) can have a wide variety of consequences, both acute and chronic. The liver is particularly affected. With chronic alcohol consumption, more fats can accumulate in the liver, resulting in a yellowish, doughy-looking fatty liver that can develop into cirrhosis in the course of the process.

This is primarily characterized by dysfunctional synthesis, fewer proteins are produced for the blood, including the important coagulation factors, which increases the bleeding time. But the blood circulation in the liver is also disturbed. The blood is increasingly directed into bypass circuits. This creates varicose veins in the esophagus, which can burst and lead to profuse internal bleeding.

Also hemorrhoids may result. In addition, the detoxification function of the liver is disturbed. Toxins increasingly accumulate in the body, especially the dangerous ammonia, which can lead to hepatic encephalopathy. As a result, bacteria can also spread in the blood and thus lead to sepsis.

In addition, the brain is damaged by alcohol consumption, so that it can lead to Korsakoff syndrome . The person concerned no longer has any relation to reality, no longer knows where he is and who he is. Confabulations often appear here, which means that the person concerned is covering up gaps in their memory by spontaneously invented circumstances.

When should you go to the doctor?

As long as there is no psychological or physical dependence on alcohol, the problem can in many cases be overcome by a consistent change in drinking habits without medical help. A doctor visit should be done if the need for alcohol is persistent and alcohol consumption is spiraling out of control.

Physical withdrawal symptoms such as sweating, tremors and sleep disturbances with reduced alcohol consumption or complete abstinence give rise to a medical examination as well as the necessary continuous increase in alcohol intake in order to avoid the occurrence of these complaints. Talking to a doctor is also advisable if alcoholism determines large parts of life and other areas such as family, hobbies and work are neglected.

Regular participation in road traffic under the influence of alcohol or repeated appearances in the workplace under the influence of alcohol also indicate alcohol addiction, which must be treated with the help of a doctor. The first point of contact is usually the family doctor , with whom there is already a trusting relationship:

Depending on the extent of the addiction problem, this person can initiate a referral to a psychologist or an inpatient admission. The liver, stomach, intestines, heart and brain are severely affected by constant excessive consumption of alcohol – any symptoms that arise as a result require immediate clarification by a family doctor, internist or neurologist .

Outlook & forecasts

Alcohol is a very unhealthy condition for the patient’s body and, in the worst case, can even lead to death. In many cases, prolonged consumption of alcohol leads to irreversible damage to the internal organs of the body and also to the brain . Furthermore, the alcohol disease can also lead to psychological complaints. Many of those affected suffer from depression and other psychological complaints.

It is not uncommon for patients to become aggressive under the influence of alcohol and can seriously injure themselves or other people. Life expectancy is significantly restricted and reduced by alcoholism. Those affected also suffer from constant fatigue and exhaustion. The risk of a heart attack also increases enormously.

The treatment of alcoholism can be done by a psychologist or in a closed clinic. In some cases, the person concerned can also carry out the treatment himself. However, it cannot be universally predicted whether this will lead to a positive course of the disease. In many cases the damage cannot be reversed. This can lead to psychological and neurological restrictions.


In order to ensure the long-term success of withdrawal therapy, the patient should continue to seek psychological support even after it has been completed. This usually takes place on an outpatient basis in addiction counseling centers or with resident doctors and therapists; an exchange with other affected persons in a self-help group can also be helpful.

The alcoholic is shown ways to resolve conflicts and withstand everyday stresses without looking for help in alcohol. If there is a high risk of relapse, temporary accommodation in a special residential facility for addicts may be appropriate. Furthermore, aftercare includes reintegration measures that enable a return to work and social life.

Social isolation and boredom are a great danger in the dry phase of an alcoholic illness – it is therefore advisable to accept help in structuring the daily routine and in spending free time. Family and friends should support the patient in a fresh start without alcohol and respect his abstinence: under no circumstances should he be encouraged to drink.

In many cases it is necessary to break away from the old circle of acquaintances and build up a new circle of friends – the promotion of social contacts therefore plays an essential role in aftercare. Regular medical examinations are just as important in order to identify and treat organ damage caused by alcohol at an early stage.

You can do that yourself

An alcoholic illness must always be treated under professional supervision. In addition, the typical symptoms of withdrawal can be alleviated with a few home remedies and tricks.

First of all, it is advisable to identify and eliminate possible triggers for the addictive desire. A pleasant environment and contact with understanding people are important cornerstones for successful withdrawal. Stress and physical exertion should be avoided if possible in the first few days. Measures such as meditation or light relaxation exercises , which support the body and psyche with alcohol withdrawal, are more sensible .

With regard to nutrition, the following applies: only food that is low in irritation and low in salt and low in animal fats. The menu should consist of fiber-rich whole grain products, a lot of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamins A , C and E as well as zinc and thiamine .

In addition, liver-friendly teas made from milk thistle seeds or Heidelberg powder are recommended. Also valerian and St. John’s wort can be used for their calming effect. After consultation with the doctor, light sleeping pills or pain relievers are also recommended , always depending on the severity of the alcoholism and the physical condition. In order to avoid complications, all measures should be discussed in advance with the doctor.

All You Need to Know About Alcoholism