Category: Dictionary

Meaning of Stock Exchange

Meaning of Stock Exchange

Stock exchanges look back on a long tradition. The oldest stock exchange was founded in 1409 in Bruges, Belgium. The first German stock exchanges are the Augsburg Stock Exchange and the Nuremberg Stock Exchange, founded in 1540. The Frankfurt Stock Exchange, today the most important stock exchange in Germany and also one of the most important stock exchanges worldwide, was founded in 1585. Exchanges are not only used for trading in securities, but also for organized trading in almost all products. In addition to stock exchanges, there are also special exchanges for raw materials, foreign exchange and in London even a wine exchange, the Liv-ex. For example, CO2 certificates are traded on the European Energy Exchange (EEX) based in Leipzig.

  • Exchanges serve to trade a commodity – be it a commodity, stocks or bonds – in a regulated market environment.
  • The aim of exchange trading is not only the transaction itself, but also the creation of transparency with regard to pricing.
  • Trading on the stock exchanges in Germany is controlled by the Bafin.

How the stock exchange works

Exchanges serve to trade a commodity – be it a commodity, stocks or bonds – in a regulated market environment. The value results from supply and demand. The emphasis here is on the term “regulated market environment”, as the exchange, in contrast to a classic marketplace, follows certain rules for trading. In order for a share to be traded on the stock exchange, the company must meet certain requirements that are regulated in the German Stock Exchange Act (BörsG). According to abbreviationfinder, SX stands for Stock Exchange.

The aim of exchange trading is not only the transaction itself, but also the creation of transparency with regard to pricing. Floor trading, the physical presence of stock brokers in the trading room, was completely replaced in Frankfurt by XETRA trading, computer trading, in 2011.

Stock exchanges in Germany

Trading on the stock exchanges in Germany is controlled by the Bafin. In addition to the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, there are also several regional stock exchanges in Germany. After the closure of the Bremen Stock Exchange, these are still the following marketplaces:

  • Berlin Stock Exchange
  • Düsseldorf Stock Exchange
  • Joint Börsen AG Hamburg-Hanover (including the Hanseatic Stock Exchange as part of BÖAG Börsen AG)
  • Munich Stock Exchange
  • European Energy Exchange, Leipzig
  • Stuttgart Stock Exchange: The Stuttgart Stock Exchange offers investors the opportunity to trade shares in open-ended investment funds. Under certain circumstances, this can be cheaper than purchasing with a front-end load.
  • Tradegate Exchange, Berlin: Tradegate Exchange was the first exchange for fully electronic off-exchange securities trading. Over-the-counter trading enables buyers and sellers to come into direct contact with one another.

The stock market indices

When investors think of the term stock exchange, they primarily think of trading in stocks. The most important indices are therefore also the stock indices. In Germany these are the DAX 30, the M-DAX and the S-DAX. The DAX 30 is made up of the 30 largest German companies, the M-DAX from the next 50 largest companies in the ranking. In the S-DAX, in turn, the following 50 companies belonging to the M-DAX, so-called small caps or smaller public limited companies, are listed. The TecDAX comprises 30 of the 50 largest technology companies.

Indices generally reflect investors’ expectations of a country’s future economic performance. In the US, the best-known indices are the S&P 500 and the Dow Jones Industrial. On the Paris stock exchange, the CAC 40 reflects the performance of the 40 largest companies in France, in Great Britain the FTSE 100 performs this task. The Eurostox 50 indexes the performance of the 50 largest companies within the euro zone.

The trade

Exchange trading cannot be done by every investor himself, but requires the involvement of an official stockbroker. The purchase order for a security is forwarded via the custodian bank and processed in the now fully electronic trading system XETRA. The broker, in turn, virtually brings buyers and sellers of a share together, provided they both have the same asking price. In addition to the brokerage fee for the bank, there is also a commission for the broker when trading securities.

The five most important stock market events

  • On October 28, 1929, the New York Stock Exchange collapsed: the Great Depression had hit the stock exchanges. It was not “Black Friday”, as is often reported today, on October 25 of this year the Dow Jones Industrial Index even rose again.
  • In 1997 the bubble of artificially high foreign exchange rates in emerging markets in Asia. The devaluation of Bath in Thailand was the trigger. The prices on the Hong Kong stock exchange fell by 40 percent.
  • Technology stocks had soared up to March 2000 that ended in a bubble. When the dotcom bubble burst, investors lost over 200 billion euros.
  • Due to the financial crisis, prices slipped massively in 2008. Individual stocks were repeatedly suspended from trading, and the Moscow Stock Exchange kept closing its doors for a few days.
  • In the spring of 2014, the DAX 30 reached its all-time high of over 10,000 points for the first time – proof that the stock market keeps going up in the end.


Meaning of Balance Sheet

Meaning of Balance Sheet

A company’s balance sheet provides information about the origin and use of a company’s capital. The assets, the assets, and the capital, the liabilities, are compared. A profit and loss account is the basis for creating a balance sheet. The balance sheet is a company analysis set for a specific date, while the profit and loss account documents the business success for a specific period. Double-entry bookkeeping is a prerequisite for preparing a balance sheet.

  • The balance sheet provides a legally binding overview of the company’s assets and the business activities carried out in the past financial year.
  • The preparation of a balance sheet is based on the requirements of the German Commercial Code (HGB).
  • The balance sheet is broken down into assets and liabilities.
  • At the end of the day, the balance sheet must be balanced, i.e. on each side, assets and liabilities, the bottom line is the same number.

The tasks of the balance sheet

Short for BS by abbreviationfinder, a balance sheet fulfills different functions. On the one hand, it is used for documentation. It provides a legally binding overview of the company’s assets and the business activities carried out in the past financial year. The equity account provides information about the profit or loss of a company and thus offers options for comparison with previous accounting periods. The detailed list of profits and losses is based on the profit and loss account drawn up beforehand. Last but not least, a balance sheet also contains an information function.

Accounting requirements according to the Commercial Code

A balance sheet cannot be drawn up at the company’s reasonable discretion, but is based on the requirements of the German Commercial Code (HGB). The HGB also regulates which companies are required to be accounted for. This generally includes all corporations as well as sole proprietorships and tradespeople with an annual turnover of more than 500,000 euros or a profit of 50,000 euros. If these numbers are exceeded for the first time, the tax office will request the balance sheet. As long as the claim is outstanding, the conventional profit and loss account can be continued. Freelancers are generally exempt from accounting.

The structure of the balance sheet

Section 266 of the German Commercial Code clearly stipulates how a balance sheet must be structured. The breakdown is made into assets (use of funds) and liabilities (source of funds).


  • Fixed assets, divided into intangible assets, property, plant and equipment and financial assets
  • Current assets, divided into inventories, receivables and securities
  • Prepaid expenses (existing but not yet due receivables)
  • Deferred tax assets (future tax benefits)
  • Difference from asset offsetting
  • Deficit not backed by equity


  • Equity, divided into subscribed capital, capital reserve, retained earnings, profit or loss carried forward, net income or net loss for the year and net loss for the year not covered by equity
  • Provisions, divided into provisions for pensions, taxes and other provisions
  • liabilities
  • Prepaid expenses (existing but not yet due liabilities)
  • Deferred tax liabilities (future tax charges)

At the end of the day, the balance sheet must be balanced, i.e. on each side, assets and liabilities, the bottom line is the same number at the end. The shortfall not covered by equity arises when the losses in the reporting period are so high that they exceed equity. Bank balance sheets deviate from the presentation of a normal trade balance sheet and are almost mirror-inverted in the division of the asset and liability positions. A company’s financial assets on the assets side represent liabilities on the liabilities side of a bank. The internationalization of companies has led to an international approach to the structure of the balance sheet according to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), which deviates from the national requirements for preparing a balance sheet .

Basis of accounting

A balance sheet is based on the “principles of proper bookkeeping”, which in turn are regulated in the HGB. In the end, a balance sheet follows two principles. On the one hand, it is based on the “balance sheet truth” and on the other hand on the “balance sheet clarity”. Truthfulness of the balance sheet means that all business transactions are properly recorded in accordance with the accounting guidelines. The principle of balance sheet clarity states that business transactions and the resulting documentation must be booked in such a way that they are clearly visible and traceable. All facts that are known between two reference dates must be taken into account in the balance sheet.

Delayed business transactions

If a company accounts as of 31.12. one year, it may well happen that the receipt of a service and its payment do not take place in the same year. A classic example is the telephone bill. Calls made in December will not be billed until January. Against this background, balance sheets are rarely drawn up in January, but only two to three months after the balance sheet date. Services that have already been performed on the other side but have not yet been paid for must also be assessed. Nevertheless, the companies have to submit their balance sheets promptly. This fact means that balance sheets are not always one hundred percent clear.


Meaning of Banking Supervision

Meaning of Banking Supervision

To put it bluntly, the banking supervision of a country ensures the functioning of the respective national financial market. Banking regulation and banking supervision are often used synonymously. Strictly speaking, however, banking regulation sets the legal guard rails within which banks operate. The banking supervisory authority ensures that these are complied with. A distinction must be made between two systems of banking supervision within the euro zone. On the one hand, this task lies primarily with the national central banks. The European Banking Authority (EBA), based in London, only develops uniform standards for a harmonious approach. However, the European Central Bank (ECB) will take over control of the banks from autumn 2014.

  • Section 6 of the Banking Act (KWG) regulates the tasks of banking supervision in Germany.
  • In order to monitor ongoing business operations, it is primarily important to check that a bank has sufficient liable equity capital.
  • If a bank violates guidelines or requirements, various sanctions are available.

The tasks of banking supervision

Section 6 of the Banking Act (KWG) regulates the tasks of banking supervision in Germany. It stipulates that banking supervision, in Germany split between the Bundesbank and the Bafin, must counteract possible grievances in the financial services sector. These grievances include events, which

  • could jeopardize the deposits of customers entrusted to the banks;
  • lead to the fact that the business activities of a bank according to KWG do not exist, or
  • can bring considerable disadvantages to the entire economy.

The control of the institutes is primarily based on the type and scope of their business activities. The legal basis for the control is based on the KWG, which aims to counteract possible undesirable developments in advance. The division of tasks between Bafin and the Bundesbank makes the difference between regulation and supervision clear. The Bafin issues the necessary guidelines with regard to the banking business, the Bundesbank monitors their implementation.

The legal basis

In addition to the KWG, there are other legal bases for the regulation and supervision of banks in Germany. These include:

  • the Bundesbank Act (BBankG);
  • the German Solvency Regulation (SolvV) as the German implementation of the Basel II requirements;
  • the minimum requirements for risk management (BA).

Since credit institutions have to meet special requirements for the establishment of a new company, supervision not only relates to the monitoring of ongoing business operations, but also to compliance with the requirements in the case of a new establishment.

The monitoring of the operational business

In order to monitor ongoing business operations, it is primarily important to check that a bank has sufficient liable equity capital. In order to be able to absorb the credit default risk, at least eight percent of the loans granted must be available as equity. Another point is the monitoring of liquidity. The credit institutions must invest their funds in such a way that they are able to pay at all times. The Bafin also checks whether the bank’s internal risk management works sufficiently so that a bank can identify possible errors at any time and take active countermeasures.

Sources of information

On the one hand, the banking supervisory authority examines the annual financial statements. However, since the one-year period is too long to identify possible dangers in good time, the institutes must present monthly IDs. These contain the most important balance sheet figures and the deviations from the previous control period. The reporting requirement is also subject to large loans, million dollar loans and loans to organs as well as investments with a volume of over ten percent. In addition, banks must notify the supervisor of changes in management or the branch network.

Measures to implement

If a bank violates guidelines or requirements, various sanctions are available. These range from fines to the complete closure of a bank. If the management’s ability to run a bank is deemed to be insufficient, the supervisory authority can demand that it be dismissed and replaced by a special representative.


Meaning of Appreciation and Depreciation

Meaning of Appreciation and Depreciation

The appreciation or devaluation denotes the deliberate rise or fall in the rate of one currency against another. The background for the so-called revaluation (appreciation) or devaluation is to be found in the foreign trade relations of the respective countries, or in the foreign exchange market itself.

  • Appreciation and devaluation can arise due to the supply and demand for a currency, but also due to targeted intervention by the respective central bank.
  • The devaluation of a currency can stimulate exports and lead to economic advantages in the short term.
  • The appreciation of a currency can have a long-term negative impact on an economy.

What are the exact causes of appreciation and devaluation?

On the one hand, for example, a devaluation can result from a country’s economic situation deteriorating drastically. Participants in the foreign exchange market lose confidence in the country and its currency. The value of the currency against other currencies falls, from the point of view of the country concerned there is a devaluation. Conversely, the currencies of the other countries will appreciate.

Another situation arises when a country’s central bank deliberately pushes the value of its own currency down against a foreign currency. The aim of this measure is to stimulate exports by making goods cheaper for foreign countries.

Before the introduction of the euro, Italy, for example, used the instrument of devaluation in phases of weak economic activity. Devaluation by the common currency is no longer possible within the euro zone, even if the purchasing power of the individual countries diverges widely.

The story of appreciation and devaluation

Originally the US dollar was linked to the gold price (gold parity). In 1944, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) created the system of fixed exchange rates depending on gold parity. The gold parity of the US dollar made it possible to determine how the individual currencies relate to the US dollar. Due to the dependence on the gold price, the relationship between the individual currencies was fixed.

Using the D-Mark as an example, however, it can be shown that this system could not last. In May 1949 the IMF fixed the value of one dollar at 3.33 DM. However, the value of the D-Mark fell, and by September the value of one US dollar was 4.20 D-Mark. The central bank had to intervene more and more frequently in the years that followed. In 1969, the fixed exchange rates had to be relaxed for the first time. In December 1971 the US abolished the gold parity of the US dollar. In March 1973, the member states of the European Economic Community (EEC) began collectively to unlock currencies against the US dollar.

In 1979 the European Monetary System was introduced with the ECU. This synthetic currency was based on the D-Mark. With the introduction of the euro, the USA was ultimately faced with an economic area with a single currency, which developed tremendously with the appreciation or devaluation of its currency against other currencies.

The consequences of revaluation and devaluation

The devaluation of a currency has positive effects for the respective country in the short term. The economy is stimulated. Conversely, imported goods are becoming more expensive. This, in turn, can mean that similar goods produced in the domestic economy are in greater demand.

The devaluation of crude oil becomes problematic. The US dollar is still the key currency on the oil market. The devaluation of a currency against the dollar leads to a corresponding increase in the price of a large part of the energy costs. A devaluation also leads to foreign travel becoming more expensive, a fact that is seldom taken up positively by the population.

In the long term, however, an appreciation can lead to a deterioration in the labor market. With falling exports due to the rise in the price of goods abroad, the consequence of the revaluation can mean a decline in production, which in turn leads to the exemption of workers.

The appreciation or devaluation of a currency also affects debt servicing. Regardless of whether they are private loans or loan turns the public sector, the debt service becomes cheaper when the loans were taken out in foreign currency and its currency was revalued. In this case, the borrower will need less money to repay the loan.

Appreciation and devaluation as a risk factor

According to digopaul, the calculated appreciation or devaluation of a currency against other currencies can turn out to be a downward spiral. If one currency area also responds to a devaluation of another currency with a devaluation, this could lead to a downward spiral between these two currencies. Especially for an economic area like the European Union with a clear gap in economic output and average income, the effects of an appreciation or devaluation are drastically different.


Meaning of Asset Management

Meaning of Asset Management

The aim of asset management (short for AM by abbreviationfinder) is to further increase existing assets – and to do so as efficiently and with as little risk as possible. The English word “asset” means “fixed assets”. Asset managers look after private as well as corporate assets and try to increase them through various forms of investment. As a rule, investments are made in funds. This requires extensive know-how and skillful risk management. Traditionally, the financial services of asset management are primarily used by investors with larger capital assets (from 50,000 euros). Small investors, on the other hand, have little chance of finding a private asset manager.

  • The decisive advantage of serious asset management lies in the know-how advantage of asset managers over private individuals and companies.
  • While pure investment or investment advisors only take on an advisory role, asset managers usually also make investment decisions.
  • As part of asset management, the assets of private investors and business customers are usually invested in funds.

What does asset management bring?

The decisive advantage of serious asset management lies in the know-how advantage of asset managers over private individuals and companies. Thanks to their market knowledge, asset managers can make long-term, profitable investment decisions even in rapidly changing markets. You have a good overview and – in contrast to private investors, who often tend to make impulsive decisions – are able to make long-term prudent decisions.

These tasks are carried out by asset managers

While pure investment or investment advisors only take on an advisory role, asset managers usually also make investment decisions. They relieve companies and private investors from a whole range of tasks. The classic range of tasks in asset management includes the following points in particular:

  • Information and advice:Asset managers initially have an advisory role. They inform their customers about lucrative investment opportunities.
  • Individual strategy development:Asset managers work out an individual investment strategy together with clients. This is essential because every customer has their own needs. In particular, the investor’s willingness to take risks and personal goals determine the investment strategy.
  • Market observation:Market observation or market analysis is a central component of asset management. The respective managers not only have to have in-depth economic knowledge, but also know current market developments and identify trends as early as possible.
  • Review of investment options:Asset managers review investment products either individually or using statistical methods. In this way, they determine the investment options that best suit the wishes and needs of customers – be it stocks, real estate or life insurance.
  • Diversification and risk management:The aim of asset management is to generate the highest possible return on the assets invested at a comparatively low risk. Risk management is therefore one of the fundamental tasks of asset management. There are a number of methods available to asset managers to limit the risk of an investment. In addition to assessing the security and profitability of certain investment products on the basis of one’s own know-how, diversification plays a decisive role in risk management. Diversifying means: The assets to be invested are distributed across several promising forms of investment. This makes the investment strategy less susceptible to crises and leaves room to counteract possible wrong decisions.

The role of funds in asset management

As part of asset management, the assets of private investors and business customers are usually invested in funds. A fund is nothing more than a collection of different stocks, real estate or bonds that are financed with the capital of various investors.

Anyone who participates in a fund with equity becomes a co-owner and may receive a dividend distribution. If you invest in a package of shares – in contrast to buying shares in a single company – the risk is automatically diversified. A fund always consists of a bundle of securities. If the securities of some companies do not perform as expected, this can be offset by the positive development of others. However, one hundred percent investment security cannot be guaranteed even with funds.

In principle, a distinction is made between mutual funds and special funds. While special funds are aimed at companies, banks and the like, public funds can be used by all investors.

Serious asset management: independence and transparency

Serious asset management is characterized by independence. Ideally, an asset manager is not tied to specific products, but rather chooses investments based solely on the client’s needs. Commissions or other remuneration should also not be paid when brokering certain funds. Bank asset managers should at least have access to the entire product range of the respective institution.

Regardless of whether the services of an independent asset manager or the asset manager of a bank are used: Asset management should be characterized by transparency. This means that potential returns and risks are discussed openly. In addition, any costs and administration fees should be conveyed transparently.


Meaning of ETF

Meaning of ETF

According to abbreviationfinder, ETF is the abbreviation for “Exchange Traded Fund”. Accordingly, ETFs are not traded through the investment companies that set up the respective funds, but on the stock exchange. The price of ETFs is based solely on supply and demand, i.e. purchases and sales on the stock exchange. The fund company’s issuing surcharge does not apply. The support is not provided by fund managers, but by market makers. Their task is to determine the buying and selling prices, which are published continuously during the trading day. Therefore, the development of the ETFs is very transparent.

  • The majority of exchange-traded funds are offered as index funds, which is why both terms are often used synonymously.
  • In most cases, ETFs are based on stock indices due to their large number.
  • One of the great advantages of ETFs over other fund investments is the flexibility of stock exchange trading.
  • The risk of an exchange traded fund depends on the type of fund and the underlying indices.

Participation in index developments

The majority of exchange-traded funds are offered as index funds, which is why both terms are often used synonymously. Index funds are passively managed, which means that they track the development of a specific underlying index. Actively managed ETFs that invest the fund capital in constantly changing, successful values ​​in order to optimize returns and beat indices are extremely rare.

In most cases, ETFs are based on stock indices due to their large number. The best-known share index in Germany that a listed fund can use for orientation is the German share index DAX. This index summarizes the securities of the 30 stock corporations with the highest turnover in Germany. But there is also the possibility of replicating real estate, money market or other indices.

Indices shown

In principle, an ETF can track any index. Depending on the type, they differ for example:

  • Market-wide indices with stocks from all industries and regions (e.g. the MSCI All Country World Index, which takes industrialized and developing countries and small and large companies into account)
  • Region indices with values ​​from individual economic regions (for example the MSCI Europe Index, which only includes European stocks, or the MSCI Emerging Markets Index, which only includes stocks from developing countries)
  • Sector indices that only show the development in a certain branch of the economy (for example the Euro Stoxx Telecommunications Index)
  • Strategy indices that focus on specific industries, growth rates, or time-based data

Advantages of ETFs

One of the great advantages of ETFs over other fund investments is the flexibility of stock exchange trading. The listed funds can be quickly liquidated on the stock exchange, so that investors have access to the sales proceeds after just a few days.

Save fees

Since passively managed ETFs follow changes in the indices, active management that constantly monitors the market and reacts to market changes with new investment strategies is not required. Fund managers don’t have to be paid. The costs are limited to the exchange fee and the total expense ratio charged to the fund and are significantly lower than when purchasing actively managed fund units. This means that passively managed ETFs are also of interest to private investors.

Disadvantages compared to active funds

A disadvantage of passively managed ETFs compared to actively managed funds is that the return is firmly linked to the performance of the underlying index. Ultimately, you aim to map the base index as precisely as possible. Active funds, on the other hand, aim to outperform their benchmark. To achieve this, fund managers change the composition of the fund and fill it with the strongest values ​​if possible. In practice, however, it is seldom possible to permanently outperform the index.

Risks and selection of ETFs

The risk of an exchange traded fund depends on the type of fund and the underlying indices. Safe investments include ETFs that fully track a market-wide index. These funds are characterized by a large diversification of the fund capital. The strength of the index also influences the safety of ETFs. Nevertheless, a risk of loss in stock exchange transactions cannot be ruled out. Before investing in exchange-traded funds, it is worth comparing the offers.


Meaning of Social Capital

Meaning of Social Capital

According to DigoPaul, the concept of social capital can be analyzed from two perspectives: accounting and sociology. As an accounting term, social capital is the value of the goods or money that the partners contribute to a company without the right of return.

In this way, the share capital (which is recorded in an accounting item) grants the partners different rights depending on their participation and represents a guarantee against third parties. This is a stable figure, although negative results can lead to bankruptcy and then the company will already have the necessary resources to meet its obligations to third parties.

In this sense, it is also important to establish that there is also what is known as minimum social capital. This term is used to define the capital that every company must maintain at least. It is important to underline that this will be one or the other depending on the type of company it is, in this way a public limited company must have a much higher minimum share capital than one that is limited liability.

In another sense, the capital stock is a liability (debt) of the company towards the partners. To modify this contribution, a series of legal procedures must be followed. It is necessary to distinguish between the notions of capital stock, equity (the total assets and liabilities of the company) and equity (the effective difference between assets and liabilities).

In addition to all of the above, we have to bear in mind that within a company the increase in capital stock can take place. This is achieved through different actions or situations such as, for example, monetary contributions, non-monetary contributions, by transformation of profits or reserves as well as by offsetting credits against society.

In the same way, it is also possible that a specific company suffers the reduction of its share capital. In this case, the circumstances that may lead to this event are the return of contributions, the increase in the legal reserve, the forgiveness of passive dividends or with the clear objective of eliminating losses.

The last mentioned fact is decided to carry out with the intention of achieving that the existing balance between what is capital and net worth is recovered. Hence, this compensation for losses can be achieved either by reducing the accounting dimension of the company or through the profits of the company.

For sociology, social capital is that which enables cooperation between two parties. The notion does not necessarily imply something positive, since contacts between people can lead to negative events (such as mafia societies, for example).

In other words, social capital implies the sociability of a human group, with the aspects that allow collaboration and its use. Sociologists emphasize that social capital is formed by social networks, mutual trust, and effective norms, three concepts that are not easy to define and that may vary according to the analyst’s conception.

Social Capital

Meaning of Captain

Meaning of Captain

Captain is a term that comes from the Latin word capitanus and that allows the ranking officer to be named below the commander and superior to the lieutenant. At a general level, the concept is used to refer to the person who heads a troop, the commander of a warship and the military leader.

The captain is the most responsible of a ship before the crew, the passengers and the authorities. It is the person in charge of directing the navigation, although with the support of other people. Nowadays, thanks to telecommunications, the captain also has the collaboration of the ground staff.

Some example sentences: “The captain of the cruise ship will be judged for the oil spill as he took an unauthorized navigation route “, “Please ask the captain how long until the port”, “The sailors are very far away. I am pleased with the new captain, a simple and kind man ”.

Outside of nautical, the captain is the one who directs any crusade or project. In this sense, the term can be used as a synonym for leader: “Hundreds of NGO volunteers came to town, led by a renowned pediatrician”, “The captain of the bandits was caught a few kilometers from the scene.

In the field of sport, the captain is the one who represents the members of a team during the development of a competition. He generally acts as a spokesperson for the rest of the players and is the only one who has the right to address the referee and the judges. The captain is usually identified with a ribbon or some badge.

It should be noted that in the teams that play the Davis Cup tennis, unlike other sports, the captain is a coach or technical director, and not a player.

According to DigoPaul, Captain Tsubasa is the name of a manga or a cartoon series of Japanese origin, created in 1981 by Yoichi Takahashi, a renowned cartoonist. It is about the life of Ozora, a virtuous soccer player who discovered his passion from a very young age. Throughout the story, his path to the Japanese national team is narrated, which begins with his participation in the school team. Although the series uses many symbolic and fantastic elements, it places special emphasis on the importance of teamwork and friendship.

Another fictional character associated with the title of captain is Jack Sparrow, from the series of films ” Pirates of the Caribbean “, in which he is played by the acclaimed American actor Johnny Depp. The first part of the saga was published in 2003 and, given its great success, three more films have been released. On the other hand, Captain Sparrow has also starred in various children’s books that narrate his adolescence, belonging to the series ” Pirates of the Caribbean: Jack Sparrow “.

Edward John Smith is the name of the only captain of the Titanic and he is a character as famous as he is controversial. Thanks to the blockbuster film adaptation of the tragic story, made by James Cameron, millions of viewers unaware of the details of the sinking of the ocean liner put a face on Captain Smith, and could feel his regret after the fatal accident that claimed the lives of so many. In the movie, guilt drives him into a state of shock and he seems to lose the will to move on.

However, some versions suggest that it was not a series of absurd oversights and inattention on the part of the captain and his crew, but that it was an authentic plot that sought to eliminate three well-defined characters who were opposed to the creation of the Federal Reserve: John Jacob Astor, Isador Strauss and Benjamin Guggenheim.


Meaning of Capital

Meaning of Capital

The term capital comes from the Occitan language. In architecture, the upper sector of a pilaster or column is called a capital, which decorates it and complements it as a molding.

According to DigoPaul, the capital is an architectural element that transmits the loads from the horizontal entablature to the pilaster or column. It also allows the transition of those parts between which it is located.

The Egyptian capital is the oldest known. According to its figure, it is called papiriform (it imitates the papyrus plant), palmiform (inspired by date palms), hatoric (representing the goddess Hator) or lotiform (created in honor of the lotus flower).

In Persia capitals with double-headed figures were used. The Romans and Greeks, for their part, developed different kinds of capitals: Ionic, Doric, Tuscan, and others. Then came the Islamic capital, the Byzantine capital, the Gothic capital and other types of capitals.

That without forgetting that within what are the Muslim capitals we can also find several types such as the following: the Caliphate capital, the Tuluní capital, the Taifa capital and the Nasrid capital.

Of the same there are many other important capitals within what is the history of art and architecture. Thus, for example, we come across the so-called pencas capital, which is a type of Muslim capital that was inspired, to some extent, by the Corinthian. However, it comes to simplify that in such a way that it does not bet on representing all the acanthus leaves but simply what its beginnings are, the leaves.

In addition, there is also the capital of the hornet’s nest. It is another of the Muslim type that is characterized by being composed and by being inspired by Roman architecture. If it has that name, it is because it has a large number of holes, created with a trephine.

Of course, we must not forget the so-called curved capital, which dates back to the 12th century. It seems that the Almohads were the creators of it, which is characterized by its incorporation of scrolls, but between the two it includes a series of horizontal bands like ribbons. And hence its name.

But the wealth of Muslim art doesn’t stop there. Thus within it is also the ataurique capital, where both plant motifs and pine cones take center stage, and the capital of muqarnas, where different compositions of stalactites take on relevance.

At a general level, it can be said that a capital is made up of an talus (the molding that is at the base and that develops around the shaft of the column), a drum (the body of the capital) and an abacus (the board that serves as a top and supports the beginning of the lintel or arch).

It is important not to confuse a capital with a spire: the conical or pyramidal top of a tower. In any case, the dictionary of the DigoPaul recognizes both terms as synonyms.

For botany, finally, the capital is the sheath or sleeve forming the leaves of certain plants in the stipe.

Capital 2

Meaning of Capitol

Meaning of Capitol

Before proceeding to know the meaning of the term capitol, it is essential to discover its etymological origin. In this case, we can determine that it comes from Latin, exactly from the word “Capitolium” and this in turn derives from the noun “caput”, which is equivalent to “head”.

A capitol is a building where the Legislative Power of a State works. The term is used in some cases with reference to the Executive Branch building.

The United States Capitol, for example, is located in Washington DC and allows the functioning of the two chambers that make up the national congress. The original design of the building was done by William Thornton, although later other architects directed various modifications.

The United States Capitol complex occupies more than 110 hectares and includes multiple offices with offices, a library and the headquarters of the Supreme Court of Justice.

The National Capitol of Havana, for its part, is a place that was born to house the two chambers of the Cuban Congress, although, since the socialist revolution, it has been the headquarters of the Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment.. The construction of the building ended in 1929 and had Eugenio Raynieri Piedra as responsible.

According to DigoPaul, the Capitol of Toulouse is an example of a capitol linked to the Executive Branch. This building, unlike those associated with legislative bodies, is the seat of the local council.

This Capitol of Toulouse we can determine that it began to be built in the 12th century, specifically in the year 1190. It has really significant spaces such as the Hall of the Illustrious, the courtyard of Henri IV or its Greater Tower.

To all those already mentioned we can also add the Texas Capitol, which is currently the seat of the government of that place. In the second half of the 19th century, specifically in 1888, this building was built, located in Downtown, which is identified by having a marked Renaissance style.

It has been restored on several occasions and its domes and mosaics stand out.

In this list of capitols we cannot overlook either that of Colombia, which is the seat of the National Congress. It is located in the Plaza de Bolívar, it has become one of the most important buildings in Bogotá and has its origin in the 19th century. It was built exactly between 1848 and 1926, it is declared a National Monument and is made of quarry stone.

It has three floors and has especially significant rooms such as the Elliptical Room, where the plenary sessions take place; the Bocayá Room, dedicated to the presidency of the chamber or the Senate Room.

Other known capitols are the Capitol the State of Arizona, the Capitol of the State of Michigan and the Capitol of the State of Colorado.

It is important to mention that, according to the DigoPaul in its dictionary, the idea of ​​a capitol can also refer to an acropolis: the high and fortified sector that, in ancient cities, concentrated public buildings and temples.


Meaning of Capitulation

Meaning of Capitulation

The Latin word capitulatio came to Castilian as capitulation. The first meaning mentioned by the dictionary of the DigoPaul refers to an agreement established between two or more parties on a subject that is usually transcendent or critical.

In the field of law, there is the matrimonial capitulation: the agreement established by the spouses, either before the marriage or afterwards, to determine how the couple’s economy will be organized and how the succession agreements will be carried out.

In these marriage agreements, what the spouses will do is establish whether they are going to have a community property regime or a property separation regime. In the same way, it must be established that they have to be carried out before a notary who will give them a deed form. The usual thing is to do them before getting married or just after going through the altar.

To all this we must add that these matrimonial agreements can be modified at the moment that the two parties involved want to change the aforementioned economic regime.

According to DigoPaul, capitulation is also the arrangement that establishes the surrender of a force or army. These agreements usually consist of several chapters that set the conditions of the case.

The capitulation supposes that a force recognizes its defeat and desists to continue fighting. Simultaneously it grants its possessions to the other side in exchange for the fulfillment of certain matters, which are agreed by the bosses and must be complied with by the subordinates.

The Capitulation of Ayacucho, the Capitulation of Potosí, the Capitulation of Toledo and the Capitulation of Franzburgo are some capitulations that, due to their importance or scope, have remained in history.

There are capitulations that go beyond a surrender and that imply other agreements, as we mentioned above. Conquest capitulation was called, in this framework, the contract established by a monarch and a private individual to keep a territory and recruit soldiers.

Within history we have to establish that, without a doubt, one of the most important capitulations of this type have been the so-called Capitulations of Santa Fe. They were called thus because they were signed in the Granada town of Santa Fe.

On April 17, 1492 it was when the Catholic Monarchs carried out the same where they came to collect the agreements that they had reached with Christopher Columbus regarding the expedition that he intended to carry out and that would lead to the discovery of America. The editor of the same was the secretary of the monarchs, Juan de Coloma.

Among the most significant agreements, we can highlight that they included granting Colón one-tenth of the benefits he obtained; being appointed admiral, viceroy and governor general of the lands he discovered; the tithe of the merchandise that he earned or that was in the lands that he conquered…

The capitulation of the conclave, on the other hand, consisted of the signing of a document to reflect the agreement reached between the members of the College of Cardinals at the beginning of a conclave; This agreement established how the relations between the cardinals and the future pope would be.


Meaning of Chapter

Meaning of Chapter

A chapter is a division that is made in a book or other type of written document to facilitate reading and the order and integration of the contents. The term has its origin in the Latin word capitulum.

Each chapter, therefore, supposes a part or section within a work of a certain length (if the work is very short, the division into chapters is not justified). The length of the chapters varies according to the intentions and needs of the author and the work. In fact, within the same book, for example, the duration of each chapter can differ considerably from the rest.

Authors often number chapters in order of appearance: Chapter 1 is followed by Chapter 2, and so on. Some chapters are not numbered and are considered as a different subdivision (the introduction, the epilogue, etc.). Certain writers, on the other hand, do not number the chapters, but give each a title.

For example: “As soon as I finish reading the book, I’ll lend it to you: there are fourteen chapters and I’m on the eighth”, “The last novel by this author bored me and I abandoned it in the fourth chapter”, “The chapter of death of the captain has fascinated me ”.

According to DigoPaul, the notion of chapter can also be used in other types of works that go beyond written material. The television series, whether novels, comedies or otherwise, can be divided into chapters: “Did you see the last chapter of the novel? Dr. Romerson kidnapped Mary and took her to his house in the mountains ”, “ There are three chapters left until the end of the soap opera that has conquered the Brazilians ”.

In some Spanish-speaking regions this term is used as a synonym for episode when talking about television series, although both words should be understood in this context. A work divided into episodes can be described as episodic, and this classification is widely used in the field of video games, especially those that are distributed digitally; the market for downloadable titles represents a considerable saving of resources for a developer, and splitting a project into several installments can help improve future content through the opinions each one receives.

Within the family of the term chapter is the verb recapitulate, which can be defined as remembering in an orderly way what has been expressed in writing or orally. It is a word typical of formal language, not widely used in everyday speech. If one delves into its etymology, it is discovered that it is possible to distinguish three lexical components from Latin: re (indicating a reiteration, a journey backward), caput (which is translated as head) and -ción (a suffix associated with the actions and effects).

In this way, a term is obtained that speaks of going backwards, towards the beginning of something, towards an important point in time; in its Latin version, its approximate meaning is to remember a pact or agreement. This leads us to the capitular verb, which indicates the creation of a pact or agreement by a group of individuals. Continuing with this analysis in reverse, the word chapter is formed from caput and the suffix -ulum, used for the construction of diminutives.

In its etymological sense, chapter refers to the distribution of command, the division of power, of the most important part (the head). It is possible, then, to understand that today it is associated with the partitioning of an artistic work or a document into ordered and coherent fragments.


Meaning of Boss

Meaning of Boss

The term capo comes from an Italian word that can be translated as “head”. An Italian term that has its origin in Latin. And it comes from the word “caput” which can be translated as “head”.

According to DigoPaul, the concept is often used with reference to the leader of a mafia organization or a criminal gang.

For example: “The local police managed to capture the drug lord last night”, “The writer was threatened after publishing a book where he denounced the Sicilian mafia boss”, “Several members of the gang have already fallen: now we are going for the boss”.

Speaking of bosses, we must highlight a fundamental figure in this sense. We are referring to Alphonse Gabriel Capone (1899 – 1947), better known as Al Capone. He was a famous American gangster, he was the most important mob boss during the 1920’s and 30’s and for a long time he was one of the most wanted criminals by the FBI.

Specifically, agent Eliot Ness and his group, known as “The Untouchables”, were at all times behind this character and finally managed to arrest him so that, immediately afterwards, he was sent to jail for tax evasion. Specifically, he spent most of his sentence in the famous Alcatraz prison.

Precisely about the world of the bosses there are numerous films, already classics of the cinema that shape the saga of “The Godfather”. The first part, the one that gives title to the series, was released in 1972 under the direction of Francis Ford Coppola.

Marlon Brando, Al Pacino, Robert Duvall or James Caan are the actors who lead the cast of this feature film that revolves around a family of gangsters, the Corleones. The boss of it is none other than Don Vito Corleone, who is the main command of Cosa Nostra in New York.

In several countries, the idea of ​​a boss is also applied to appoint the head or guide of any group or entity: “If you want to obtain some benefit, I suggest you speak with the company’s human resources boss”, “Pereyra is the boss of this team for several years ”, “ I don’t pretend to be the boss of the association, I just want you to pay attention to my projects ”.

On the other hand, a person who has extensive knowledge of a certain topic, who has a lot of prestige or who accumulates numerous achievements can be named as a capo: “Tomorrow a capo in sociology will come to the university to give a lecture”, “LeBron James the boss of the NBA today”, “My uncle is a kingpin: he has won five literary awards for his stories and novels.

If the word is accented in the letter O (hood), it refers to the structure that covers the engine of a car. In this case, the notion derives from the French bonnet: “Open the hood so I can see where the fault may be”, “Yesterday a branch fell on my car and dented the hood”, “I’m going to open the hood to check the oil level ”.


Meaning of Capoeira

Meaning of Capoeira

Capoeira is not a term that is part of the dictionary prepared by the DigoPaul. The concept, however, is frequently used in our language as this is the name of a martial art of Brazilian origin that enjoys great popularity in many countries.

Capoeira is a combination of acrobatics, dancing, and other bodily expressions. Its origins date back to the beginning of the 16th century, when it was developed by African descendants who took influences from local aboriginal cultures.

In 2014, capoeira was included in the Intangible Cultural Heritage Site of UNESCO. The discipline can be developed in a sporting and acrobatic way or as a fighting style. At a general level it is characterized by the movements of the legs and arms and the jumps.

Traditionally capoeira was practiced to the rhythm of the birimbao, a stringed instrument. Nowadays it is common for percussion instruments to be used as accompaniment.

According to DigoPaul, the practice of capoeira is carried out in “rodas”: the musicians and capoeiristas form a circle while two practitioners face off in the “jogo” (the game). While these two people engage in a fight (without physical contact), the others clap and sing.

There are, however, different styles of capoeira and multiple techniques. Numerous “fighting committees” have been created around the world that organize the practice of capoeira and confront its exponents. Beyond the capoeiristas, there are many mixed martial arts fighters who appeal to capoeira movements.

Other interesting aspects about capoeira are the following:
-The minimum size that the circle where the roda will take place must have is 3 meters.
-The teachers who teach capoeira are committed to instilling in their students a series of important values. Hence, more and more people talk about the advantages of this art. Specifically, they instill in them intelligence, respect, freedom, security and responsibility.
-One of the most important movements in capoeira is the one called Ginga, which basically consists of swinging.
-Movements such as the Aú Batido, which is an evasive cartwheel that later becomes a block or kick, also take center stage in capoeira.
-With regard to attacks, sweeps and kicks are relevant in capoeira, without forgetting what punches and blows to the head are.

The world of cinema has had a special interest in capoeira. For this reason, there are several films that revolve around it. We are referring to films like “Besouro”, which tells the story of one of the most important capoeiristas in the history of that art in Brazil, such as Besouro Mangagá, or “Only the strong”.

However, other audiovisual productions on capoeira such as “Uma vida pela capoeira”, “Secret history of Bahia” or “A capoeira iluminada” should not be overlooked.


Meaning of Whim

Meaning of Whim

The etymology of capricho leads us to capriccio, a word from the Italian language. A whim is a decision or a demand that is arbitrary and whose origin is found in a whim.

For example: “I’m not going to sell my car because of your whims”, “I’m sick of your whims!” , “My daughter bought a pink wallet on a whim and then never used it.

The concept also applies to the element, the animal or the individual that is the object of a whim: “The singer the new whim cost thirty thousand dollars”, “The model was just another whim of the Hollywood star”, ” I explained to my son that dogs are not a whim ”.

For psychology, a whim is an idea that a person develops outside of logic and reasonableness. These are thoughts that are not constructed according to ordinary rules and that are often linked to the eccentric.

According to DigoPaul, when whims are adopted by children, they often speak of a tantrum or tantrum. A 4-year-old may cry and scream if his parents don’t indulge his whims. In the case of pregnant women, cravings are known as the desires that they try to fulfill in a capricious way.

In addition to all the above, we cannot overlook the fact that in the city of Madrid there is a very important place that bears the term that we are dealing with in its name. We are referring to the famous Parque del Capricho, located in the Alameda de Osuna neighborhood.

About 14 hectares of extension has this place that has its origin in the eighteenth century. And it was in 1787 that the Duchess of Osuna ordered it to be built. Construction that would last from then until 1839.

It should be noted that it is considered the only existing Romanticism park in the Spanish capital and has been declared an Asset of Cultural Interest. To all the above, it must be added that in it you can admire special corners such as the Casa de la Vieja, the Palace of the Dukes of Osuna, the Swan Pond, the Fountain of the Dolphins or the Obelisk called Wheel of Saturn.

Among the most peculiar constructions that it has on its grounds is the bunker or refuge of Position Jaca. This, which was erected during the Civil War, was the Headquarters of the Republican Army.

In the field of music, a whim is called an animated composition of a free nature. There are also quirks in architecture: in this case, they are decorative elements that arise from the imagination and are used in gardens.

In the same way, in the musical field, we must highlight a composition for classical guitar that is entitled “Arab caprice”. It was written by the Castellón-born musician Francisco Tárrega in 1892 and throughout history it has been performed by the best guitarists in the country, such as Andrés Segovia from Jaén.


Meaning of Capricorn

Meaning of Capricorn

Before proceeding to determine the meaning of the term Capricorn, it is necessary to know its etymological origin. In this case, we can establish that it is a word that derives from Latin, specifically from “capricornus”, which is the result of the sum of two components of that language:
-The noun “caper”, which can be translated as “goat”.
-The noun “cornus”, which is equivalent to “horn”.

Hence, it can literally be established that it means “goat’s horn.”

The notion of Capricorn has several uses. There is a constellation called Capricorn or Capricornus, which is usually represented as a goat with a fish tail. Astronomy points out that, among the stars that make up this constellation, are Alpha Capricorni (also called Al Giedi), Beta Capricorni (Dabih), Gamma Capricorni (Nashira) and Delta Capricorni (Deneb Algedi).

The astrology is Capricorn as one of the signs of the zodiac. A person who was born between December 22 and January 1 belongs to this sign: that is, they are Capricorn. For example: “My son is a Capricorn and my husband is Aries”, “You can tell that you are a Capricorn”, “I would like my grandson to be a Capricorn like me”.

Taking into account that it is a horoscope sign, it must be established that it is determined that the people who have it have a series of marked personality characteristics. Thus, it is established that they have a strong character, that they hate monotony and boredom, that they place a lot of value on love and that they can be, at times, very cold.

In the same way, it is indicated that they never give up, that they always have to have goals to fight for and that they are faithful. Not forgetting that they identify as shy and, above all, reserved.

In addition, it has been established that the lucky number of Capricorns is 4 and that the colors that most identify them are blue, yellow and brown.

Many are the famous people that belong to this sign of the horoscope. However, some of the most significant are chef David Muñoz, actor Jude Law, model Kate Moss, actress Adriana Ugarte, pilot Lewis Hamilton…

According to DigoPaul, Capricorn is one of the cardinal signs. It has a feminine nature, is part of the earth element and has Saturn as its governing star.

In the southern hemisphere, on the other hand, is the Tropic of Capricorn. It is a parallel that is south of the equator.

It can be said that the Tropic of Capricorn is the imaginary line that indicates the southernmost points in which the Sun is able to occupy the zenith at noon.

Capricorn, on the other hand, is the name of a project that the National Institute of Aerospace Technology (INTA) “Esteban Terradas” of Spain carried out between 1991 and 2000. Through this plan they worked on the development of a rocket that used solid fuel as a propulsion method.

An album by María Isabel released in 2006, a character from the anime and manga titled “Saint Seiya” (Capricorn Shura) and a movie directed by the American Peter Hyams (“Capricorn One”) also have the term Capricorn in their name.


Meaning of Capioso

Meaning of Capioso

Capioso is an adjective that comes from a word that in Latin refers to the false or fallacious that is expressed in words or is part of a proposition or a doctrine.

On the other hand, the term also serves to refer to an argument or a question that serves to get an answer from the interlocutor; that is, as a form of provocation for the interlocutor to utter a response that may compromise him or her or that favors the purposes of the person making the expression.

Some sentences in which the term is found are: “The interviewer misled him with a leading question and the mayor confessed that he hired his son as an advisor”, “This is a tricky argument that seeks to confuse the population”, “It is of a captivating movement, which seduces young people with promises of freedom but ends up subjecting them to a leader ”.

A catch phrase usually implies a double meaning. One literal, which is presented as a single meaning, and another that must be discovered between the lines and that can lead a person to expose it or say something that, in reality, they were not willing to confess.

A leading question can also play directly with the literal. A man leaves his house and finds his neighbor changing a tire on his car. Then he asks him: “Do you want me to give you a hand?” Given the affirmative answer from his neighbor, he takes a plastic hand out of his pocket, hands it to him and leaves. This humorous situation presents a trick question because it has a double intention.

Another similar example occurs when someone asks for a “glass of water” and, instead of receiving a glass with water inside, receives a glass made with (ice) water.

The aim of the catch phrases is to surprise the intelligence of the listeners and to generate in them a particular answer. In order to formulate them, it is necessary to take a characteristic of reality and express it in a confusing way, which allows a double interpretation. The interlocutor’s options are two: take at face value what these words imply (getting to get the wrong message) or try to understand the true meaning of the sentence (having to grasp the irony hidden in the words).

Adjective forms similar to capioso

According to DigoPaul, the adjective capioso is usually used to refer to speeches and reasoning that include a certain falsehood. These types of speeches are characterized by the fact that through a subtle chaining and a certain manipulation of the language, they manage to lead the interlocutor to find himself in a situation that he could neither suspect nor foresee. They tend to be based on principles that are true at first glance but lead to false consequences.

There are several adjectives that could be considered similar to tricky, among them we can mention: malicious, devious, twisted or insidious. Although some differences can be established between one and the other, due to the nuance that each adjective contains, in general they could be used as synonyms.

However, it is interesting to establish the difference between an insidious speech and a captious one, by choosing two that are very similar. This difference lies in the fact that the first is presented in a seductive way, while the second dazzles the interlocutor and does not have time to realize the deception. In both cases, when the interlocutor wants to react, it is too late and is already part of a mess from which it will be very difficult to escape.

In any case, a chatty speech is used by someone who does not have clear intentions or who knows that the only way to obtain the result (the response of the interlocutor) that he wants is through deception and the pronunciation of a diffuse message.


Meaning of Chaplain

Meaning of Chaplain

The first meaning that appears in the dictionary of the DigoPaul of the term chaplain refers to the religious who has a chaplaincy (an institution that grants certain goods with the obligation to fulfill Masses and other charges). Sometimes, by extension, an ecclesiastic is called a chaplain regardless of whether he has a chaplaincy or not.

It is common for a cleric who performs his functions in an institution that belongs to a certain group of the faithful to be called a chaplain. A chaplain, in this way, can be assigned to a college, a university, a hospital, a military unit or a prison, for example.

According to DigoPaul, chaplains give mass and give sermons in these kinds of places. According to the activity they carry out or the rank assigned to them, it is possible to recognize different classes of chaplains; Although most of the following names have fallen into disuse, it is necessary to know them to understand the historical documents in which they are mentioned:

* altar chaplain: he was the one who used to sing solemn masses in the royal chapel during feast days. The rest of the year, the office he celebrated was said. In certain churches, this name is also received by the priest who helps the celebrant;

* Choir chaplain: it could be any cathedral or church priest who attends canonical hours and the choir at services. Although they had less dignity than the rationary means, they helped through the formation of a community;

* honorary chaplain: he was the one who celebrated private masses for kings and other royals in their private oratories, in addition to attending canonical hours and offices, among other functions of the palace chapel, occupying the chaplain bench;

* Senior chaplain: one who in a community of chaplains or in a town hall occupies the highest position. In short, he is the one who has a group in charge;

* Military chaplain: this name is given to whoever performs his service in a battalion or a regiment, to name a case;

* chaplain of nuns is one who directs a community of religious and assists it spiritually;

* chaplain of His Holiness: he is a priest with the dignity of a monsignor who has this honorary title granted by the pope, who appoints him for having knowledge and powers that make him worthy of the position, in addition to having made invaluable contributions to the religious community . These men are generally elderly.

The concept of pastor is often confused with that of chaplain. While it is true that they share several of their characteristics, since the two roles are in charge of providing counseling and spiritual ministry to those in need, they have certain well-defined differences.

Typically, the pastor is associated with a specific parish or church, while the chaplain, with a particular agency or employer. Pastors focus on ministry to those who share their faith, or those who are thinking of converting to it, while chaplains often do not make their personal beliefs public.

Chaplain, finally, is the fish whose scientific name is Trisopterus minutus. Also known as mollera or minor pout, this animal belongs to the family group of the gádidos and usually lives in the Mediterranean Sea.

The chaplain has three dorsal fins that lack spines. With a small tail, it is a fish that is brown on the back and lighter on its belly, which is usually about eight inches long. The chaplain is part of the human diet and is also used to produce fish meal.


Meaning of Capicúa

Meaning of Capicúa

With etymological origin in the Catalan language, capicúa is a term that refers to that number that is identical when read from right to left and from left to right.

According to DigoPaul, 5775 is an example of a capicúa number. If we read it from left to right, we will find the following numerical series: 5-7-7-5. The same will happen if we read it backwards, from right to left: 5-7-7-5.

If we add 1 to 5775, we will obtain a new figure (5776) that will no longer be capicúa. As you can see, it is not the same to read 5776 from left to right (5-7-7-6) than from right to left (6-7-7-5).

Also called capicúa to the passage, ticket or ticket whose numbering is capicúa. Suppose a person purchases a bus ticket that presents the number 18381. Said ticket is capicúa.

The low probability of obtaining a capicúa ticket makes them collectibles or to which they are attributed good luck. In a series of 100,000 notes, there will only be 1,000 capicua notes. There is, in this way, one ticket or capicúa ticket for every hundred.

In Argentina, for many years the bus ticket was given by the driver to the passenger when he got into the vehicle and paid the money for the trip. These colored tickets had five figures: it was common for the passenger, upon receiving their ticket, to look at the numbering to see if it was a capicúa number. In case of being a capicúa ticket, in general the person kept it.

As in any similar case, there are those who would never get rid of a ticket with these characteristics, who would keep it with all possible precautions to prevent it from deteriorating, but there are also those for whom a capicúa number does not have any special meaning, so which they would throw away without thinking twice.

It is important to note that capicúa numbers are of great interest to people who are dedicated to numerology or who believe in its fundamentals. Numerology is the study of the meaning behind numbers. There are individuals who claim to see capicúa numbers at various times in their daily lives, on watches, on license plates, on television, and in many other places that seem to be sending them hidden messages.

For example, some people claim that they are “chased” by certain numbers or number combinations every time they spontaneously check the time, such as those who wake up at night always at the same time. Of course, the meanings of numbers can be positive or negative, so it is important to find them and do something about it if we really believe in these messages.

According to scholars of numerology, almost all numbers have a positive nature, except for the dreaded 6666, which announces the danger and which tells us about the devil himself, as well as the versions with the number 3; For example, in various works of fiction and stories of evil presences it is said that 3:33 is the time of the devil, so no one would want to wake up every night at that exact moment.

22 is one of the best numbers, since they indicate to those who see it that they are “on the right track “. Finding yourself spontaneously with a clock at 22:22, therefore, can be a source of joy and tranquility, especially if we are going through a difficult time, of doubts or of existential crisis.

The 11, for its part, can be associated with both the portals of light and those of darkness; Satanists are believed to use this number to “open negative portals” (the terrible events of 9/11 and 9/11 are used as the foundation for these ideas). All of its multiples have important meanings; 33, for example, indicates that “someone protects us”, while 77 assures us “happiness.”


Meaning of Hair

Meaning of Hair

The Latin word capillāris, derived from capillus, arrived in Castilian as capillary. The concept is used to refer to what is linked to hair (hair).

For example: “I am going to start a hair treatment to try to stop the progression of baldness”, “The stress caused me a hair problem”, ” Hair products are more expensive every day”.

While most of us are content to wash our hair every day, those who want to show it off in all its glory must spend much more effort on hair maintenance. According to DigoPaul, one of the essential tips is to brush your hair daily, as this action helps stimulate blood circulation to the scalp, which results in healthier and stronger hair.

Combing and brushing your hair is not a task that should be done in a hurry, with the sole objective of detangling it; on the contrary, there are those who do it two or three times a day for several minutes, seeking to massage the scalp gently but constantly.

Another point to which we should pay attention to be successful in hair care is the temperature of the water with which we wash our heads: it is known that hot water weakens the scalp, and negatively affects properties such as shine and the moisture of the hair. Precisely, it is important to wash your hair with natural water to seal the cuticles and achieve more shine and softness. In times of low temperatures, warm water is enough.

Similar to what happens with water, prolonged exposure of hair to high temperatures can dry out the scalp, something that causes progressive deterioration that results in a loss of shine. This also applies to excessive use of blow dryers and flat irons, which also negatively affect the ends and strength of the hair. There are moisturizing products that are usually indicated as a complement to these treatments, although the ideal is to avoid them completely.

People with unruly hair are often reluctant to comb their hair, although this could not be more counterproductive when it comes to hair care. Removing dead hair from our head is necessary for a hygiene issue; The knots must also be treated very delicately, to allow the hair to move freely and take advantage of the beneficial properties of the products we apply to it. Never pull hard, but try to loosen tangled areas with coconut oil or jojoba oil, for example, and practice patience.

The notion is also used to name tubes or ducts that are narrow. Within this framework, the thin blood vessel is called capillary that allows the circulation of the veins and arteries to be linked, establishing a network.

Blood capillaries, having a single layer of tissue, allow an exchange between the blood and those substances that are around it to take place.

One can differentiate between arterial capillaries and venous capillaries. Arterial capillaries carry oxygenated blood, while venous capillaries carry deoxygenated blood.

It should be noted that capillarity is the property of a fluid that is related to its surface tension, in turn linked to the cohesion of the fluid itself. Capillarity implies the ability of the liquid to descend or ascend through a capillary tube (a narrow tube through which a fluid circulates). This movement is due to the relationship between the intermolecular force of the liquid and its adhesion to the duct material.

Capillary tubes can be made of metal, glass, or another material. They are usually used in refrigerant circuits to allow the passage of the refrigerant liquid, which gains or loses pressure according to the moment.

Hair 2

Meaning of Capillarity

Meaning of Capillarity

In order to understand the meaning of the term capillarity, it is necessary, first of all, to discover its etymological origin. In this case we can say that it is a word that comes from Latin and is the result of the sum of three components of that language:
-The noun “capilus”, which can be translated as “hair”.
-The suffix “-aris”, which is equivalent to “relative to”.
-The suffix “-dad”, which is used to indicate “quality”.

According to DigoPaul, capillarity is called the phenomenon that makes the surface of a fluid, when in contact with a solid body, rise or fall according to whether or not the element in question is wetted.

The concept derives from capillary, which in one of its meanings refers to a very fine conduit. It is also said that a phenomenon is capillary when it occurs by capillarity.

It can be stated that this property is dependent on the surface tension of the liquid, which makes the liquid face resistance when increasing its surface. The surface tension, in turn, is linked to the cohesion of the fluid.

According to the surface tension, the liquid may descend or rise through the capillary tube. This phenomenon is what we know as capillarity.

When the cohesion between the molecules is less than the adhesion of the fluid to the tube, the liquid wets and, therefore, moves up the conduit. This rise will continue until the surface tension balances as a consequence of the weight of the fluid.

On the other hand, if the molecular cohesion of the fluid is greater than the adhesion to the tube, the surface tension causes a decrease in the liquid.

Capillarity makes the water, in a capillary tube, rise. This is why plants can absorb groundwater. The phenomenon, on the contrary, causes the mercury to descend in a glass duct.

The curve that is generated on the surface of a fluid as a reaction to the surface of the container is called the meniscus. The meniscus is concave when the molecules in the fluid and those in the tube attract each other (as in the case of water in a glass container) and convex if the opposite occurs (mercury in a glass tube).

Capillarity is also a very common term used in the construction sector. Thus, it is used to refer to a specific problem that can appear in buildings and homes. We are referring to the so-called capillary humidity.

This problem occurs because the water that exists in the land on which the construction has been carried out is a lot and that brings with it that it evaporates in the areas that perspire and that it gradually becomes present on ceilings and walls. The usual thing is that it is shown by means of dark colored spots, with dampness in what would be the so-called baseboards and even with bulging of the paint. All these manifestations that, to a greater or lesser extent, spoil the image of the home or the premises itself.

In order to put an end to this problem of capillarity and humidity, what will remain is to carry out an exhaustive analysis of the construction to be able to know the causes and take the appropriate measures. Among those alternatives would be to undertake a good insulation by waterproofing the affected walls and ceilings.


Meaning of Chapel

Meaning of Chapel

The term chapel finds its etymological root in the Latin language. A chapel is a construction that is part of a church or that is located next to it, having an altar and being consecrated to a certain dedication.

According to DigoPaul, the concept is also used to name a portable or private oratory. For example: “Father Martín is praying in the chapel”, “Tomorrow at 9 am there will be a mass in the school chapel to remember the deceased student”, “The ceremony will take place in the Guadalupe Chapel”.

You can distinguish between multiple types of chapels. If the chapel is inside a church, it can be called a main chapel (when it is located in the main sector) or a side chapel (located in a nave on one side of the main building). A royal chapel, on the other hand, is inside a palace, while a private chapel is part of a private home.

The Sistine Chapel, which is part of St. Peter’s Basilica (located in Vatican City), is one of the most famous chapels in the world. The popularity of the temple is linked to the presence of great works of art, such as the mural known as “The Last Judgment” made by Michelangelo in the 16th century.

The idea of a chapel is also used for the construction of various expressions. One of them is “being in the chapel”, which refers to being awaiting a decision that may lead to a sanction or being on the verge of a punishment: “I am in the chapel: the rector who told me that if a teacher returns to complain about my behavior, he will expel me.

On the other hand, in some Spanish-speaking regions it is said that someone “is a chapel” or “little chapel” to refer to their great devotion to the Christian religion. This usually has negative connotations, although it is not an insult but rather a criticism in a friendly tone, or an opinion about someone with whom we do not agree on everything but do not feel anything against him.

As a proper name, Capilla is a municipality in Spain that is located in the province of Badajoz, which in turn belongs to the autonomous community of Extremadura. It borders Córdoba and Ciudad Real, and numerous accidents can be seen on its land. This municipality has been populated since the most remote times, something that the many cave paintings prove among other evidences.

During the time that the Romans dominated certain territories of the Iberian Peninsula (which are jointly called Hispania Romana), Capilla did not stop having a large and important population: Pliny the Younger himself, a prominent scientist, writer and lawyer of the old Empire, he referred to it as a “distinguished municipality” and considered it a fundamental strategy point to maintain communications between Córdoba, Seville, Toledo, Mérida and Almadén.

With regard to its etymology, we can say that it simply takes us to the diminutive of the term layer, and it is probable that its use comes from one of the customs of the kings of France, which consisted of asking that the cloak be placed in their tent of San Martín de Tours, a patron Catholic bishop of many places. In this way, they began to refer to the store by the name of the chapel, and to the clergy who served in it, chaplains.

If we refer to the dictionary of the DigoPaul, we will find a meaning of the word chapel that defines it as “a hood that is attached to the neck of habits, overcoats or capes.”


Meaning of Capital

Meaning of Capital

The word capital comes from the Latin capitalis, which in turn derives from the term caput (“head”). It is, therefore, that belonging to or relating to the head.

In Christianity, the capital sins are those that are the beginning (the head) of others, such as lust, gluttony, laziness, greed, anger, envy and pride.

On the other hand, the execution of a convicted person by state authorities is known as capital punishment or death penalty. This penalty is applied as punishment for a crime considered very serious, such as an aggravated crime.

At the population level, the capital is the main city of a State, a province or a district. For example, the capital of Argentina is Buenos Aires; the capital of Spain is Madrid; the capital of Uruguay is Montevideo.

In the field of economics, capital is one of the productive factors (along with work and land). In general, the term is used to designate an amount of money that can be borrowed or invested: “I have a capital of 10,000 dollars to invest”, “At the moment, the capital of the company is limited to 50,000 pesos and nothing more”.

Capital according to Marx

“Capital” ( “Das Kapital”, in its original language) is a book by Karl Marx dedicated to the critique of political economy. Marx only published the first volume of the book while alive, while the other two were edited by his collaborator and friend Friedrich Engels.

Karl Marx was born in Germany on May 5, 1818 and died in the United Kingdom on March 14, 1883. He is remembered for having been an essential thinker who marked a before and after in the way in which humanity understands the production processes and social hierarchies. Marx worked alongside Friedrich Engels and they laid the foundations for Communism; These ideas were embodied in two important books ” Capital ” and ” The Communist Manifesto “.

As expressed by the German thinker in this book, the concept of capital refers to the value that is valued and explains that money in a productive process is “something” that allows its possessor (the owner of the means of production) to obtain more of it in future productions.

According to DigoPaul, this money can be used to buy raw materials and machinery that are more apt to carry out greater production in less time and at the same time buy labor or, in Marxist terms, labor power, that is, to hire workers.

In this way, with the passage of time and reaching the point of time in which the acquired machinery is so worn that it is necessary to replace it, the contracts have been terminated and it is necessary to buy more raw material, a balance will be made between what invested and certain gains from production may be noted. Hence, it is understood that it is a value that is revalued, because it generates more profit, therefore it is as if it were worth more in itself.

He later affirmed that this capital was responsible for the existence of various social classes in a society, where one group took over the work of the others (by having a greater amount of money and being able to hire them) to exploit the means of production. However, if there were a revolution where the production process had no owner, it could be lived in a utopian and balanced society.

In conclusion, for Marx, Capital should be something that was owned by everyone, because in this way social classes and the favoritism of the rich over the poor could be eliminated. This idea is approved by many people, however, it has not been possible to put it into practice because we live in a complex world and all those who try to carry the flag of Marxism end up falling into the clutches of ambition and abuse of power.


Meaning of Working Capital

Meaning of Working Capital

Working capital is defined as the ability of a company to carry out its activities normally in the short term. This can be calculated as the assets left over in relation to the short-term liabilities.

According to abbreviationfinder, working capital is useful to establish the equity balance of each business organization. It is a fundamental tool when carrying out an internal analysis of the firm, since it shows a very close link with the daily operations that take place in it.

Specifically, we can establish that all working capital is sustained or formed from the union of several fundamental elements. Among them, those that give it meaning and form, are negotiable securities, inventory, cash and finally what is called accounts receivable.

It is also important to highlight the fact that the main source of working capital is the sales made to customers. Meanwhile, we can determine that the fundamental use that is given to said capital is to undertake the disbursements of what is the cost of the goods that have been sold and also to face the different expenses that the operations that entail. have been rushed.

However, among other uses are also the reduction of debt, the purchase of non-current assets or the repurchase of outstanding capital shares.

When current assets exceed current liabilities, you are facing positive working capital. This means that the company has more liquid assets than debts with immediate maturity.

In the other sense, negative working capital reflects an equity imbalance, which does not necessarily represent that the company is bankrupt or that it has suspended its payments.

Negative working capital implies a need to increase current assets. This can be done through the sale of part of the fixed or non-current assets, to obtain the available asset. Other possibilities are to carry out capital increases or incur long-term debt.

In addition to all the above, it is important to also emphasize that there are two other types of working capital that are delimited based on time. Thus, first of all, we would have to refer to what is known as permanent working capital. This is defined as the set or quantity of current assets that are needed to cover in the long term what are the minimum needs.

And then secondly, we have temporary working capital. In this case, it can be determined that it is the amount of these current assets that is changing and modifying based on the requirements or needs of a seasonal nature that take place.

Among the sources of working capital, we can mention normal operations, the sale of bonds payable, the profit on the sale of negotiable securities, the contributions of funds from the owners, the sale of fixed assets, the refund of the tax. on income and bank loans.

It should be noted that the working capital should allow the firm to face any type of emergency or loss without going bankrupt.

Working Capital

Meaning of Capitalism

Meaning of Capitalism

After the fall of feudalism, the economic model that emerged in Europe during the 16th century and managed to impose itself at that time, was baptized as capitalism. Among its main characteristics is the stockpiling of capital as the axis of economic life.

The capitalism is a system of economic fundamentals in which the ownership of production resources is private. These media operate on a profit basis, while financial decisions are made based on capital investment and with a view to competition for consumer markets and wage labor. The highest social class that falls within this model is called the capitalist bourgeoisie.

The definition of capitalism, however, is not exact. Liberal democracies, for example, understand capitalism as that system where the production, commercialization and values ​​of goods and services are established and conditioned by some form of free market.

According to DigoPaul, in capitalism, all those involved act and commit themselves according to their interests: the capitalist, who has the resources, seeks to expand his profit through the accumulation and reproduction of capital; the worker, for his part, fulfills his work to receive a material remuneration (salary); Consumers seek to obtain the greatest possible satisfaction or utility when purchasing products or contracting services of various kinds.

In broad strokes, capitalism differs from its predecessor economic system, feudalism, because the capitalists buy work from the workers in exchange for wages and not under a moralistic demand that forces people to work as slaves. Likewise, the most marked difference between capitalism and socialism is the existence of private property as a right that all individuals have, in socialism there is social property of the elements of production and the exchange of goods. It should be noted that no socialist state kept these ideas to the letter and that the way to impose said economic and social system was through forceful measures.

In capitalism, propertyThe private sector occupies a fundamental place, not only does it consist of the basic principle of capitalism but also, thanks to it, all the other elements that form it are regulated, such as the freedom of companies, self-interest as the main motivation, price system, reduced state interference in the market and existence of competition.

If we are guided by what was stated by Ayn Rand, one of the most essential intellectuals of the last century, we can affirm that capitalism is the only economic system that could help the human being to develop following the demands of his nature: rational and free. The moral justification of capitalism would lie in the fact that in this system the human being has the right to life and property, which Rand considers fundamental to develop as free people and that if they were not, none of the other rights could be exercised.

It should be noted that capitalism has been criticized from different currents of thought that accuse it of promoting exploitation, by conceiving the task of the human being as another commodity. The very contradiction of the system lies in the fact that it relies on private means of production that work with a workforce of collective scope: that is, while capitalism reproduces itself collectively, the wealth that is obtained is the private property of the capitalist..

Talking about capitalism as the perfect economic system is also a mistake, it should be noted the great flaws it presents, such as increasing the enrichment of a few at the cost of the impoverishment of the most vulnerable. In any case, if certain changes could be established, possibly life in society would improve considerably. It would be enough to change the conditions of the exchange of goods and services, the market bases, the degree of competitiveness and measures that the state takes based on the economic market.


Meaning of Capitalization

Meaning of Capitalization

Capitalization is called the act and the consequence of capitalizing: taking advantage of something for your own benefit. In the specific context of the economy, capitalizing means transforming something into capital or contributing capital to a company.

To understand what capitalization is, therefore, we must first know that, in the economic field, the asset or good whose function is to generate wealth is called capital. Capitalization, in short, aims to provide capital or to convert something into capital.

According to DigoPaul, the market capitalization, also known as market capitalization, is the value of all the shares of a company, a market or industry. Said value is estimated from the listing on the stock market.

It can be said that the market capitalization represents the equity of the company that is available for sale and active purchase through the stock market. This capitalization equals the price per share at a certain point in time, multiplied by the number of shares that are outstanding. If there are 10,000 shares of a company outstanding and each share is worth $ 50, the market capitalization of the company in question is $ 500,000.

The mere capitalization is the procedure followed when changes in capital are not cumulative. This means that the interest generated in each period is not added to the capital when calculating the new interest for the following period: that is why the interest is proportional to the capital available and to the period.

The compounding, however, is the periodic interest accumulation of capital, generating more interest your time.

In the same way, it must be clear that in Spain there is also what is known as capitalization of unemployment or capitalizing unemployment. Basically we can establish that it is a measure implemented with the clear purpose of encouraging unemployed citizens to become self-employed professionals and can begin to undertake, to self-employ.

The measure in which it consists is to allow a person who can advance his pending unemployment payment as long as he is going to allocate it as an advance to an entrepreneurial activity.

The people who can access this capitalization are those who are going to join a cooperative as working partners, who are going to register as self-employed and who are going to use the amount of the benefit to be able to contribute social capital to what is an entity of merchant type. This entity that, yes, must have been created at least twelve months before the moment in which the money is contributed.

In the field of cryptocurrencies, capitalization has also taken on a special role. Thus, in the market, in order to be able to know their status, it is common for both their market capitalization and their diluted capitalization to be analyzed. This last term refers to the value that each cryptocurrency is expected to have based on both its present and the possible appearance of other new cryptocurrencies that are not yet in circulation.


Meaning of Mahogany

Meaning of Mahogany

The first thing to know before the meaning of the term mahogany is its etymological origin. In this case, we can underline that it is a word that derives from taurí. Specifically, it derives from “tauba”, which can be translated as “year”. And it is that the aborigines used the growth rings of the stem of a tree to be able to count the years.

According to DigoPaul, the mahogany is a tree belonging to the family group of the Meliaceae (species with alternate leaves composed, axillary flowers and fruits capsule-shaped). There are different species of the genus Swietenia that bear this name.

The Swietenia mahagoni is one of the best – known mahogany trees. Also called aguano in some countries, this mahogany is considered the national tree of the Dominican Republic. The Swietenia macrophylla (known as big leaf mahogany or mahogany Honduras) and Swietenia humilis (mahogany Pacific) are other mahogany species.

It should be noted that, according to the DigoPaul, the mahogany tree can also be called mahogany.

These trees present a highly valued wood. The term mahogany, in fact, is also used to refer specifically to this wood and its characteristic color. For example: “I love mahogany furniture”, “For our wedding my parents gave us a beautiful mahogany table”, “The model wore mahogany pants with a striped blouse”.

Mahogany is one of the so-called “fine woods” as they have many positive qualities. On the one hand, they stand out for their appearance: mahogany products have a particular beauty. In addition, these woods have a very good resistance to humidity and to the activation of parasites.

Musical instruments, boats and various types of furniture are made with mahogany. The exploitation of these woods, however, is regulated to avoid overexploitation. Uncontrolled logging affects the savannas and rainforests where these trees grow.

In the same way, we cannot ignore the existence that in the cinema there are films that use the term at hand to give shape to their titles. This would be the case, for example, of the film “Mahogany, mahogany skin.” It is an American feature film that was released in 1975 and had Berry Gordy as director.

Diana Ross, Anthony Perkins, Nina Foch and Billy Dee Williams led the cast of this story that tells how a fashion designer manages, after overcoming a long list of setbacks, to become a successful professional.

Within the field of aesthetics, the term that we are addressing is also used. Specifically, it is used to refer to the mahogany hair color, which has been in fashion for a few years. It is a coppery-brown shade that is considered to suit women with more medium or dark skin and even those with green eyes. However, there is also a lighter mahogany color that is ideal for fair-skinned women.


Meaning of Chaos

Meaning of Chaos

Before entering fully into the meaning of the term chaos, it is necessary to discover its etymological origin. In this case, we can establish that it derives from the Greek, exactly from the word “khaos”, which was used to refer to a “deep and dark abyss”.

Moreover, it must be determined that in Greek mythology it is established that Chaos was a deity without personality who was in charge of shaping Erebus, the god of darkness, and Nyx, the goddess of the night.

In general, the idea of chaos refers to the lack of order, disorganization or confusion. Something that is chaos lacks structure, logic or criteria that allow it to be properly arranged.

For example: “This house is chaos! We have to clean and order urgently ”, “ Because of the bad decisions of the president, the club is experiencing chaos ”, “ Chaos in the city center due to the protests of workers in the agricultural sector ”.

According to DigoPaul, chaos is often linked to the absence of an authority that establishes limits. Suppose that, in a company, several managers resign. In the absence of control, employee absenteeism increases and productivity decreases. Workers, on the other hand, have nowhere to turn to raise their concerns. That is why the company in question can be said to be in chaos.

If in a soccer game two players start fighting with fists, then all their teammates join in and even the coaches and the public participate in the brawl without anyone being able to stop the violence, it can be affirmed that the meeting became chaos.

Within the field of music, the term chaos that we are now dealing with has also been used. A good example of this is that the Madrid singer Malú has a record work that goes by the name of “Chaos”.

Specifically, we can determine that it is his tenth studio album, that he released it in November 2015 and that he achieved a huge sales success, making some of his songs number one. Hence, he carried out a tour called “Tour Caos” both in Spain and abroad.

The first single that this album presented was “Quiero”, followed by the song “Encadenada a ti” and finally “Caos”.

“Chaos. Nobody can tell you who you are ”is also the title of a book written by Magalí Tajes. This is a compendium of stories, games and even challenges for the reader without forgetting that it also has a dominant note: humor.

In the field of mathematics and physics, chaos is the unpredictable behavior, which seems to be erratic, of different systems that vary according to the initial conditions. This behavior is deterministic, but the appearance of the phenomena is random.


Meaning of Cape

Meaning of Cape

According to DigoPaul, a cape is a long, loose garment, open at the front and sleeveless. The term comes from the Latin cappa. For example: “The count showed up in a velvet cape and a top hat”, “My uncle usually wears a cape in winter, even though the garment is out of fashion”, “I would like to buy a matching red cape with my wallet and my shoes ”.

In its origins, the cape was a fairly common coat that was used to cover the back of the torso. The usual thing was to hold it with a clasp around the neck or one of the shoulders. The cape fell into disuse and currently only appears on gala clothing or certain ritual garments.

The superheroes usually wear layer since, the agitated by movement or wind, causes a dramatic effect. Superman and Batman are two of the superheroes who wear capes. In this context, it is common for the public to associate capes with the ability to fly, especially of individuals whose species does not naturally possess it.

Among the iconic characters in the world of comics who, for various reasons, can fly freely despite not having wings, very few do so without wearing a wide and striking cape on their backs. However, there are examples such as Rogue, also known as Titania, one of the members of the well-known group of Men X; His mutant powers consist of absorbing the abilities of others and also allow him to fly for unlimited time, but he wears a tight-fitting jumpsuit (a one-piece suit that covers the entire body) and a jacket to the waist.

Given that, with some exceptions, the cape has an aesthetic purpose, the explanation for the fact that some flying characters do not wear it may lie in the fact that they have some other element that reacts to the wind in a graphic and obvious way for the public; in the case of Titania, without a doubt, her bulging hair is enough to denote the effect of her movements tens of meters above the ground.

Issues related to the differences that society establishes between men and women can explain why Superman does not have long hair or Titania, a cut close to the head; If her physical aspects were reversed, it is likely that the enigmatic Metropolis journalist would lose less by changing her clothes in the phone booths, and that the daring mutant would need a cape to make a greater impact on her followers as she glides through the air as a bird.

The term is also used to name what covers something: “This house needs a coat of paint to look like new”, “I have prepared a vanilla cake and covered it with a layer of dark chocolate”, “A dense layer of snow hinders the transit of vehicles on the provincial route.

Another use of the notion of layer refers to the overlapping areas that form a whole: “Scientists undertook to carry out an exhaustive study of the layers of the atmosphere to assess environmental damage”, “The government must ensure the well-being of all the social layers ”.

Certain design applications use layers to organize documents; this happens, for example, with Phostohop and Blender. In the first case, the layers correspond to a virtual representation of a series of sheets placed one on top of the other. Blender, on the other hand, makes use of the independent concept of the position in space of each element: a layer is understood to be any group of objects, which can be hidden or shown according to the user’s needs.

Cape 2

Meaning of Capacity

Meaning of Capacity

From the Latin capacitas, the capacity is the ability of something to house certain things within a limited framework of some way. For example: “The capacity of the stadium was full in just over an hour”, “We still have two bags to carry, but the trunk no longer has more capacity”, “This jug has a capacity of two liters”, “I think we are about to exhaust the capacity of the deposit ”.

In the field of science, we talk about different types of abilities. The electric capacity is defined as the property of the capacitor (or capacitors) that establishes the link between the voltage difference (potential difference) of the capacitor plates and the electric charge stored therein.

The heat capacity, moreover, is the split between the amount of energy transferred to a system or body in a process and the temperature change recording.

According to DigoPaul, capacity, on the other hand, is the dexterity, ability and suitability that allows a person to successfully complete a task: “He is a man of great ability who deserves an opportunity to run the company”, “The man does not have the sufficient capacity to solve a similar problem “, ” No one questioned your ability, but the truth is that you do not have the experience to solve this.

Although this term is often confused with ” talent “, it is necessary to clarify the differences between the two, as well as the peculiarities of the latter, which is also often misunderstood. The capacity is understood as the conditions that a person meets to learn and cultivate different fields of knowledge, understood as a series of natural tools, whether they have been used by him or not. As well as in its meaning referring to a container or a pool, it speaks of the space available to accumulate and develop concepts and skills.

It is very common to speak of ability in a general sense, even when the topic of conversation is a particular discipline. And it is that in reality, although it is not incorrect to say that “someone has a great capacity to play the piano”, this concept is broader, and should be used to describe the mental flexibility of a person, how easy it is to cope to a new intellectual challenge, whatever it may be. This is where talent gets confused.

Talent is associated with a particular activity or area of ​​knowledge, although there are different ways of understanding it. The most common is to use it as a synonym for aptitude, referring to that portion of a person’s capacity that specifically serves to internalize a concept or discipline (for example: playing the piano). On the other hand, there are those who consider that talent is the set formed by natural abilities, dedication to learn and improve, and the result obtained after a time of intense work.

Certainly, human beings waste most of our mental capacity, settling for a small percentage, enough to emulate the lives of our elders, while making ourselves believe that we are building our own path. Outside of scientific studies that strive to translate these questions into numbers, it often happens that we discover skills in ourselves that we have never explored before, and as we embark on the adventure of learning and specializing, we get to know each other more, understanding that our limits They are much further away than we thought.

For the law, legal capacity is the ability of a subject to exercise the ownership of obligations and rights in a personal way. The capacity to act, on the other hand, is the legal power that establishes the effectiveness of the actions carried out according to the civil status of the individual.