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All You Need to Know About Cross Allergy

All You Need to Know About Cross Allergy

When you bite into an apple or an apricot, your mouth suddenly starts to itch. Shortness of breath is noticeable after the chocolate cake. These signs indicate a cross allergy. But what exactly does that mean?

What is a cross allergy?

A runny nose, reddening of the eyes or a sore throat immediately after eating are indications of an intolerance. See AbbreviationFinder for abbreviations related to Cross Allergy.

A cross-allergy always occurs when another allergy is already present. The symptoms of cross allergy can be similar to those of pollen allergy.

Sneezing fits, watery eyes, itchy rashes and shortness of breath. However, since the allergen enters the body when you eat and is not only absorbed through the air like pollen, a cross-allergy can also become dangerous. Swelling of the mouth or windpipe can cause suffocation.

In the worst case, an anaphylactic shock can occur with a cross-allergy. This state of shock is life-threatening and requires emergency medical care.


The causes of cross-allergies are clear: the patient has an allergy and now reacts to other substances. A cross allergy has developed. The reason: Due to the similarity in the structures of certain allergens, the patient suddenly reacts to foods that were previously well tolerated.

A cross-allergy is very common in pollen allergy sufferers. Almost half of those allergic to birch pollen also react to stone fruit, soy, celery and nuts. People who are allergic to grass pollen can develop cross-allergies to peanuts, potatoes, grains, soybeans and tomatoes. Even with an allergy to house dust mites, a cross-allergy can easily develop. Suddenly those affected can no longer tolerate marine animals.

Sometimes it is enough if, in the case of a cross-allergy, the threatening foods are simply removed from the dining table during the pollen season. But sometimes only a consistent and decades-long renunciation helps.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

The cross allergy can manifest itself in different symptoms. They depend on the one hand on the main allergen and on the other hand on the way in which the allergenic substance comes into contact with the patient. In this context, contact with the skin, contact with the mucous membrane of the mouth, nose and throat, with the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract come into question.

In this context, the symptoms of the cross-allergy are not always the same as those of the main allergy. While the birch pollen allergy is one of the allergies that irritate the mucous stimuli and cause itching of the eyes as well as a runny nose, the cross-allergy to apples or nuts can be recognized by tingling and swelling in the mouth and throat area.

Symptoms in the area of ​​the mucous membranes can affect the eyes, nose, throat and respiratory tract in general. Allergic conjunctivitis (conjunctivitis) of the eyes manifests itself with itching, redness and swelling. The mucous membranes of the nose react with secretions and sneezing attacks occur. An allergic cough is also possible. A complication that can occur with almost all cross-allergies is anaphylactic shock with shortness of breath and loss of consciousness.

Allergens that get into the mouth with food cause tingling and swelling there and can become evident in the further course of digestion with gastrointestinal complaints. Allergens that react to skin contact are contact allergens. Here the skin forms itchy, sometimes weeping wheals.

Diagnosis & History

The suspicion of a cross-allergy must be confirmed by the doctor. If allergic symptoms have occurred, the allergist will examine the blood to detect any allergens. In an interview, he will discuss the further procedure with the patient.

In addition, the doctor will provide information about all those allergens that can also trigger a cross-allergy. If there is only an allergy to pollen and no cross-allergy has yet occurred, those high-risk allergens should be avoided or at least their consumption should be restricted as a precautionary measure.

The ingredients of finished products should also be read carefully. Because in the case of a cross-allergy, even the smallest traces are enough to trigger an allergic reaction.


Since the allergic reaction in a cross-allergy is basically the same as in a normal allergy, the cross-allergy can lead to just as serious consequences as any other allergy. Cross allergies can lead to different symptoms depending on the severity. If the cross-allergy exists, for example, in addition to a pollen allergy in the form of a food allergy, complaints in the mouth and throat area, but also in the gastrointestinal tract, can be expected when certain foods are eaten.

Severe symptoms of a cross allergy can be very dangerous. As with general allergies, cross-allergies can lead to serious complications, such as allergic shock. Allergic shock as a life-threatening complication can lead to impaired blood circulation and, in extreme cases, to cardiac arrest. Because allergic shock is an emergency, it must be treated by a doctor with medication or CPR for cardiac arrest.

Another complication is shortness of breath, which can occur with both the original allergy and the cross allergy. The allergic reaction can cause the mucous membranes in the larynx, trachea and bronchi to swell. A narrowing of the inner cross-section impedes the flow of air, resulting in shortness of breath. If contact with the allergen in question can be avoided, the occurrence of possible complications can be minimized.

When should you go to the doctor?

Those affected who suffer from an allergic reaction should always seek detailed information from a doctor about possible cross-allergies. As soon as the presence of an allergy has been confirmed by medical tests, extensive information is required about cross-links to other allergic triggers. If you still experience watery eyes, itchy skin or discolouration of the skin after eating food, you should consult a doctor. A runny nose, reddening of the eyes or a sore throat immediately after eating are further indications of an intolerance.

A doctor must be consulted for medical treatment. The sudden and rapid emergence of pustules and poplars on the skin indicates irregularities that should be examined. If you experience a feeling of tightness in your throat or shortness of breath, consult a doctor as soon as possible. If you stop breathing, feel suffocated, or lose your ability to breathe, call an ambulance. People who are experiencing severe anxiety or a panic attack due to reduced ability to breathe need immediate medical attention. If the person concerned experiences an anaphylactic shock, his life is in danger. An ambulance must be called and first aid measures must be initiated immediately by those present to ensure survival.

Treatment & Therapy

If a cross-allergy and the pollen or house dust mite allergy associated with it remain untreated, there is a risk that the symptoms will worsen. A gradual shift from watery eyes and sneezing fits to shortness of breath, skin reactions and even circulatory collapse takes place.

If the dreaded anaphylactic shock occurs, a cross-allergy can even lead to death if left untreated. Treating a cross-allergy begins by identifying the original allergy. If this allergy is combated, the cross-allergy often disappears as well. If an allergy remains untreated, there is a risk of further allergies and cross-allergies. The lives of those affected are becoming increasingly restricted.

In the first place, the allergens should be avoided. This includes all foods associated with the cross-allergy. Medications are used to alleviate the symptoms. Acupuncture, autohemotherapy, the consumption of black cumin oil, nettle tea or homeopathic globules have already led to many a cure. However, these alternative forms of treatment do not help all patients.

Conventional medicine recommends desensitization. Here the smallest amounts of the allergen are injected under the patient’s skin. Once the pollen allergy has been treated, the cross-allergy to the food often improves as well.

Outlook & Forecast

There are testimonials from those affected in whom allergies and thus also cross-allergies have grown together, in which they suddenly disappeared. This is not the norm. Those who manage to consistently avoid the allergen have the best prognosis of not suffering any health damage from a cross-allergy. If this is possible, there is usually no further allergic reaction that could be considered hazardous to health.

Since consistent avoidance of an allergen is not always possible, desensitization also has a good prognosis for many of those affected. Anyone who attends all appointments where weakened pathogens are injected for increasing desensitization has a good chance of suffering no or at least only weakened allergic reactions.

When this is also not possible, sufferers have to live with drugs that are given as needed to interrupt the allergic reactions caused by the cross-allergy. Today’s drugs are very safe and so well tolerated that children can usually be treated well with them. If the medication is taken as prescribed by the doctor, the prognosis is good that the cross-allergy can be brought under control.


A cross allergy cannot always be prevented. However, it is important to avoid allergy triggers. Indoor mold should be eliminated. Tobacco smoke is also harmful to the body. A mother should exclusively breastfeed her child for at least six months to reduce the risk of allergies.

If an allergy is already present, certain foods should be consumed with caution. These include nuts (hazel pollen allergy), stone fruits, carrots, celery (birch pollen allergy), spices (mugwort allergy) and tomato, kiwi, melon (grass pollen allergy).


The question of aftercare depends on the success of the initial therapy. In principle, there is a chance of healing with the help of hyposensitization. If this is successful, no follow-up care is necessary. The recurrence of the cross allergy is excluded. In all other cases, the disease persists.

Aftercare aims to avoid acute contact with allergens and to train the patient for his everyday life. This happens in a conversation. Scheduled follow-up examinations, such as those known from tumor diseases, are not planned. The person concerned therefore has a high degree of personal responsibility. When preparing food, certain foods should be avoided or prepared in such a way that no intolerance arises.

Nutritional advice promises long-term freedom from symptoms. The prevention of complications is also a mainstay of aftercare. It can always happen that carelessness causes an allergic reaction. In this case, the patient must know how to behave. He will be informed about this as part of the initial diagnosis. As standard, those affected should have an allergy pass and an emergency bag with medication with them. However, these measures are only suggested by doctors. It is up to the patient to implement it themselves.

You can do that yourself

If you have a cross-allergy, there are a few helpful tips that allergy sufferers can use to make everyday life easier. The preparation can help with allergic reactions to fruit or vegetables. Instead of raw apples or cherries, cooked alternatives such as apple or cherry pie or apple compote can be more tolerable. Cooked carrots are also better tolerated. Individual varieties often make the difference.

Avoiding alcohol as much as possible can also be very helpful for allergy sufferers, as alcohol can intensify the allergic reaction. The same applies to stress. It is therefore important to avoid possible stressful situations and burdens in everyday life. When it comes to nutrition, individual nutritional advice is recommended in order to find possible alternatives to food.

Medicines basically help to alleviate the various symptoms of an allergy. These can be tablets, inhalation sprays, creams or ointments or injections. A balanced diet is also important, as is avoiding the allergen. In the event of severe allergic reactions, those affected and those around them should be informed about how to deal with severe circulatory problems in the event of an allergic reaction. This includes an allergy pass and an allergy emergency kit with the appropriate medication. Physical activity and a healthy lifestyle can reduce allergies and reduce symptoms.

Cross Allergy

All You Need to Know About Polio

All You Need to Know About Polio

Polio (poliomyelitis) is a highly contagious infectious disease. If left untreated, it can lead to death due to severe paralysis that can attack the lungs and respiratory organs and render them inoperable. However, there is a vaccination against polio, so that this disease has only rarely occurred in Germany since the 1960s.

What is polio?

Even if poliomyelitis is largely under control in this country thanks to oral vaccination, many people still suffer from the long-term effects of early childhood polio. The early symptoms of polio can be non-specific and undramatic. Poliomyelitis only takes a severe course in a few infected people.

Polio (poliomyelitis), or simply polio, is a highly contagious infectious disease transmitted by poliovirus types I, II, and III. After an illness, paralysis can remain or even lead to death. See AbbreviationFinder for abbreviations related to Polio.

Usually the viral disease is always febrile. The paralysis is caused by the polio virus infested spinal cord, which controls movement. In principle, poliomyelitis has become rare in industrialized countries since around 1960 and the introduction of preventive oral vaccination. The last disease in Germany caused by a wild virus was reported in 1990. However, vaccination coverage in society is declining more and more.

In more than 95 percent of the cases, poliomyelitis goes unnoticed and without symptoms. In about one percent of cases, the described paralysis or meningitis occurs, which can leave permanent damage.


With polio (poliomyelitis) you get infected by RNA viruses from the group of polioviruses. These are highly contagious and are transmitted fecal-orally. The infection is comparable to the transmission of hepatitis A, which means that you become infected by consuming contaminated food or drink. In contrast, infection through coughing, sneezing or kissing is rare.

The incubation period for polio is quite long, ranging from three to 35 days before it breaks out. The disease proceeds in two phases. After infection, the viruses multiply in the body and unspecific symptoms such as headaches and body aches, loss of appetite, diarrhea, fever and difficulty swallowing occur.

After this first phase of the disease there is a symptom-free interval and the viruses penetrate the central nervous system and thus trigger the second phase of the disease. Symptoms of this phase are muscle pain in general, especially back pain, paralysis, increased sensitivity to stimuli and meningitis.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

Even if poliomyelitis is largely under control in this country thanks to oral vaccination, many people still suffer from the long-term effects of early childhood polio. The early symptoms of polio can be non-specific and undramatic. Poliomyelitis only takes a severe course in a few infected people. It is dangerous that post-polio syndrome with considerable symptoms can still occur many years after the actual infection.

Symptoms of polio infection may be absent or lead to mild abortive poliomyelitis. There are usually unspecific symptoms such as high temperature, headache and body aches, loss of appetite, sore throat or diarrhea. About five out of a hundred infected people show such symptoms at all. Two forms of polio can occur in severely affected individuals: non-paralytic polio and classic paralytic polio.

The former leads to meningitis with fever, stiff neck, muscle and back pain and increased sensitivity to external stimuli. Classic polio leads to permanent signs of paralysis on the extremities. In addition, severe back pain and complaints of varying severity in the breathing, swallowing, speech and eye muscles can occur. Fatal respiratory paralysis can occur.

course of the disease

Child paralysis (poliomyelitis) can occur in three different courses of the disease. They differ in the type and intensity of the symptoms and, above all, whether the central nervous system is affected or not.

In the low, the so-called subclinical course, the signs of the disease are rather minor. After six to nine days, the disease breaks out in the form of fever, nausea, headache and sore throat. Overall, it is milder and the central nervous system is not infected.

In the non-paralytic course (which occurs in about one percent of all people infected with polio), the person affected has fever, back and muscle pain and neck stiffness. In this course of the disease, the central nervous system is affected, but the course of the disease is milder than in the paralytic course.

In this case, the person concerned suffers from paralysis, especially of the legs. This paralysis can also remain after the illness. In two to 20 cases, patients who suffer from a progressive form of the disease with paralysis die.


Complications of poliomyelitis are widely diversified in their manifestation. With consistent physiotherapeutic treatment, symptoms of paralysis can completely regress up to two years after the acute phase. However, despite therapy, muscle impairments often remain. In some cases, not only the leg muscles but also the trunk muscles are affected by paralysis.

Over time, severe scoliosis of the spine develops, as it is not sufficiently stabilized by the weak muscles. As a result, breathing can be significantly affected. If no appropriate therapy takes place during convalescence, the dysfunction of the affected muscles remains much more pronounced. Corresponding effects on the musculoskeletal system such as joint misalignments, circulatory disorders, osteoporosis, breathing and swallowing difficulties are more serious.

Paralyzed extremities often grow restricted, which later leads to leg length discrepancies, a tilted pelvis and scoliosis. Orthopedic aids such as crutches, splints and manual wheelchairs put additional strain on healthy joints after many years of use. In addition, a history of polio must be taken into account for each subsequent general anesthetic.

The dosage must be adjusted accordingly in order to avoid problems waking up after anesthesia. The most common late effect is the post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Years or decades after the illness has been overcome, extreme tiredness and the sudden onset of new paralysis occur. Muscles that were not previously affected can also become diseased.

When should you go to the doctor?

A doctor is required for symptoms such as paralysis, restricted mobility, joint problems and body aches. Being unable to move around unaided is a worrying condition. In particular, asymmetrical paralysis of the limbs are signs of a serious illness. Since poliomyelitis can lead to death in severe cases without medical care, a doctor should be consulted as soon as the first irregularities appear.

If there is a refusal to eat or drink, problems with the digestive tract, diarrhea or nausea, a doctor should be consulted. In the case of a headache or a general feeling of pain throughout the body, examinations are necessary to clarify the cause. Back pain, changes in breathing, and increased irritability are red flags that should be followed up. If breathing stops or anxiety occurs due to shortness of breath, it is advisable to consult a doctor. Consultation of a doctor is necessary as soon as persistent irregularities of the muscular system occur.

If there was no physical overexertion, this is considered unusual and should be examined. If you have a fever, sore throat or stiff neck, see a doctor. If circulatory disorders occur, if there is a general feeling of illness or if you have problems chewing, swallowing or speaking, you should see a doctor. Problems with the eye muscles or the heart rhythm must be presented to a doctor as soon as possible.

Treatment & Therapy

On the one hand, infant paralysis (poliomyelitis) can be diagnosed by the visible symptoms such as signs of paralysis. However, it is also possible to detect the virus in faeces, throat secretions or brain fluid. If the patient is in the first phase of polio, many feverish infections are possible because of the non-specific symptoms.

Even if paralysis has already occurred, there are other diseases that resemble the course of polio. Only the symptoms of polio can be treated, i.e. the symptoms are alleviated with medication. So far it has not been possible to fight the virus directly.

If polio is suspected, strict bed rest is usually required. Otherwise, physiotherapy is recommended and in the event of signs of paralysis, the person concerned is positioned alternately to relax the muscles. Vaccination against polio is also possible.

Outlook & Forecast

The prognosis for polio is usually good. This disease can heal spontaneously. These occur in a period of up to two years after infection. Nevertheless, medical care should always be sought for a good prognosis, since the disease is associated with complications in many of those affected. Without treatment, the risk of a severe course of the disease increases. This can lead to the premature death of the patient. There is also the possibility of lifelong impairments and secondary diseases.

With a sufficient and comprehensive treatment, individual therapy methods are used. These depend on the extent of the symptoms and the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis and the start of treatment. In addition to the administration of medication, physiotherapeutic support is also used to alleviate the movement impairments. In addition, possible late effects of polio are limited in this way. Displacements of the spine or differences in the length of the limbs should be avoided.

An unfavorable course of the disease is given as soon as the cranial nerves of the person concerned are affected. In these cases, the prognosis is poor. Polio shows a significantly increased mortality rate in the sick patients. Up to twenty percent of those affected die prematurely.


Polio is an infectious disease caused by poliovirus. In technical terms, this is called poliomyelitis, or polio for short. This term is made up of the words “polio” and “myelitis”, which together describe the inflammation of the spinal cord caused by the polioviruses. Although the term suggests that only children can get poliomyelitis, adults are also often affected.

In many cases, polio is asymptomatic, but it can also lead to severe, permanent paralysis of varying degrees. It becomes particularly dangerous when the viruses affect the respiratory function. In the past, it was very common for affected people to be placed in the so-called “iron lung” in order to be able to breathe at all.

The polioviruses are transmitted through human contact, so it is a so-called contact infection. The original plan was to completely eradicate poliomyelitis within the 21st century, however, due to political, geographic and global implications, this plan has not worked. As a result of the African civil war in 2012, there were almost 200 new infections, including in Nigeria, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Chad. However, there are also individual infections within the EU, such as in Ukraine in 2015, where only about half of all children are vaccinated.

The only effective remedy against polio is preventive, comprehensive vaccination. In the past, this step was done by means of an oral vaccination, nowadays children in the third month of life are given a basic vaccination, which is refreshed after ten years. In the case of persons at risk, further vaccinations can be carried out later if necessary. The STIKO (“Standing Vaccination Commission”) recommends a combination vaccination against polio (child paralysis), tetanus (lockjaw), diphtheria (infectious disease) and pertussis (whooping cough).

You can do that yourself

In the acute phase of polio, the bed rest prescribed by the doctor must be strictly observed. A muscle-relaxing position counteracts muscle cramps in the event of signs of paralysis, and warm, moist compresses can relieve pain. Light physiotherapy under supervision is already useful at this stage and should be continued consistently after the illness.

Permanent paralysis or joint damage to the spine or extremities require an adjustment of everyday life to the changed circumstances. Many mobility restrictions can be compensated for by aids such as walking splints, walkers or wheelchairs, and a barrier-free living space makes it easier to maintain the usual daily routine. In many cases, it is also possible to remain in professional life. It is important not to overtax the body and to pay attention to its signals. Sufficient sleep and regular rest breaks ensure the necessary recovery, unnecessary stress and excessive physical exertion should be avoided.

Post-polio syndrome, in particular, tends to worsen with exertion. Exploring your own limits must therefore be done with extreme caution. Mentally, the illness is processed better if limitations are not viewed as a weakness, but are accepted as a given. For many sufferers, it is helpful to talk to other sufferers in a self-help group or to talk to a psychotherapist.


All You Need to Know About Hyperlexia

All You Need to Know About Hyperlexia

Children who learn to read well ahead of their peers and display a strong fascination with letters and numbers sometimes owe their extraordinary abilities to a syndrome known as hyperlexia. This is considered a possible sign of autism, Asperger’s or Williams-Beuren syndrome.

What is hyperlexia?

Children affected by hyperlexia usually have an IQ of average or slightly above average. They have an exceptional talent for deciphering languages ​​and thus become very early readers. See AbbreviationFinder for abbreviations related to Hyperlexia.

Hyperlexia, from the Greek “hyper” (over) and “lexis” (pronunciation, word), describes a child’s remarkably good ability to read. However, this is accompanied by difficulties in understanding and using spoken language correctly and difficulties with social interactions.

The syndrome was first identified in 1967 by Norman and Margaret Silverberg, who defined it as a precocious reading ability without prior practice, typically occurring before the age of five. They found that affectedchildrenhave a gift for decoding words that far exceeds their reading comprehension. Many experts believe that hyperlexia is an indicator of autism.

Others, such as Darold Schlagt, have identified different types of the syndrome, only some of which are linked to autism and Asperger’s Syndrome. These are neurologically normal children who are very early readers (type 1), autistic children who develop early reading as a gift (type 2), and children who display autistic-like traits that disappear with age (type 3).


The exact causes for the development of hyperlexia are not known. It is believed that the syndrome results from overdevelopment of certain areas of the brain while others remain underdeveloped. If the phenomenon occurs as a result of autism or Asperger’s, possible explanations can be found here. Various triggers of autism are currently being investigated.

First, genetic factors may play a role. Over 100 genes and more than 40 gene loci have already been identified that are involved in the disease. The many possible combinations of genetic abnormalities ensure the great diversity and breadth of the autism spectrum.

Symptoms, Ailments and Signs

In 2004, researchers discovered signs of altered connectivity, i.e. the large-scale flow of information, in the brains of Asperger’s patients. Brain scans showed both areas of increased and decreased activity, as well as less synchronization of the activity patterns of different brain areas. In addition to global under-connectivity, i.e. reduced linkage, local over-connectivity also frequently occurred.

This is understood as the over-specialization of certain brain activities. The peculiarities in the behavior of the patients that occur as a result, for example when grasping connections between feelings, people and things, can also be observed in hyperlexic children. Therefore, dealing with the triggers of autism and Asperger’s can provide information about the causes of hyperlexia syndrome.

Diagnosis & course of disease

Children affected by hyperlexia usually have an IQ of average or slightly above average. They have an exceptional talent for deciphering languages ​​and thus become very early readers. In most cases, they develop normally up to the age of 18 to 24 months, only then do the abnormalities appear more frequently.

If a child is able to spell long words before the age of 2 and read full sentences before the age of 3, they may be affected by the syndrome. Other talents include fast letter and syllable counting and reverse reading. At the same time, noticeable communication difficulties can often be observed in the children.

Many of them only learn to speak through intensive repetition and have difficulties in learning the rules of a language through examples or trial and error. This often entails social problems, which also arise from the fact that hyperlexic children have less interest in playing or communicating with others. They rarely initiate conversations, often they develop special and unusual fears.

The children use echolalia, i.e. repeating sentences and words, to develop their language. They often have a large vocabulary and can name many objects, but cannot use their language skills in the abstract. Spontaneous expressions are missing and the pragmatic use of language is underdeveloped.

Hyperlexic children often have trouble answering where, how, and why questions. It is not uncommon for those affected to be cognitively overwhelmed by parents, educators or teachers, who also expect special skills and achievements from them in areas other than reading. In everyday life they need routines as they encounter difficulties in changing with ritual behavior.


Hyperlexia mainly causes psychological problems that cannot be treated in every case. In many cases, children have special gifts or abilities, so that they learn to read or do arithmetic at a relatively early age. In addition to these positive aspects, there are also limitations in other areas of life, which can make the everyday life of the affected children very difficult.

There can also be communication difficulties, for example, which can lead to teasing or bullying, especially among children. Most children with hyperlexia also have no need to play or talk to other children. They often develop fears of communication and contact with other people. If these fears are not addressed in childhood, they can lead to serious social problems in adulthood.

The treatment itself does not lead to any particular complications and, as a rule, is carried out through various therapies. However, it cannot be predicted whether the therapies will be successful and lead to a positive course of the disease. Not infrequently, the parents also suffer from psychological problems due to hyperlexia.

When should you go to the doctor?

If a child shows behavioral problems in direct comparison to other children of the same age, these should be discussed with a doctor. If the development of the child has changed or is not age-appropriate, there are often diseases that require treatment or the child needs special support for the existing skills. Medical tests are performed to diagnose possible disorders or level of development. If the person concerned finds it difficult to make connections between people, things and feelings, this is considered unusual. If contexts cannot be recorded, a doctor should be consulted.

If letters and words are learned very early on without the influence of adults, this observation should be pursued further. If long words can be spelled at a very young age, it is advisable to consult a doctor. If there are difficulties in the areas of communication, feelings or physical closeness, a doctor should be consulted. If the rules of the language cannot be grasped despite a lot of practice, a visit to the doctor is advisable. A doctor should take a closer look at the behavior of children who show little interest in social contacts or playing with toys. If parents or carers of the child recognize that patterns to be learned are not accepted by the child, a doctor should be asked for advice as a neutral observer.

Treatment & Therapy

Hyperlexia can be treated if the condition is diagnosed early enough. This requires intensive speech therapy, which should be started in an early phase of child development. This allows the child to acquire better language skills and develop social skills more easily.

If they already have advanced reading skills, these should be used as the primary approach to speech therapy. It is important that experts, parents, educators and teachers work together as a team. Applied Behavior Analysis (“ABA”), which is commonly used in the treatment of autism, may also be beneficial for the associated hyperlexic syndrome.

It is a holistic form of therapy that has also included teaching language skills since the 1980s. The aim of these measures is to develop social and communicative skills. The children’s existing abilities are used as the basis on which the therapy program is built. The parents are included in the treatment, learning attempts and successes are reinforced as directly as possible.

Outlook & Forecast

The ability to learn letters and numbers before other children do is not stopped or treated. It is the result of the child having above-average intelligence and, in most cases, indicates that another disorder is present. For this reason, hyperlexia is not an independent disease that is treated. It is the result of an existing underlying disease that needs to be diagnosed and treated medically. In most cases there is a brain disorder which, despite the above-average ability to deal with numbers and letters, leads to a reduction in opportunities in other areas of life. It is often not possible for the patient to lead an independent life.

The patient’s treatment needs are not focused on the hyperlexia and are therefore not given priority. Rather, support measures take place so that the skills of hyperlexia are used and the patient is not under-challenged in this area, which in turn can trigger new complications.

The prospect of curing or minimizing hyperlexia can be classified as constant for the reasons given. In speech or behavioral therapy, existing cognitive possibilities are promoted and dealing with the ability is trained. This leads to an improvement in the emotional state of most patients and thus to a better sense of well-being.


Since the causes of hyperlexia are still largely unexplored, no preventive measures can be recommended. In connection with autism, theories have repeatedly emerged in recent years that interpret the disease as a possible consequence of vaccine damage. However, these have not yet been proven and, in the case of vaccines containing thiomersal, have even been disproved. So refusing vaccination most likely does not protect against autism and hyperlexia.


In the case of hyperlexia, the follow-up measures are severely limited in most cases. The person concerned is primarily dependent on a quick diagnosis with subsequent treatment so that further symptoms or complications can be prevented. This also prevents the symptoms from getting worse.

The disease does not really need to be treated by a doctor, but the children do need strong support in their lives so that they can exercise their skills properly. Parents must recognize hyperlexia early on and have it examined by a doctor. After that, the children are dependent on special support.

Behavioral therapy may also be necessary in some cases to relieve the symptoms of this disorder. Care and support from one’s own family or from relatives and acquaintances also helps to alleviate or even prevent mental upsets or depression. Parents must be fully and correctly informed about this disease. Contact with other people affected by hyperlexia can also be very useful, as this often leads to an exchange of information.

You can do that yourself

Parents of affected children should primarily organize speech therapy for their child. If the therapeutic treatment is started, language skills can be promoted and social restrictions reduced. The therapy must be supported by the parents at home by reading a lot with the child and doing arithmetic. If the child already has advanced reading skills, reading skills can be specifically improved. The child may be able to start school earlier and fully utilize their mental abilities.

Accompanying this, behavioral therapy is always indicated. Early behavioral training is particularly important for children with hyperlexia associated with autism. Parents or legal guardians should receive training on this and, if necessary, speak to other parents. This allows the optimal treatment for the child to be found.

If, despite everything, the child has difficulties integrating, further therapeutic advice may be useful. The child may need to attend a special needs school or take medication to relieve associated symptoms of the underlying autism disorder. The pediatrician or a child psychologist can decide which measures are to be taken in detail.


All You Need to Know About ANSOC

All You Need to Know About ANSOC

According to abbreviationfinder, ANSOC stands for Cuban National Association of the Deaf. It is a non-governmental social organization with its own legal and economic personality, national and permanent, based in Cuba.


It was founded on January 3, 1978 and its main objectives are: to represent the Cuban deaf community; achieve greater integration into society; coordinate and channel to state agencies and social institutions concerns, desires, interests, difficulties and needs of the members.

Main objectives

  • Fight for the integration of its members into Cuban society with equal rights and duties, conditions and opportunities.
  • Promote interest in study, work, love of country, and thus achieve the proper use of their free time, increasing their participation in social, cultural, sports and recreational activities.
  • Raise and strengthen the cultural level, guiding them in their duties and rights as participants in the economic and social development of the country.
  • Work for the elimination of barriers in social communication that prevent or limit the normal life of the hearing impaired.
  • Contribute with educational actions on the family, in order to achieve a positive influence on their preparation for life.
  • Promote campaigns for the early detection of disabilities, the abuse of toxic drugs, the use and care of hearing aids and others that promote health education.
  • Facilitate bilingual education for the deaf community based on current educational terms.
  • Coordinate and obtain the support of the mass media, mainly television and the written press, to inform its members and the rest of the population of its objectives, purposes, activities and achievements.
  • Provide solutions to labor problems taking into account the opportunities of the employment program for disabled people (PROEMDIS).
  • Mobilize all members to fulfill the tasks for the development of Cuban society.

Achievements obtained

  • Increase in the number of places for interpreters.
  • Respect for the sign language of the deaf and introduction of it in the pedagogical context.
  • Creation of the national communication commission.
  • The preparation of the deaf as pedagogical assistants and instructors of the LSC.
  • Participation and significant results in sport.
  • Formation of professional cultural groups.
  • Celebration of the First ANSOC Congress.
  • Participation of Cuba as a member of the FMS.

Due to the support provided by the association, currently deaf people have been able to overcome some of the barriers that society imposes on them. It is the ANSOC that guarantees and provides a certain degree of independence and value through the defense of their personal identity given this by the culture that characterizes their community.


All You Need to Know About Runner

All You Need to Know About Runner

The term corridor can be used in different ways. The concept is used to name the athlete who is dedicated to running in sports competitions. For example: “The Jamaican runner won a new gold medal”, “Ethiopia is a country that has numerous top-level runners”, “The tournament will feature the participation of more than twenty runners who will come from various parts of the world”.

According to DigoPaul, racing car drivers are also called runners: “The German runner dreams of consecrating himself in the next race”, “Five runners were injured in a multiple collision on the first lap of the Italian Grand Prix”, “Many years ago there are no Argentinian runners in Formula 1”.

In economics, a broker is a person or company that acts as an intermediary, linking sellers with buyers in exchange for a commission. An insurance broker, in this framework, links insurance companies with individuals who may become their policyholders.

Brokers thus sell, buy or trade on behalf of others. Bookmakers, to cite another case, receive money from players who bet on a certain event and then pay the winners, keeping a commission.

A stockbroker is the natural or legal person who is hired to carry out advisory, investment or securities transaction work in certain commercial and financial markets. To be able to register with the Securities Superintendence and carry out this activity, it is first necessary to pass an aptitude test and give evidence of capital solvency.

In other words, we can say that stockbrokers are financial consultants to which certain companies and individuals go for advice before embarking on risky investments. The normal path to becoming a stockbroker requires firstly studying at the university level ; Until a few years ago, it was enough to have a gift and good contacts, but nowadays it is easier to get there with a degree.

Recommended majors for a job as a stockbroker include: business administration, accounting, mathematics, finance, and economics. In addition, it should be noted that the more prestigious the university, the more job opportunities will appear.

Before completing your studies, it is always appropriate to seek internships in brokerage houses to gain experience and have a more attractive resume. Future success largely depends on this step, although many prefer to do postgraduate studies and raise money to become more “reliable” candidates. As in almost all aspects of life, luck and chance play a fundamental role in this case.

The secret of a good stockbroker is in his vision, in his intuition, and for this, constant training is necessary, beyond the academic one. The title is just a key to find a good job interview, but success will only come to those who make the most effort, read, watch and learn at every step. The process of learning a subject never ends: the more we know, the more “gaps” we notice in our knowledge.

A corridor can also be a region made up of areas that share certain characteristics. That is the case of a biological corridor, a protected area so that certain species can recover. Other corridors of this type are road corridors (roads with specific conditions) and air corridors (routes that aircraft must follow).

The covered galleries that develop around a patio and the corridors of different buildings are also called corridors.


All You Need to Know About Coordination

All You Need to Know About Coordination

Derived from the term coordinatĭo of Latin origin, the concept of coordination describes the consequences of coordinating something. This verb is also used to present the methodical disposition of a certain thing or the effort made to carry out a common action.

In anatomy, for example, various types of coordination are recognized based on the joint work of various organs. One kind of coordination is muscular in nature, as it revolves around the ability of muscles to synchronize. When a movement is required, the muscle group must reach a certain intensity and speed to complete said action. Previously, a learning process and automation are required, which are regulated at the cerebellar and vestibular levels, aided by visual perception.

In this sense, they can clearly establish three differentiated types of coordination in the anatomical field. Thus, on the one hand, there is motor coordination, which is defined as the ability that allows anyone not only to handle objects or move, but also to move or play as a team.

Secondly, we should talk about eye-pedal coordination, which is the one in which our feet become the necessary instruments to carry out actions such as jumping various obstacles, moving around or driving a ball.

And finally, in third place, there is the so-called visual-motor coordination. It is characterized because the whole body is necessary to perform different required movements. However, it is also vital that a visual perception of the space is produced, both of what is occupied and of what is free, where the person is and where they are going to do those.

According to digopaul, coordination chemistry, on the other hand, focuses on studying the emergence, characteristics and reactivity of coordination complexes made up of a central atom or ion and its ligands.

For politics, coordination is presented as a logical action that involves different public administrations of the same nation. In the field of international politics, coordination refers to the organization of different agencies, nations or entities, with the purpose of promoting joint work towards a single goal.

In this sense, a series of institutions and bodies dedicated to the aforementioned activity serve as examples, such as the Political Coordination Board that exists in the Chamber of Deputies, the Ministry of Political Coordination or the Policy Coordination Cabinet. Social that exists in the Dominican Republic.

The business organization also highlights the importance of having coordination, since this way it is possible to integrate and link different sectors with the aim of carrying out multiple shared tasks.

So much so that even today there are web pages where this business coordination is promoted and the actions that are being carried out in this area and more specifically in aspects such as occupational risk prevention are disclosed. This would be the case, for example, of the portal for builders in the Balearic Islands.

Finally, we can remember that coordination, in grammar, highlights the relationship that can be established between words or syntactic groups of the same hierarchical degree, so that none of them is subordinate to the other.


All You Need to Know About NCIS

All You Need to Know About NCIS

According to abbreviationfinder, NCIS stands for Naval Criminal Investigative Service. It is an American series of the year 2003, which deals with the subject of investigations in the US Marine Corps.


Special Agent Leroy Jethro Gibbs is the leader of a team of Special Agents belonging to the NCIS (Naval Criminal Investigative Service) Major Response Team for Navy-Related Cases. Gibbs, a former Marine sniper, is a tough investigator and highly skilled interrogator who relies on instinct as much as evidence. Gibbs’s second in command is Investigative Agent Tony DiNozzo, a womanizer, movie buff, and former Baltimore homicide detective, who despite being the class clown always gets the job done. Also on the team is field agent Ziva David, a former Mossad officer who is an expert combatant. Agent Timothy McGee, a computer expert and writer who became famous for a Best Seller on NCIS work, using his own co-workers, only changing their names in the book. Helping them in the lab is Abby Sciuto who is like a daughter to Gibbs. In the forensic study is Dr. Donald Mallard, who always has an anecdote of his life in each case and talks with the dead at the work table. The doctor is aided by medical student Jimmy Palmer.

The team is frequently assigned high-profile cases such as the death of the President’s nuclear missile adviser, a bombing event on a Navy warship, the death of a celebrity during a reality show on a United States Marine Corps base States, terrorist threats and kidnappings. However, they can be assigned any type of criminal case, as long as it is related to the Marine Corps or the Navy.

Actors and Characters

  • Mark Harmon: Special Agent Jethro Gibbs
  • Michael Weatherly: Special Agent Anthony DiNozzo
  • Cote de Pablo: Agent Ziva David
  • Pauley Perrette: Abby Sciuto
  • David McCallum: Dr. Donald Mallard
  • Sean Murray: Special Agent Timothy McGee
  • Brian DietzenJimmyPalmer


  • Season 1: 2003-2004
  • Season 2: 2004-2005
  • Season 3: 2005-2006
  • Season 4: 2006-2007
  • Season 5: 2007-2008
  • Season 6: 2008-2009
  • Season 7: 2009-2010
  • Season 8: 2010-2011
  • Season 9: 2011-2012
  • Season 10: 2012-2013
  • Season 11: 2013-2014
  • Season 12: 2014-2015
  • Season 13: 2015-2016
  • Season 14: 2016-


All You Need to Know About IPv4

All You Need to Know About IPv4

According to abbreviationfinder, Ipv4 stands for Internet Protocol version 4 which is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP), and the first to be implemented on a large scale. Defined in RFC 791.


The TCP/IP protocol is the protocol used to manage data traffic on the network. This protocol is actually made up of two different protocols that perform different actions.

On the one hand, there is the TCP protocol, which is in charge of data transfer control, and on the other, there is the IP protocol, which is in charge of identifying the machine on the network.

Use of IPv4

IPv4 uses 32 -bit addresses, limiting it to 232 = 4,294,967,296 unique addresses, many of which are dedicated to local area networks (LANs). Due to the enormous growth that the Internet has had (much more than I expected, when IPv4 was designed), combined with the fact that there is a waste of addresses in many cases, it was already several years ago that IPv4 addresses were scarce.

This limitation helped spur the push towards IPv6, which is currently in the early stages of deployment and is expected to eventually replace IPv4.

The addresses available in the IANA global pool belonging to the IPv4 protocol were officially exhausted on Thursday, February 3, 20111 The Regional Internet Registries must, from now on, handle their own pools, which are estimated to last until September 2011

Currently there are no IPv4 addresses available for purchase, therefore there is a forced and priority obligation to migrate to IPv6, operating systems Windows Vista, 7, Unix/like (Gnu/linux, Unix, Mac OSX), BSD among others, they have native support for IPv6, while Windows XP requires using the prompt and typing ipv6 install to install it, and older systems do not have support for it.

Waste of addresses

The waste of IPv4 addresses is due to several factors.

One of the main ones is that initially the enormous growth that the Internet was going to have was not considered; large address blocks (of 16.271 million addresses) were assigned to countries, and even to companies.

Another reason for waste is that in most networks, except the smallest, it is convenient to divide the network into subnets. Within each subnet, the first and last addresses are not usable; however, not all remaining addresses are always used. For example, if you want to accommodate 80 hosts in a subnet, you need a 128-address subnet (round to the next power of 2); in this example, the remaining 48 addresses are no longer used.

Transition to IPv6

Actually we are all involved. From end users to developers of software and operating systems, network and communications hardware, and in general, all kinds of entities.

The Internet is a network that does not have an “executive management” as such, there is no single command, but rather we are all the Network.

In the organization that deals with the standardization of Internet protocols, the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) we have fulfilled the mission, and about 15 years ago we began work to develop the new IPv6 protocol, and since approximately 2002 we can say that the base of the protocol, compared to IPv4, is fully finished and tested. ISOC (Internet Society), to which the IETF administratively depends, has also supported the development and deployment of IPv6.


All You Need to Know About Contract

All You Need to Know About Contract

According to digopaul, contract is a term originating from the Latin word contractus that names the agreement or pact, whether oral or written, between parties that accept certain obligations and rights on a given matter. The document that reflects the conditions of this agreement is also called the contract.

For example: “The Chilean player will sign the contract in the next few hours and will join the team immediately”, “Tomorrow we have to go to the real estate agency to sign the contract for the renewal of the lease”, “The company violated the conditions of the contract and will be fined”.

The contract, in short, is an agreement of wills that is manifested in common between two or more people (individuals or legal entities). Its clauses regulate the relations between the signatories in a certain matter.

When determining the content of any type of contract, we would have to make it clear that three fundamental elements must appear in it: the data relating to the subjects who sign it, the pillars of the provision and consideration that is established, and the way in which the approval is given to it by the two parties involved.

There are many types of contracts that exist, however, among the most significant are the following:
• Private, which is made directly by the people who sign it.
• Public, which is authorized by public employees.
• Formal. In this case, it is the contract that, as established by the relevant legislation, has a very specific form of consent by the subjects involved in it.
• Bilateral, which is the one that establishes that those who sign them assume from that very moment a series of obligations.

One of the areas where the contract is most important is in the labor sphere, since it becomes the mechanism by which a company obtains the services of a worker and this, in exchange for a salary, assumes a series of tasks.

Specifically, within this sector we find subsidized indefinite contracts, training contracts, for a very specific duration, intermittent permanent work, part-time work, for people with disabilities, relief work, for research staff, indefinite without any kind of bonus…

All contracts give rise to legal effects, which are the enforceable obligations established in their content. If a company contractually promises to provide a certain service and then fails to deliver, it is possible to sue the company.

Most legal systems require that contracts meet three requirements: consent (the will of the parties), object (things or services that can enter the field of commerce) and cause (the reason that leads to the parties to enter into the contract).

There are various kinds of invalidity that render the contract without legal effect. Nullity is a generic situation that prevents the deployment of the legal consequences of the agreement and takes it back to the time of its conclusion. Rescission, on the other hand, is another judicial declaration that annuls the contract.


All You Need to Know About Suspension Trauma

All You Need to Know About Suspension Trauma

Suspension trauma is an emergency medical shock condition that can also be described as orthostatic shock. The sufferer hangs in an upright position, allowing blood to pool into the legs that hang down. Being placed in a prone position too quickly can result in death.

What is suspension trauma?

According to abbreviationfinder, suspension trauma is usually diagnosed by rescue teams and rescue services and is based on visual diagnostics and vital signs. The diagnosis at the site of the event is absolutely necessary for a favorable course, since the person concerned must not be brought into the lying position too quickly.

Suspension trauma is a shock that can occur as a result of prolonged hanging in a harness system. In a harness, the person concerned is forced to an upright posture. Its extremities usually hang down. This pose can cause blood to pool in the extremities due to gravity. If the affected person is released from their upright position, this release can result in a so-called rescue collapse, since the circulatory regulation cannot cope with the rapid change in posture.

The phenomenon of suspension trauma has been known since the 1970s and is a rather rare occurrence. Nevertheless, since the discovery, several deaths have been documented, which can probably be attributed solely to this phenomenon. The physician Amphoux first described the hanging trauma in connection with cavers who had suffered an accident and who had only suffered a minor fall and mysteriously died as a result of the fall.


When a person changes from a lying position to a standing position, around 600 milliliters of blood can pool in the veins of the legs. The arterial blood pressure and the cardiac output decrease briefly with this phenomenon. The body reacts to this phenomenon by constricting the blood vessels. The heart rate increases and catecholamines are released.

The blood vessels in the brain are equipped with self-regulating mechanisms and thus ensure blood flow. But if there is not enough counter-regulation, then the cerebral blood flow is extremely reduced. As a result, dizziness sets in. However, this does not result in an orthostatic shock, since the person concerned sits down or lies down at the first dizziness or a fainting sign. In this way, the orthostatic change is compensated for again.

No equalization can take place in a belt system. The counter-regulatory mechanisms of the organism are overwhelmed and the blood is redistributed. There is a lack of volume, which can even be exacerbated by constrictions caused by the straps.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

Symptoms of suspension trauma are, to some extent, individual. Above all, the time at which it occurs over time is determined by the individual constitution of the respective person. As a rule, the first symptoms appear after a minimum of one minute and a maximum of 20 minutes. Those affected turn pale in the face. You start sweating and you feel dizzy. The legs usually become numb after a while.

Other misperceptions also appear at times. Those affected often suffer from swelling nausea, which can increase to the point of vomiting. Shortness of breath and dizziness are added. Disturbances of the perception system can occur. Visual disturbances are the most common.

Sometimes there is also a bloodless bloodletting at the attachment points of the straps. Even necrosis or varicose veins may appear spontaneously at the site of strangulation. The pent-up blood in the extremities may contain toxic substances, such as those found in post-ischemia syndrome.

Diagnosis & course of disease

Suspension trauma is usually diagnosed by rescue teams and rescue services and is based on visual diagnostics and vital signs. The diagnosis at the site of the event is absolutely necessary for a favorable course, since the person concerned must not be brought into the lying position too quickly. Too rapid a rearrangement can lead to cardiac death because the heart muscle is overstrained.


If a suspension trauma is not treated, the patient usually dies relatively quickly. For this reason, immediate medical treatment of the trauma is necessary to avoid consequential damage and death of the patient. The longer the patient hangs on the belt system, the more complaints and complications usually occur.

There is vomiting and severe nausea, and the affected person continues to suffer from dizziness and gasping. Misperceptions and paralysis occur in various regions of the body and the quality of life decreases sharply. There are also severe visual disturbances, which, however, normalize again with treatment. The general condition of the patient worsens, and after a few minutes, as a rule, the affected person loses consciousness and faints.

Complications can arise if the patient is moved too quickly during treatment. In this case, the heart can be overloaded and cardiac death occurs. In many cases, resuscitation is necessary when the suspension trauma has lasted for a long period of time. It cannot be predicted whether the suspension trauma will cause permanent damage to the patient.

When should you go to the doctor?

If a suspension trauma is suspected, an emergency doctor must be alerted immediately. The trauma represents a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment and subsequent comprehensive evaluation at the hospital. If symptoms such as abnormal sensations, nausea and vomiting or shortness of breath occur a few minutes after an accident, often in connection with external injuries, the emergency services must be called. Visual disturbances, dizziness and pain can also be warning signs that require rapid clarification.

Externally, a hanging trauma can be recognized by the pale complexion and the frequent outbreaks of sweat. If the legs or other limbs also become numb, a doctor should be alerted. First responders must provide first aid until a doctor is available. After a suspension trauma, the affected person has to spend a few days to weeks in the hospital, depending on how severe the injuries are. After discharge from the hospital, regular examinations by the doctor are indicated, as complications can still occur weeks later.

Treatment & Therapy

Rescuing the patient is the first step in treating suspension trauma. The victim should be placed in an upright position for the next 20 minutes. If this principle is ignored, the orthostatic change can have life-threatening consequences. This is especially true when toxic substances have accumulated in the extremities. Further treatment of the suspension trauma depends on the symptoms.

For example, the first responders remove clothing that is too tight. The patient’s breathing and circulation are continuously monitored. If normal breathing stops and the patient loses consciousness, conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation is done. If there is only a loss of consciousness but breathing remains normal, the person is placed in the recovery position.

When emergency medics reach the scene of the accident, an oxygen supply is initiated. A venous line is placed. In combination with this, a blood sugar determination takes place. When hypoglycemia is present, emergency medical professionals give the patient glucose as a crystalline solution. Sympathomimetics such as adrenaline are sometimes administered intravenously. If the circulation does not stabilize in this way, sufficient volume administration is indicated.


Suspension trauma can be prevented to a certain extent by solely using appropriate harness systems and rope loops. In the event of a fall, the person concerned places their legs in these loops to stimulate the muscle pump. However, hanging trauma cannot be ruled out with certainty.


Anyone who has experienced a suspension trauma as a rope access worker can suffer from the typical symptoms again at any time. Because a crash can happen again by accident. In certain professions and in certain leisure activities, there is simply an increased risk. Follow-up care is primarily related to preventive measures aimed at ensuring that the sufferer uses positioning systems with foot slings and work seats that reduce the risk of suspension trauma.

Doctors and insurance companies provide information about suitable fall protection. However, the use of such systems is the responsibility of the patient himself or his employer. Beyond preventing recurrence, aftercare aims to manage consequential damage. These occur primarily when the patient has been in the safety harness for too long or has suffered a shock.

Aftercare is then based on the existing symptoms. Many forms of aftercare are conceivable, from lifelong permanent treatment to short-term therapies. Doctors provide suitable aids and medicines. In addition to a detailed anamnesis, examinations may also include imaging procedures. Sometimes a psychological stress disorder occurs as a result of a suspension trauma. Psychotherapy provides relief and shows the way to a symptom-free everyday life.

You can do that yourself

People who have felt trapped in a harness system for a long time should only change their body position slowly. Blood circulation can be continuously stimulated, for example, by moving fingers or toes. Further movements of the limbs, such as the wrist or ankle, can be gradually initiated by circling or tilting.

Sudden loading of the limbs with body weight should always be avoided in the event of a hanging trauma. Helpers who want to free those affected from the belt system must be informed about the approximate time of the current position and existing complaints. With numbness in the arms or legs, the body lacks the strength to carry its own weight. The muscles have not been sufficiently supplied with oxygen and other nutrients through the vessels, so that they usually need several minutes to be able to function again.

After an accident, those providing assistance should contact a paramedic immediately. This usually has sufficient experience not to trigger excessive demands. The person concerned should avoid overestimating their condition after sitting in a rigid position in the belt system for a long period of time. A good reflection of his physical possibilities reduces danger for him and is helpful for the recovery process. The urge for liberation often prevails and leads to a further risk of accidents.

aminations do not make sense. On the one hand, this is due to the fact that the typical complaints can be easily avoided by avoiding high levels; on the other hand, the disease is permanent and cannot be treated according to current scientific knowledge.

The best way for climbers to avoid acute complications is to climb slowly, gradually adapting to the changing conditions. On the other hand, there are no complaints at all during scheduled follow-up examinations in the rooms of a doctor’s surgery, since there was no increase in altitude. The aftercare does not prove to be effective here either.

Aftercare is also about supporting the patient in everyday life. The doctor can give you tips on how to behave on the next mountain hike. However, the patient is responsible for implementation. If you have severe symptoms, you should start the descent immediately. On longer tours, accommodation in lower plains is preferable. The increase should be slow. It should be borne in mind that the body needs time to adapt to the changed climatic conditions.

You can do that yourself

People who suffer from altitude sickness should always carry an altimeter with them. In many cars it is already firmly integrated into the on-board system and can be called up at any time with current data. Nevertheless, it is advisable to also have a mobile device with you that can be worn on the body and also measures the height in real time. At the first symptoms of altitude sickness, it is necessary to check the current position in which the person concerned is located. A return to a much lower altitude should be initiated as quickly as possible and there the symptoms should be awaited.

Since altitude sickness can quickly turn into a life-threatening condition, unnecessary risks should be avoided. A doctor must be called if symptoms worsen or drowsiness occurs. Staying in higher areas should be well thought out and planned. If possible, avoid it.

Those affected and their close relatives should obtain comprehensive information about the disease, the symptoms and the resulting consequences. Spontaneous mountain tours should be avoided. The organism can often slowly adapt to certain altitudes. Therefore, if it is necessary to stay at certain heights, several days or weeks should be planned in which only gradual ascent takes place.

Suspension Trauma

All You Need to Know About Immune Complex Vasculitis

All You Need to Know About Immune Complex Vasculitis

Immune complex vasculitis is a form of blood vessel inflammation. It is one of the subgroups of vascular inflammation.

What is immune complex vasculitis?

According to abbreviationfinder, the various gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms cause numerous complications, such as epilepsy or intestinal infarction, which can be fatal. If the heart is involved, angina pectoris can result, which can lead to a heart attack.

Immune complex vasculitis is a form of vascular inflammation (vasculitis). Vasculitis causes the walls of the blood vessels to become inflamed. Immune complex vasculitis occurs when the vascular inflammation is caused by an immunological reaction. Immune complexes are deposited on the walls of numerous smaller blood vessels.

Doctors then also speak of leukocytoplastic vasculitis, allergic vasculitis or hypersensitivity vasculitis . Doctors distinguish between cutaneous and systemic immune complex vasculitis:

In cutaneous immune complex vasculitis, sufferers suffer from inflammation of the small blood vessels near the skin. In the run-up to the vascular inflammation, a bacterial infection, which is usually caused by streptococci, or a viral disease appears.

If, on the other hand, the vasculitis is caused by antibodies and takes a chronic course, this can usually be traced back to hepatitis C. There is talk of systemic immune complex vasculitis when not only the skin is affected by the vascular inflammation, but also the kidneys and the entire central nervous system.


Immune complex vasculitis is caused by the deposit of larger immune complexes originating from the blood on the vessel walls of the blood vessels. This usually happens due to an over-sensitivity of the immune system to drugs or components of germs. Sometimes the leukocytoplastic vasculitis also appears in the context of a systemic immune complex vasculitis.

The formation of smaller immune complexes occurs, among other things, when a smaller wound is infected with bacteria. These are bound in the wound by specific antibodies of the organism. The complexes can be easily dissolved in the blood. Their degradation takes place in the liver. However, if larger accumulations of foreign substances and corresponding antibodies come together, this leads to the formation of large immune complexes.

This process usually takes place in the context of infections in which a larger number of germs penetrates the blood. The most common triggers include throat infections caused by viruses or streptococcus bacteria, and infections with hepatitis B or hepatitis C viruses. Some people also develop antibodies to drugs such as certain antibiotics, painkillers, birth control pills, or diuretics.

If large amounts of germs or drugs against which antibodies already exist get into the blood, this results in the formation of huge immune complexes. Since these are difficult to dissolve in the blood, they are deposited as solid substances on the walls of the blood vessels. This is especially true in blood vessels where there is slow blood flow, such as very small veins.

If the immune complexes are deposited on the vessel walls, this leads to a migration of leukocytes (white blood cells) from the blood into the vessel walls. This in turn triggers an inflammatory response. The leukocytes attempt to break down the immune complexes by releasing certain components, but this is only partially successful. Somewhat accidentally, the aggressive ingredients can penetrate into adjacent tissues, causing further damage to the blood vessel walls.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

The typical symptoms of immune complex vasculitis include many small hemorrhages that are visible on the skin. They first show up on the lower legs in the form of red dots, which can reach a maximum size of three millimeters. After a few days, the dots turn blue-red. In addition, red bleeding occurs in the lower and thigh region. However , itching or burning occurs only occasionally.

In the case of a stronger inflammatory reaction, the dark red nodules reach a diameter of several millimeters. If the immune complex vasculitis is severe, the top layer of skin in the middle of the nodules dies off, which is noticeable by a light gray discoloration or blistering.

Furthermore, superficial skin defects form that weep. In the worst case, tissue necrosis is also possible, which is noticeable in the form of soluble black nodules and small, painful wounds.

Diagnosis & course of disease

As part of the examination, the doctor asks the patient whether they had an infection some time ago or whether they are taking new medicines. He also wants to know whether the person concerned suffers from underlying chronic diseases. Finally, the patient’s skin is checked. The doctor pays particular attention to the red spots.

Two tissue samples (biopsy) are taken to confirm the diagnosis. The first sample is checked microscopically in a laboratory for vascular inflammation. In the second sample, immune complexes deposited on the walls of the vessels can be detected using the immunofluorescence method. If the immune complex vasculitis is not treated or if the central nervous system is involved, the disease usually takes a negative course.


The immune complex vasculitis causes bleeding in the skin. These hemorrhages are visible to those affected as small dots and can change color and become larger as the disease progresses. In most cases, the affected regions also experience severe itching and burning pain.

It is not uncommon for the pain to also appear in the form of pain at rest and can thus lead to considerable sleep disorders and irritability in the patient. In severe cases, the upper layers of skin in the respective regions can also die off completely, which can lead to the formation of scars and blisters. This manifests itself in reduced aesthetics and thus reduced self-esteem.

In the treatment of immune complex vasculitis, in most cases there are no special complications. First and foremost, the underlying disease that is responsible for the immune complex vasculitis is always treated. If inflammation has already occurred, antibiotics can be taken to counteract it. Life expectancy is not reduced by the disease and there are no further symptoms after treatment.

When should you go to the doctor?

Anyone who suddenly notices bleeding on the skin should see a doctor. The skin changes indicate a skin disease that needs to be clarified and treated if necessary. Whether this is an immune complex vasculitis can only be determined by a doctor. Therefore, medical advice should be sought at the first sign of illness. Clear warning signs that must be clarified as soon as possible are bluish-red discolorations on the skin, often associated with itching or burning.

At the latest when the inflammation gets bigger or the skin areas die off, a doctor’s visit is indicated. The disease often occurs after infection with hepatitis B or hepatitis C viruses. Taking painkillers or antibiotics can also lead to immune complex vasculitis. To whom these factors apply, the symptoms mentioned should be clarified quickly. In addition to the family doctor, a dermatologist or an immunologist can be consulted. Patients with chronic complaints should consult a therapist, as the disease often has an impact on the psyche.

Treatment & Therapy

The treatment of immune complex vasculitis depends on the triggering causes. If drugs or a pathogen are responsible for the hypersensitivity, it is important to switch off the trigger. As a rule, the inflammatory symptoms will soon subside again. If bacteria are involved in the vascular inflammation, the administration of antibiotics can be useful.

If the cause is a specific drug, it is discontinued or replaced with another drug. Wearing special compression stockings is considered helpful . In this way, the blood flows faster in the small vessels, which means that no new immune complexes can be deposited on the vessel walls. In most cases, cortisone therapy is also carried out.

Outlook & Forecast

Immune complex vasculitis requires comprehensive treatment. If the non-bacterial inflammation of the blood vessels is not treated, the prognosis is unfavorable. The various gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms cause numerous complications, such as epilepsy or intestinal infarction, which can be fatal. If the heart is involved, angina pectoris can result, which can lead to a heart attack.

The patients are severely restricted in their quality of life due to the condition and have to take a wide variety of medications. Nevertheless, well-being is reduced, which can also result in long-term psychological problems. Even comprehensive treatment does not guarantee recovery. If the central nervous system is involved, a fatal outcome is likely. Those affected generally have a reduced life expectancy.

Factors such as early treatment and being in good physical condition, other than immune complex vasculitis, improve the chances of recovery. With comprehensive medical therapy, the cause of the condition can be treated within a period of three months to several years. Accompanying this, symptomatic therapy is necessary. The prognosis is worse in children, the elderly and patients with an immune deficiency. Most of these patients die from the typical endothelial swelling or other complications in the first weeks to months after the onset of the immune complex vasculitis.


Preventive measures against immune complex vasculitis are not known. This makes it all the more important to start treatment as soon as possible in the event of illness.


In most cases, those affected with immune complex vasculitis do not have any special options for aftercare, so that a quick diagnosis should be made in the first place for this disease. Early diagnosis and early initiation of treatment usually result in a positive course of the disease.

Self-healing cannot occur with this disease. As a rule, those affected by immune complex vasculitis have to discontinue certain medications or replace them with others. However, you should always consult a doctor. When taking medication, it is always important to ensure that the dosage is correct and that it is taken regularly in order to relieve the symptoms properly and permanently.

If you have any questions or are unclear, it is advisable to consult a doctor first. Wearing compression stockings can often have a positive effect on the course of immune complex vasculitis. Due to the illness, many patients also need the help of their own family or friends in their everyday life.

Loving conversations with those affected often have a positive effect on the course of the disease and can sometimes prevent the onset of depression or other psychological complaints. The life expectancy of those affected may be reduced as a result of the disease.

You can do that yourself

Unfortunately, immune complex vasculitis cannot be prevented directly. For this reason, a doctor should always be consulted immediately if the disease occurs. The earlier the disease is treated, the higher the chances of a positive course of the disease. Unfortunately, the possibilities for self-help are also severely limited with this disease.

If the doctor prescribes antibiotics for the patient, they should be taken. When taking antibiotics, the corresponding instructions must be observed. The use of other medications should also be checked. Furthermore, the symptoms of immune complex vasculitis can be limited by wearing compression stockings. These can usually be prescribed by a doctor. Also a therapy with cortisonehas a positive effect on the course of the disease. In a self-experiment, the person concerned should pay attention to whether certain medications increase the symptoms of the immune complex vasculitis. If this is the case, the medication can be discontinued or replaced with other medication after consultation with the doctor treating you.

Skin complaints or scars can also be limited and avoided with the help of nourishing ointments or creams. In serious cases, however, a surgical procedure is suitable to avoid aesthetic problems.

Immune Complex Vasculitis

Favaloro University (Argentina)

Favaloro University (Argentina)

Favaloro University. It is a private educational and research institution, a reference in the field of knowledge of health sciences, neurosciences, natural sciences and bioengineering. It is located in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires , Argentine Republic.

Historical evolution

On May 9, 1967, Dr. René Gerónimo Favaloro performed the first successful aortocoronary bypass surgery using the saphenous vein. The procedure was carried out at the Cleveland Clinic in the United States and was one of the most important milestones in world medicine. This surgery and the thousands of procedures that followed made him one of the most recognized and respected professionals in the world. His books and conferences reached the main cardiology centers in the world and served as a basis for new professionals to continue developing the field of cardiology to the level of complexity it has reached today.

Despite the infinity of job offers that came to him in the following years from the most prestigious health institutions in the world, he decided to return to Argentina to carry out a project in the country that, like the best centers in the United States, based on three complementary pillars for comprehensive patient care and the development of medicine: basic research, medical assistance and teaching.

In 1974, while he was doing his medical practice at the Güemes Sanatorium, he was developing the idea of ​​forming a research team. Thus, he entrusted Dr. Ricardo Pichel, founding rector of the university, with the development of this area. In 1978, the Society of Distributors of Newspapers, Magazines and Related (SDDRA), granting us a trade loan, made possible the beginning of research and teaching activities. For several years, the doctor financed most of the expenses with his own resources.

In 1980, the Department of Teaching and Research of the Favaloro Foundation was created under Dr. Pichel. Over time, the department would become the University Institute of Biomedical Sciences (IUCB) and the Basic Research Division at the Institute of Research in Basic Sciences (IICB). In 1993, the IUCB begins the dictation of the Medicine Career and careers at the Postgraduate level.

In 1998, with the creation of Engineering careers, the academic offer was expanded to other fields of knowledge, and consequently the Ministry of Culture and Education approved that the institution be renamed Favaloro University.

Strategic planning


It is an institution identified with the generation and transmission of knowledge backed by scientific rigor, and in which the following find their scope:

  • intellectual creation,
  • professional training and
  • the formation of leaders committed to ethics and solidarity.


The vision of Favaloro University is to be a consolidated and dynamic academic community of international importance due to its prestige in the generation and transmission of scientific knowledge, for:

  • the quality of its graduates, whether they are professionals or scientists,
  • artistic and intellectual creation and
  • the integral formation of the human being, with the sustainability that allows having an advanced infrastructure, with all its full-time academics, with a continuous interrelation between its academic units, graduates, teachers and students with scientific, technological and artistic production of high quality, with strategic alliances and exchanges with world leading universities and companies.


  • Ethics
  • academic freedom
  • Pluralism
  • Equity
  • Responsibility
  • Rationality
  • Tolerance
  • Solidarity
  • Respect


  • Faculty of Engineering and Exact and Natural Sciences
  • Faculty of Medical Sciences
  • Faculty of Human and Behavioral Sciences


The National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation (CONEAU), in accordance with the results of the external evaluations, recommended to the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, by Resolution No. 299/03, to confer the definitive recognition of the Favaloro University in the terms of article 65 of the Higher Education Law. For this reason, the President of the Nation signed Decree No. 963/03 of October 23, 2003, which grants said recognition.

Favaloro University

All You Need to Know About CD (Compact Disc)

All You Need to Know About CD (Compact Disc)

compact disc (popularly known as CD or cedé, for the acronym in English compact disc according to abbreviationfinder) is an optical digital medium used to store any type of information (audio, images, video, documents and other data).

Today, it remains the preferred physical medium for audio distribution.

CD in Spanish language

In Spanish or Castilian you can already write «cedé» (how it is pronounced) because it has been accepted and lexicalized by use; In much of Latin America it is pronounced [sidí], as in English, but the Pan-Hispanic Dictionary of Doubts (of the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language) advises against this pronunciation. The anti- etymological «cederrón» (which comes from the acronym CD-ROM: compact disc-read only memory: ‘ compact disc-read-only memory ‘) is also accepted.


The compact disc was created in 1979 by the Japanese Toshitada Doi (from the Sony company) and the Dutch Kees Immink (from the Philipscompany). The following year, Sony and Philips, which had developed the Compact Disc digital audio system, began distributing compact discs, but sales were unsuccessful due to the economic slump at the time. So they decided to embrace the higher quality classical music market. The launch of the new and revolutionary audio recording format began, which would later be extended to other sectors of data recording.

The optical system was developed by Philips while the Digital Reading and Coding was carried out by Sony, it was presented in June 1980 to the industry and 40 companies from all over the world joined the new product by obtaining the corresponding licenses for the production of players and records. In 1981, the conductor Herbert von Karajan, convinced of the value of compact discs, promoted them during the Salzburg festival (Austria) and from that moment their success began. The first titles to be recorded on compact discs in Europe were the Alpine Symphony (by Richard Strauss), the waltzes by Frederic Chopin (performed by Chilean pianist Claudio Arrau) and the album The Visitors (by Swedish pop group ABBA).

In 1983, the American company CBS (which today belongs to the Japanese Sony Music) released the first compact disc in the United States: an album by pop singer Billy Joel.

The production of compact discs was centralized for several years in the United States and Germany from where they were distributed throughout the world. In the nineties, factories were set up in various countries as an example, in 1992 Sonopress produced the first CD in Mexico, entitled De mil colores (by Daniela Romo). In 1984 compact discs were opened to the world of computing, allowing storage of up to 700 MB.

The diameter of the central perforation of the compact discs was determined in 15 mm, when between meals, the creators were inspired by the diameter of the 10 cent guilder from Holland. In contrast, the diameter of compact discs is 12 cm, which corresponds to the width of the top pockets of men’s shirts, because according to Sony’s philosophy, everything had to fit there.

Recordable media

The three recordable media that rely on optical reading are: CD-ROM, CD-R, and CD-RW. CD ROM and CD-R can only be burned once. CD-WRs allow multiple reading and recording.

Physical details

Although there may be variations in the composition of the materials used to make the discs, they all follow the same pattern: compact discs are made from a 1.2-millimeter thick disc of plastic polycarbonate, which a reflective layer of aluminum is added, used to obtain more longevity of the data, which will reflect the laser light (in the infrared spectrum range and therefore not visually appreciable); subsequently a protective layer of lacquer is added, which acts as a protector for the aluminum and, optionally, a label on the upper part.

Common printing methods on CDs are screen printing and offset printing. In the case of CD-R and CD-RW, gold, silver and their alloys are used, which due to their ductility allows lasers to record on it, something that could not be done on aluminum with low-power lasers.


The CD-Roms They are made up of a spiral track that has the same number of bits per centimeter in all its sections (constant linear density), to make better use of the storage medium, and not waste space as happens in magnetic disks. This is why when reading and writing a CD, as the laser beam moves away from the center of the disc, the speed must decrease, since in the center the spiral is shorter than in the edges. By alternating the speeds, it is achieved that the amount of bits read per second is constant in any section, be it in the center or at the edges. If this speed were constant, fewer bits per second would be read if the zone is closer to the center, and more if it is closer to the edges. All of this means that a CD rotates at a variable angular speed.

In order to achieve that the CDs have the same density in any section of the spiral, in the recording, the laser beam emitted by the head (which moves in a radial straight line from the center to the edge of the platter) generates the spiral at constant linear speed (CLV), this means that the number of recorded bits per second will be constant. But in order to achieve this, and to maintain a constant linear density and spiral track, it will be necessary for the CD to rotate at a variable angular speed (explained above). Therefore, by spinning a CD at a variable angular speed, and being written at a constant linear speed, the same amount of bits are written and read per second and per centimeter, whatever the position of the CD. Whereas each turn of the spiral will contain more or less bits depending on whether it is closer to the center or to the edge.

Standard CDs are available in different sizes and capacities, so we have the following variety of discs:

  • 120mm (diameter) with 74-80 minutes of audio time and 650–700MB of data capacity.
  • 120mm (diameter) with a duration of 90–100 minutes of audio and 800-875MB of data (not on the market today).
  • 80mm (diameter), which were initially designed for CD singles. These can store about 21 minutes of music or 210 MB of data. They are also known as “mini-CDs” or “pocket CDs.”

A standard CD-ROM can hold 650 or 700 (sometimes 800) MB of data. The CD-ROM is popular for the distribution of software, especially multimedia applications, and large databases. A CD weighs less than 30 grams. To put CD-ROM memory in context, an average novel contains 60,000 words. Assuming that an average word has 10 letters – in fact it is considerably less than 10 letters – and each letter occupies one byte, a novel would therefore occupy 600,000 bytes (600 kB).

A CD can therefore contain more than 1000 novels. If each novel occupies at least one centimeter on a shelf, then a CD can hold the equivalent of more than 10 meters on the shelf. However, the textual data can be compressed ten times more, using compression algorithms, therefore a CD-ROM can store the equivalent of more than 100 meters of shelf.


Once the problem of storing the data has been solved, it remains to interpret it correctly. To do this, the companies that created the compact disc defined a series of standards, each of which reflected a different level. Each document was bound in a different color, giving name to each one of the ” Rainbow Books”.

CD (Compact Disc)

All You Need to Know About RSA

All You Need to Know About RSA

RSA. It was created in 1978 by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (short for MIT according to abbreviationfinder); the letters RSA are the initials of their surnames, and it is the best known and most used asymmetric cryptographic system. These gentlemen were based on the Diffie-Hellman article on public key systems.


The RSA public key algorithm was created in 1978 by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT); the letters RSA are the initials of their surnames, and it is the best known and most used asymmetric cryptographic system. These gentlemen were based on the Diffie-Hellman article on public key systems.

These keys are calculated secretly on the computer where the private key is to be stored, and once it is generated, it should be protected using a symmetric cryptographic algorithm.


Regarding key lengths, the RSA system allows variable lengths, being currently advisable to use keys of no less than 1024 bits (keys of up to 512 bits have been broken, although it took more than 5 months and almost 300 computers working together to do it).


RSA bases its security on being a computationally safe function, since although performing modular exponentiation is easy, its inverse operation, the extraction of roots of modulus Ø is not feasible unless the factorization of e is known, the system’s private key.. RSA is the best known and most widely used of the public key systems, and also the fastest of them.


It has all the advantages of asymmetric systems, including the digital signature, although the use of symmetric systems is more useful when implementing confidentiality, as they are faster. It is also often used in mixed systems to encrypt and send the symmetric key that will be used later in encrypted communication.

RSA algorithm

The algorithm consists of three steps: key generation, encryption, and decryption.

Padding schemes

RSA must be combined with some version of the padding scheme, otherwise the value of M can lead to insecure ciphertext. RSA used without padding scheme could suffer many problems.

  • The value m = 0 or m = 1 always produces the same ciphertext for 0 or 1 respectively, due to properties of the exponents.
  • When we code with small exponents (e = 3) and small values ​​of m, the result of m could be strictly less than the modulus of n. In this case, the ciphertext could be easily decrypted, taking the e-th root of the ciphertext regardless of the module.
  • Since RSA encryption is a deterministic algorithm (it has no random components) an attacker can successfully launch a chosen text attack against the cryptosystem, building a dictionary of probable texts with the public key, and storing the encrypted result. By observing the encrypted texts in a communication channel, the attacker can use this dictionary to decrypt the content of the message.

In practice, the first of the two problems could arise when we send small ASCII messages where m is the concatenation of one or more ASCII encoded character / s. A message consisting of a single ASCII NUL character (whose value is 0) would be encoded as m = 0, producing a ciphertext of 0 no matter what values ​​of e and N are used. Probably a single ASCII SOH (whose value is 1) would always produce a ciphertext of 1. For conventional systems using small values ​​of e, such as 3, a single ASCII character message encoded using this scheme would be insecure, since the maximum value of m would be 255, and 255³ is less than any reasonable modulus. In this way the clear texts could be recovered simply by taking the cube root of the ciphertext. To EVITED these problems, the practical implementation of RSA is helped by some structures, use of randomized padding within the value of m before encryption. This technique ensures that m will not fall into the range of insecure clear texts, and that given a message, once it is filled in, it will encrypt one of the large numbers of the possible encrypted texts. The last feature is the increase in the dictionary, making it intractable when carrying out an attack.

The RSA-padding scheme must be carefully designed to prevent sophisticated attacks which could be facilitated by the predictability of the message structure. Examples of fill scheme used with RSA:

  • RSA-OAEP (Optimal Asymetric Encryption Padding) or its modified version RSA-OAEP +. This type of padding is used for example in PKCS # 1 and in the TOR anonymity network
  • RSA-SAEP + (Simplified Asymmetric Encryption Padding)
  • RSA-PSS (Probabilistic Signature Scheme). Used for example in PKCS # 1

Message authentication

RSA can also be used to authenticate a message. Suppose Alice wants to send an authenticated message to Bob. She produces a hash value of the message, raises it to the power of d≡ mod n (as she does when decrypting messages), and attaches it to the message as a “signature.” When Bob receives the authenticated message, he uses the same hashing algorithm in conjunction with Alice’s public key. Raises the received signature to the power of e≡ mod n (as it does when encrypting messages), and compares the hash result obtained with the hash value of the message. If the two match, he knows that the author of the message was in possession of Alicia’s secret key, and that the message has not been tampered with (it has not suffered attacks).

It should be noted that the security of padding-schemes such as RSA-PSS are essential for both signature security and message encryption, and that the same key should never be used for encryption and authentication purposes.


All You Need to Know About Hirsuties Papillaris Penis

All You Need to Know About Hirsuties Papillaris Penis

According to abbreviationfinder, hirsuties papillaris penis are skin changes on the edge of the male glans, which resemble wart-like horny tips and can extend over the foreskin ligament. The anomalies have no disease value, but correspond to a harmless atavism. The treatment is not covered by health insurance since there is no medical need for therapy.

What is a hirsuties papillaris penis?

In hirsuties papillaris penis or hirsuties papillaris coronae glandis, wart-like skin changes form on the edge of the glans, which can appear white, skin-colored or reddish. In the German-speaking world, the tiny warts are sometimes referred to as horntips or horntips. The warts can extend from the edge of the glans to the foreskin of the penis.

The horn-like tips are also referred to in medicine as papillae coronae glandis, as papillomata coronae glandis or as penis papillomas. Papillomas are benign tumors. In the narrower sense, however, hirsuties papillaris penis is not a phenomenon with pathological value. Basically, there can be no question of a tumor disease.

The horntips are relatively common in Germany and occur in about 20 percent of all pubescent boys. Around 40 percent of all men worldwide are affected. Analogously, there is a similar wart disease of the female sex with the hirsuties papillaris vulvae, in which the tiny warts form in the area of the vulva. The female variant is much rarer compared to the male. However, the hirsuties papillaris vulvae are also not pathological.


The hirsuties papillaris penis are often associated with the wildest speculation about possible causes. Some sufferers think it is a malformation. Other patients assume they have a sexually transmitted disease. Still others recognize the horn tip as a symptom of another disease or attribute the condition to poor hygiene.

None of this is true. Instead, the phenomenon is a simple atavism that has no pathological value. There is always talk of atavism when anatomical features of the phylogenetic ancestors are developed again in a modern individual. Since the features do not fulfill any function in the current stage of development of the man, the horntips have probably receded in the course of evolution.

In this context, hirsuties papillaris penis, like the rudiments, belong to the evidence of evolution and are a normal symptom of atavism. However, since they do not affect all men, they are occasionally perceived as deformities or disfigurements.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

Patients with hirsuties papillaris penis discover skin changes on their genitals that look like horn-like tips. The changes are small in size and may vary in color. In addition to white horny tips, reddish or skin-colored tips can be present. In most cases, the lesion is concentrated around the edge of the glans.

A larger field is only affected in exceptional cases. For example, some patients discover horny horns extending from the edge of the glans to over the foreskin ligament. The wart-like formations do not cause any accompanying symptoms. They neither hurt nor cause itching.

Since it is not a symptom of an overarching disease and also not a disease in its own right, those affected remain largely asymptomatic. However, most patients are ashamed of the abnormal change during puberty and should therefore consider treatment.

Diagnosis & disease progression

Due to their typical appearance, the diagnosis of hirsuties papillaris penis turns out to be relatively easy. It can hardly be confused with the so-called Fordyce glands in the form of free sebaceous glands, confused with sebaceous cysts or misdiagnosed as contagious genital warts. The dermatologist makes the diagnosis from the atavism.

In terms of differential diagnosis, the phenomenon must be distinguished above all from molluscum contagiosum, which occurs predominantly in isolated form on the shaft of the penis and has a central dent. Differentiation from lichen planus, bowenoid papules, or condylomata lata of syphilis can also be relevant for differential diagnosis. The prognosis for patients with hirsuties papillaris penis is excellent.


Hirsuties papillaris penis causes abnormalities in the male sex organ. As a rule, these abnormalities do not lead to any particular symptoms or complications and therefore do not need to be treated either. However, they can lead to aesthetic complaints and thus trigger reduced self-esteem or inferiority complexes in men.

As a rule, the quality of life and life expectancy are not reduced or restricted by hirsuties papillaris penis. Those affected suffer from small tips on the glans. However, these little corners do not lead to pain or itching and therefore do not represent any particular restriction in everyday life. However, these complaints can lead to feelings of shame and insecurity, especially in children and adolescents, so that treatment is often necessary.

Without treatment, the patient may experience restricted sexual development. The treatment removes the symptoms completely, so there are no further complications or changes on the skin. However, scars can form. As a rule, a doctor will explain the possible risks of the procedure before the treatment.

When should you go to the doctor?

With a hirsuties papillaris penis, a doctor’s visit is not absolutely necessary. The skin changes on the penis are not pathological and can also occur without medical treatment. Normally, no further health problems develop. A shortened life expectancy is also not to be expected. A doctor’s visit is only necessary if the optical flaw of the squirrel-like structure becomes a mental problem for the person concerned.

If you experience stressful emotions such as feelings of shame or disgust, it is advisable to see a doctor. If there are problems in the partnership, withdrawal behavior or the avoidance of interpersonal contacts, there is a need for action. If the skin changes lead to a change in behavior or personality, a doctor should be consulted. In the case of abnormalities such as depressive phases, melancholy or an aggressive appearance, a doctor should be consulted.

If sexual dysfunction occurs due to hirsuties papillaris penis, a doctor’s visit is recommended. If the skin lesions are intentionally scratched or damaged, health problems can occur. If the wound is not properly treated, pathogens can get into the organism and lead to further diseases. A check-up visit to a doctor is necessary because in severe cases there is a risk of blood poisoning. You should therefore see a doctor if pain sets in, reddening of the skin, itching or the formation of pus.

Treatment & Therapy

From a medical point of view, there is no need to treat hirsuties papillaris penis. The removal of the wart-like structures does not have to take place, nor does drug treatment. However, if the patient with the horntips feels uncomfortable, treatment should still be considered to ensure carefree sexual development.

Since there is no medical need for treatment, the costs of treating hirsuties papillaris penis are not covered by health insurance. In most cases, patients therefore decide against removal as soon as they are made aware of the sometimes high prevalence and harmlessness of the skin changes. In individual cases, patients decide to have the horn tips removed for purely cosmetic reasons.

Removal is usually done as part of a laser treatment or cryotherapy. The patient is under local anesthesia during the removal. The treatment is carried out by a dermatologist or a plastic surgeon. Removal is preceded by education that indicates the risk of disruptive scarring. As soon as this information has been provided, the number of people willing to be treated is reduced by at least half.

Outlook & Forecast

Hirsuties papillaris penis is a non-morbid phenomenon. In 30 to 40 percent of all men, so-called horn tips can form on the glans during puberty. It is an age-old hereditary condition that can occur in every third man. Extremely rarely, women also suffer from horn tips on the vagina.

Since hirsuties papillaris penis is not a disease, it does not require treatment. However, the horn tip can lead to mental stress. This is especially true when large papules appear. Many men perceive these as unaesthetic and abnormal. Partly this raises the concern that it is a serious disease that is contagious. More often, however, horn tips evoke a feeling of shame in front of the partner. The assumption arises that the partner might perceive the papules as deterrent and contagious. This stress can lead to erectile dysfunction in men. In this sense, Hirsuties papillaris penis has a disease value.

In some cases, however, purely psychological support no longer helps. Cosmetic surgery is often the only remedy here. Surgical removal of the horn tips usually goes well. However, in a few cases, scars remain, which are also unaesthetic and can lead to functional restrictions of the penis. It is also possible for the papules to recur after an operation.


Hirsuties papillaris penis cannot be prevented because it is a harmless atavism.


In the case of hirsuties papillaris penis, those affected usually do not have any special measures for direct follow-up care. The disease itself does not necessarily have to be treated, since it does not threaten the life of the person affected and is usually only an aesthetic complaint. Therefore, no direct treatment is necessary for hirsuties papillaris penis if it is not absolutely desired by the person concerned.

The disease itself can be alleviated with a simple surgical procedure. The operation usually proceeds without complications. After that, the person concerned should protect and care for the area around the penis particularly well. It is often necessary to take antibiotics to prevent inflammation.

The person concerned should take these regularly and also in the right dosage. Furthermore, some check-ups by a doctor are useful after the procedure. If the hirsuties papillaris penis is not treated, psychological upsets may occur. In many cases, intensive discussions with your partner or family help to prevent depression or other psychological upsets.

You can do that yourself

As a rule, no special therapy or treatment is necessary for hirsuties papillaris penis. Since in most cases the affected person does not suffer from any particular symptoms or pain, no self-help measures need to be taken to treat this disease.

However, many sufferers can be ashamed of the disease. The person concerned should definitely talk to their partner about these feelings of shame in order to avoid further psychological problems or depression. Contact with other sufferers or talking to a doctor can also significantly reduce and limit these feelings of shame. Above all, the partner must offer the patient support and strengthen their self-esteem.

Although no treatment is necessary, hirsuties papillaris penis can be removed surgically. There are no particular complications and there is usually a positive course of the disease. The formation of scars can be prevented if the affected person cares for the skin after the surgical procedure and keeps it moist. The patient does not have any special options for self-help. However, the disease does not limit life expectancy.


All You Need to Know About CEO, CFO, CIO, COO

All You Need to Know About CEO, CFO, CIO, COO

When we speak of CEO, CFO, CIO, COO and other acronyms, we refer to the main senior positions of a company that are part of the C-Level or C-Suite range . Although Spanish speakers have different names for these jobs, the acronyms from English are currently used. In this article we will define what they mean, what type of charges they are and what function they have.

What does a CEO do?

According to abbreviationfinder, the CEO, or Chief Executive Officer, is the person in charge of directing the organization, its head at the operational level, in Spanish it is the general director or executive director. As you know, it is one of the best known acronyms in the business world and due to its importance we have dedicated an exclusive article to it so that you can get a clear idea of ​​what a CEO is and what his functions are.

What functions does a COO have?

COO (Chief Operating Officer). Director of Operations, oversees how the company’s product creation and distribution system is working to ensure that all systems work well. Working as COO often serves as training for the position of CEO: it is a natural step, since the director of operations already understands the mission and objectives of the company and is the right hand of the executive director.

What does CMO mean? what is he in charge of?

CMO (Chief Marketing Officer). He is responsible for Marketing activities, which include sales management, product development, advertising, market research and customer service. His main concern is to maintain a stable relationship with end customers and communicate with all other departments to get involved in Marketing activities.

What is a CFO?

CFO (Chief Financial Officer). Financial Director, is in charge of the economic and financial planning of the company. He is the one who decides the investment, financing and risk with the aim of increasing the value of the company for its owners (whether they are shareholders or partners). He brings financial and accounting knowledge and, in general, an analytical view of the business. In many cases, the CFO is also the strategic advisor to the CEO.

What is a CISO?

the profileCISO – Chief Information Security Officer, is the executive responsible for the information and data security of an organization. While in the past the role was fairly narrowly defined in that regard, today this concept is often used interchangeably with chief security officer and vice president of security, indicating a broader role in the organization..

What is a CIO? what is he responsible for?

CIO (Chief Information Officer). Responsible for the company’s information technology systems at the process level and from the planning point of view. The CIO analyzes what benefits the company can derive from new technologies, identify which ones are of most interest to the company, and evaluate their performance. It focuses on improving the efficiency of internal processes in order to ensure effective communication and keep the organization running efficiently and productively.

What is a CTO and what does he do?

CTO (Chief Technology Officer). Technically responsible for the development and proper functioning of information systems from the point of view of execution. He is generally responsible for the engineering team and for implementing the technical strategy to improve the final product. Sometimes the positions of CTO and CIO can be confused, since in some companies they share tasks.

The key difference is that a CIO focuses on information systems (communication workflow), with the goal of increasing efficiency, while a CTO is responsible for technology strategy aimed at improving the end product.

What is a CCO and what is it responsible for?

CCO (Chief Communications Officer). He is in charge of managing corporate reputation, contacting the media and developing Branding strategies. He knows the media and has a good relationship with them so that the brand is visible and, whenever possible, associated with positive messages. The CCO must play a relevant role in its communication management so that the corporate image is good or, in other words, that the opinion of potential clients is favourable.

Other acronyms such as CGO, CRO, CXO, CDO

In the digital world you have to be vigilant because the work environment is becoming more international and is influenced by a predominant Anglo-Saxon world. That is why you need to know new professional profiles that did not even exist before and that have kept their Anglo-Saxon name, how to:

  • CGO – Chief Growth Officer
  • CXO – Chief Customer Experience Officer
  • CDO – Chief Digital Officer
  • CRO – Chief Remote Officer


All You Need to Know About Contact

All You Need to Know About Contact

From the Latin contactus, contact is the action and effect of touching two or more things or people. For the contact to exist there must be some kind of relationship, link, link or encounter. For example: “I am in contact with a Chinese businessman to analyze the possibility of exporting our products”, “The repetition of the play shows that there was a contact: the judge, therefore, had to sanction a fault”, “Miguel has many contacts in the television field ”.

The contact can refer to the deal that is established between two or more people or organizations. Today, thanks to advances in technology, contact can be physical or virtual. People who are added in digital systems such as instant messaging programs or social networks are even known as contacts: “Yesterday I added your cousin among my contacts”, “My son is proud because he has more than a hundred contacts on his MSN”.

Physical contact can be a friction, a shock or another type of encounter, either casual or provoked. The notion, however, is often used as a euphemism to refer to a sexual encounter : “She says that she was dating me, but I swear I never had intimate contact with her”, “There was no physical contact between them, for therefore it is impossible for my client to be the father of the child ”.

In this sense, it must be emphasized that, thanks to the development of the Internet, there are many websites on the Internet that are called contact pages. As its name suggests, the objective of these spaces is none other than that people can meet and from there be able to start a relationship, be it sentimental, sexual or friendship.

The busy pace of life that we lead in today’s society is one of the main reasons that lead many people not to go out too much and that means that they do not find a partner. However, now thanks to these websites they can find the person they want, with whom they share hobbies and hobbies, with whom they coincide in objectives…

Thus, many couples are proud to say that they were formed thanks to a contact page such as Meetic or eDarling, among many others.

A photograph, personal data such as age and name, city of residence, hobbies and what they are looking for when entering that website are some of the questions that all users must specify.

Regarding electricity, a contact is a connection between two parts of an electrical circuit. The electrical contact implies the closing of a circuit through the union of two elements: “Be careful with that wire: it has contact”, “I touched the screen and it gave me contact”.

In addition to all this, we would also have to emphasize that there is also what is known as a contact lens. Lentilla is the name that receives, in the same way, one that we can say is a small elastic disk that is placed in the eyes, specifically on what the cornea is, and that allows those who have some type of refractive defect to see without no problems.


All You Need to Know About Consistency

All You Need to Know About Consistency

The term consistency is used in different ways depending on the context. The concept can refer to the coherence that exists between the elements or pieces that are part of a set.

A material is said to have consistency when it is solid or stable. For example: “If we want to give the dough more consistency, we must add another cup of flour”, “The dessert lacks consistency due to high temperatures”, “With such an amount of water, the concrete will never reach the necessary consistency”.

The idea of consistency can also be used with reference to a symbolic solidity : “The team played with great consistency and did not give the rival opportunities”, “I trust that the consistency of the national economy will allow us to withstand the turbulence caused by the world crisis “, ” The relationship began to lose consistency when the man, for work reasons, began to spend several days a week in a city located more than two hundred kilometers from his home.

If we look at the business world, the image that a company gives is expected to be consistent over the years to prevent the public from losing confidence in it. Maintaining consistency in the market is not easy, as it involves facing a series of obstacles and overcoming several challenges, such as the following:

* Companies are usually made up of tens or hundreds of people, if not more, and this makes it almost impossible to maintain a single line of thought and action. Since there are so many opinions that are considered before making each decision, it is normal to notice stages in which their objectives or even their principles seem to have changed;

* As if the number of people who participate in the decision-making of a company does not cause enough difficulty to the consistency of its image, the change of personnel is added, either due to natural reasons (retirement or death), resignations or layoffs. When a new president takes office, for example, he can change the course of the entire entity if he has the support of the majority;

* Technological advances and new market trends are putting considerable pressure on companies, and many of them do not choose the most appropriate strategies to adapt to these demands. This has led to numerous failures due to the distortion of their identity and their consequent loss of loyalty from consumers.

Consistency inspires confidence, and this is true for the people we deal with on a daily basis, as well as for government leaders and large companies. We need to believe in others and in their promises to live in society: in the seriousness of public transport companies, in the commitment our employers make to pay us every month, in the security guarantee provided by the police force and in the principles that define the companies that manufacture our favorite products. If they change their ideals, we notice an inconsistency that generates fear.

In the field of research and statistics, we speak of internal consistency to mention the correlation that exists between the different components of the same work or test. Suppose that, in a survey, a person agrees with the following statements: “I love listening to music” and “When I travel I always listen to music. Instead, he disagrees with the statement “Music bores me. The correlation between the responses reveals that the survey has good internal consistency. On the contrary, if someone affirmatively marks the expressions “I love listening to music” and “Music bores me”, the survey lacks internal consistency as the responses are contradictory.


All You Need to Know About Anxiety

All You Need to Know About Anxiety

To fully understand the term that concerns us now, it is necessary to proceed to discover its etymological origin. In this case we can state that it derives from the Catalan word “congoixa”, which, in turn, comes from the Latin “congustia”. A word the latter that is the result of the sum of two differentiated parts:
-The prefix “with”, which means “together”.
-The noun “anguish”, which is synonymous with “anguish” and “drowning”.

The term grief refers to anxiety, sadness or anguish. Whoever is distressed suffers from a mental malaise. For example: “Conch due to the death of the actress”, “Broken by grief, the woman leaned back on the sofa, not wanting to do anything”, “With great anguish I had to inform the workers that the company will close its doors due to economic problems ”.

According to DigoPaul, anxiety is a common emotion that arises in certain situations that cause pain. The feeling can be externalized through crying or remain inside the individual.

Anxiety usually appears in the face of uncertainty and is linked to anxiety. When a person is fired from his job, to cite one case, he may feel heartbreak as he worries about how he will be able to meet his material needs without receiving a salary. The future, with this outlook, is uncertain and makes the subject have difficulty managing anxiety. This negative charge can translate into different negative emotions, including heartbreak.

In some people, grief resembles fatigue or listlessness, making the emotional sufferer want to stay home or in bed most of the time. Others in distress, on the other hand, move excessively and frantically, unable to control their anxiety.

In order to overcome that grief, a series of tips and recommendations should be taken into account such as these:
-The person must recognize that he is suffering and also the reason that causes it.
-Of course, you have to be more affectionate with yourself, love yourself and pamper yourself a little more.
-You do not have to “close in band” to others. Trust loved ones and ask for help and support.
-In order to overcome grief, it is essential that the person is aware of their situation, of the cause that has caused it and also that they are clear that they want to overcome it.

Feeling distress at certain times or situations is normal: it is a reaction to something that affects us. But if this emotion extends too much or is combined with other similar ones, the person may require psychological assistance to get ahead.

In addition to all the above, we cannot ignore either that anguish is the name of a medicinal plant native to Mexico that is widely used. Thus, we can highlight that it is used by cooking its leaves because these will serve both to heal wounds in the throat and to end earaches and even to heal bleeding ulcers.

All You Need to Know About Anxiety

All You Need to Know About Conduit

All You Need to Know About Conduit

Originating from the Latin word conductus (“conducted”), the word conduit describes a channel that serves for water and other fluids or objects to pass, move and have an outlet. To cite some examples: “We have to call a plumber since the bathroom duct is blocked”, “The air conditioning equipment has a duct that it uses to drain and that must always be kept clean to avoid problems in operation”, ” The cat got into the air duct and we had to ask the fire department for help to get it out ”.

According to DigoPaul, the ducts are also the tubes or channels that are noticed in the bodies of living beings and that guarantee the development of multiple physiological functions. One of these tubes is the so-called mammary duct, present in women to ensure that milk passes from the breast lobes to the nipple.

The nasolacrimal duct, for its part, carries tears from the lacrimal sac to the nasal cavity. Another important canal is the outer auditory canal, a cavity of the ear that has the function of making sounds travel through the pinna and reach the eardrum.

In men, the seminiferous ducts are where sperm are produced. The ejaculatory ducts, on the other hand, are those that allow the semen to reach the penis, where it is expelled.

And all this without forgetting what is known as the cystic duct, which is the one that is responsible for releasing all the products that circulate through the gallbladder, or the so-called vas deferens which is the one found in each of the testicles of the male human being and whose clear function is to function as an ejaculator and excretor.

The liver that is in the liver, the inguinal that is in the abdomen or the spinal that can be found in the spinal cord are other ducts that are also part of the anatomy of the body of a man or a woman.

On the other hand, it is necessary to underline the existence of a term that uses the concept that we are analyzing as an integral part. We are referring to the word safe conduct, which is a document that is issued by a competent authority and whose clear objective is that the person who possesses it can circulate through a dangerous territory without running any type of risk because that authority has weight and is recognized in that area.

Thus, for example, during the Middle Ages it was common for monarchs to make this type of document to grant it to their knights or vassals with the clear objective that they could pass through the different cities of their kingdom without anything or anyone endangering their lives.

In addition to this, we can also state that safe conduct is that freedom that is given to someone to do something without fear of being punished.

Conduit, in another sense, is the intervention of a person to resolve a matter: “The official managed to leave the country through the mayor of the city, who interceded with the border authorities”, “The conduit that your father gave us it was a great help ”.

All You Need to Know About Conduit

All You Need to Know About Fatty Heart

All You Need to Know About Fatty Heart

The term fatty heart disease, also called fatty heart or lipomatosis, describes various diseases of the heart region. This causes connective tissue to transform into fat cells. This can have various causes, such as damage to the heart muscle tissue or obesity.

What is fatty heart?

According to DigoPaul, a fatty heart is either a side effect of obesity or an independent degeneration of the heart muscle. In the case of obesity, the right ventricle is particularly affected, which can lead to right heart failure. However, myocardial damage can also occur , for example as a result of chronic alcohol abuse.

The fatty degeneration also affects the left ventricle and is occasionally accompanied by dilated cardiomyopathy. The term must be distinguished from the so-called fatty myocardial degeneration, which occurs, among other things, in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

Furthermore, it is important to distinguish fatty degeneration from coronary heart disease (“calcification” or “fatty degeneration” of the coronary arteries), for which the term is sometimes incorrectly used as a synonym.


As a side effect of general obesity, the heart is surrounded by a thick layer of fat in the case of fatty heart disease. If the disease occurs as an independent degeneration of the heart muscle, this is the result of the gradual conversion of muscle tissue into fatty tissue. The main causes of fatty degeneration in the heart are a high-fat, high-calorie diet and alcohol abuse.

However, persistent overstraining of the heart and diseases of the heart blood vessels can also cause the syndrome. Long-lasting high fever is another risk factor for fatty heart disease. This occurs, for example, in typhus, smallpox or pyaemia. The diseases that can provoke the development of the disease include anemia, pulmonary tuberculosis, scurvy and protracted suppuration and bleeding. Women and older people are particularly affected by fatty heart disease.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

The side effects of fatty heart disease include coronary symptoms such as palpitations and cardiac insufficiency. But general symptoms such as shortness of breath, easy fatigue, asthma, shortness of breath, anxiety, fainting spells and dizziness can also be signs of the disease.

Fatty heart disease as a result of obesity begins with right heart failure. This causes different symptoms, such as congested and dilated neck veins, edema, congested kidneys or congested gastritis. If the left ventricle is affected, this can lead to dilated cardiomyopathy. Among other things, this causes progressive left- sided heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia, embolism and Cheyne-Stokes breathing as a sleep-related breathing disorder.

Diagnosis & disease progression

A fatty heart usually initially leads to right heart failure, which spreads to the entire heart over time. Dilated cardiomyopathy often develops as a long-term consequence. Right heart failure can be diagnosed clinically.

The enlargement of the heart can be shown with the help of an echocardiography and a chest X -ray. Widening of the azygos vein and superior vena cava including the right atrium can be observed at diagnosis. The heart shifts to the left with elevation of the heart apex when the right heart is enlarged.

Dilated cardiomyopathy can also be diagnosed by echocardiography. The dilatation of the ventricles and the left atrium, hypokinesia and wall movement disorders can be determined. An MRI examines anatomy, heart function, and valve function. Biopsy and pathohistology may be used to rule out ischemic causes.

While fatty heart disease can be treated well in the early stages, a severe course with sudden onset of cardiac paralysis can be fatal. Therefore, a doctor should be consulted as soon as the first signs appear. This is the only way to prevent the obesity from causing irreparable damage to the heart.


A fatty heart can cause a number of complications. First, a fatty heart leads to circulatory problems such as high blood pressure, sweating and palpitations. These symptoms are usually accompanied by shortness of breath, fatigue and dizziness. This is often associated with a decrease in general well-being and, depending on the degree of fatty heart disease, the development of psychological problems.

In the further course, right-sided heart failure can also develop, which can later develop into complete heart failure. If the left ventricle is affected, dilated cardiomyopathy can develop later. This can lead to left ventricular failure, cardiac arrhythmia and the development of embolism.

Sleep-related breathing disorders such as Cheyne-Stokes breathing can also occur. A fatty heart as a result of obesity can also lead to dilated neck veins, edema and congested kidneys. In general, fatty heart disease increases the risk of heart attacks and other life-threatening complications.

If the causative disease is not treated, permanent cardiac insufficiency usually develops, which in turn is associated with symptoms. In the case of medical treatment of a fatty heart, major complications are unlikely. Only with rapid fat loss cures and zero diets is there a risk of overloading the heart.

When should you go to the doctor?

If there is increased shortness of breath, shortness of breath, dizziness or palpitations, there may be fatty heart disease. A doctor should be consulted if symptoms persist for more than a few days or other symptoms develop. Disturbances of consciousness and fainting spells must be clarified immediately by a doctor. If there are major symptoms, such as persistent shortness of breath or palpitations, this should also be examined promptly. People who are overweight are particularly at risk.

Patients who eat a generally unhealthy diet, drink a lot of alcohol or have a disease of the metabolic system are particularly likely to develop fatty heart disease. Anyone who counts themselves among these risk groups should consult a doctor if they experience the symptoms mentioned. If there is a suspicion of pronounced cardiac insufficiency, the disease may already be far advanced. Then you should see your family doctor immediately. Other contacts are the cardiologist or a specialist in internal diseases. In case of doubt, the medical emergency service can be contacted first. If the symptoms are severe, we recommend calling the emergency services.

Treatment & Therapy

In the initial stages of fatty heart disease, it is important to take countermeasures quickly in order to stop the progression of the disease. For this purpose, emotional and psychological stress and excessive physical exertion should be avoided. In order to strengthen the heart muscle and prevent the formation of further fat tissue, daily walks with a slowly increasing level of exertion are recommended.

Systematic remedial gymnastics can also drive the recovery process under medical supervision. A long stay in the fresh forest or mountain air is just as beneficial as strict adherence to a diet. Strong alcoholic drinks, coffee, tea or drinking too much water should be avoided, as these put a strain on the cardiovascular system.

While sugar, pastries and potatoes should be eliminated from the menu, the enjoyment of vegetables and fruit is recommended. In any case, the treatment should be supervised by a doctor instead of setting up a therapy plan on your own. Rapid degreasing treatments are not recommended. This causes the fatty tissue around the heart to be eliminated too quickly, causing the heart to lose its support.

Possible consequences are heart enlargement and cardiac insufficiency. In cases that are not too advanced, a careful defatting treatment under medical supervision can lead to the complete healing of the patient. Treatment in later stages is more difficult and usually only promises an alleviation of the symptoms.

Outlook & Forecast

The prospects of recovery from fatty heart disease differ depending on the stage of the disease and the patient’s initiative. At an early stage, the disease can be contained by taking regular walks in the fresh air and eating a balanced diet. Stress and excessive physical exertion are not recommended, as these can put too much strain on the heart and cause other diseases. The diet should be limited to a strict diet, without the consumption of acidic foods such as coffee, sugar and alcoholic beverages.

A stay in the mountains can also support healing. Here, for example, a stay in a spa facility is an option. In addition to sufficient exercise, the focus here is also on nutrition. If these criteria are met, the prognosis at this early stage of the disease is very positive.

However, if the fatty degeneration is advanced, the prospect of complete recovery is very poor. In most cases, this is only about curbing the symptoms and not making them worse. Other serious diseases should be avoided, which is why close medical care is necessary. However, the prognosis is bad. For this reason, a doctor should be consulted at the first sign of the disease.


In order to prevent fatty heart disease as a result of obesity, a health-promoting diet should come first. This includes the extensive renunciation of high-fat food, or their moderate consumption. Fruits and vegetables should make up the bulk of meals to prevent excess fat accumulation.

The fatty heart that develops in the course of alcohol abuse can be prevented by moderate alcohol consumption. In any case, stress should be avoided as much as possible and exercise in the fresh air encouraged. Diseases that put a strain on the cardiovascular system should be treated by a doctor as soon as possible to rule out long-term consequences.


In the case of fatty heart disease, the patient usually only has very few follow-up measures available. The disease should generally be prevented to avoid this complication. In the worst case, the fatty degeneration of the heart can lead to the death of those affected if they are not treated properly. First and foremost, however, the cause of this obesity must be identified and treated so that the symptoms can be properly limited.

Self-healing does not occur in this case. The treatment itself depends very much on the exact cause of the fatty heart disease, with the doctor usually drawing up a nutrition plan for the patient. This must be strictly observed. In general, a healthy lifestyle with a healthy diet and physical activity also has a positive effect on the course of the disease.

Those affected should also refrain from smoking or consuming alcohol. Since fatty heart disease generally weakens the heart, regular examinations by a doctor should take place. Whether the disease reduces life expectancy depends heavily on the severity of this obesity. Contact with other people affected by the disease can also be useful, as this can lead to an exchange of information.


In the case of fatty heart disease, the patient usually only has very few follow-up measures available. The disease should generally be prevented to avoid this complication. In the worst case, the fatty degeneration of the heart can also lead to the death of the person concerned if it is not treated properly.

First and foremost, however, the cause of this obesity must be identified and treated so that the symptoms can be properly limited. Self-healing does not occur in this case. The treatment itself depends very much on the exact cause of the fatty heart disease, with the doctor usually drawing up a nutrition plan for the patient. This must be strictly observed.

In general, a healthy lifestyle with a healthy diet and physical activity also has a positive effect on the course of the disease. The person concerned should also refrain from smoking or consuming alcohol. Since fatty heart disease generally weakens the heart, regular examinations by a doctor should take place.

Whether the disease reduces life expectancy depends very much on the extent of this obesity. Contact with other people affected by the disease can also be useful, as this can lead to an exchange of information.

You can do that yourself

One of the main causes of lipomatosis (fatty heart) is the wrong diet, especially one that is high in fat and energy, and permanent excessive alcohol consumption. In these cases, the patient himself can do a great deal to improve his state of health.

If the fatty heart is due to being overweight, a consistent change in lifestyle is essential. But this is very difficult for many people. The support of the family doctor is usually not enough. Since a lack of knowledge and a lack of motivation are often the main causes of severe obesity, those affected are best looking for professional help. With a nutritionistlearn which foods are healthy and which foods are better avoided. You will also receive a nutrition plan that is tailored to your health problems and your individual life situation. If necessary, those affected also learn how to prepare healthy food correctly. In addition, it helps many overweight people to join a self-help group, since weight reduction is a lengthy and tough process, especially in the case of severe obesity.

In addition to the right diet, regular physical exercise also plays an important role. If the weight already limits mobility, water sports, especially swimming and water aerobics, are recommended. In larger cities there are also gyms that specialize in overweight people. Training with special equipment is particularly effective and the membership fees usually motivate people to actually use the paid offer.

Anyone suffering from alcohol addiction should start therapy as soon as possible, although alcoholics also benefit from membership in an (anonymous) self-help group.

Fatty Heart

All You Need to Know About Gordon Syndrome

All You Need to Know About Gordon Syndrome

Gordon syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that belongs to the distal arthrogryposis group. Among other things, it is associated with joint stiffness, cleft palate and other mobility restrictions and requires comprehensive treatment.

What is Gordon Syndrome?

According to digopaul, gordon syndrome is a genetic disease associated with damage to the joints and the entire musculoskeletal system. The rare disease does not result in any cognitive impairments, but treatment is still necessary to get the diverse symptoms under control. Preventive measures are limited to prenatal examinations of parents and child.


The syndrome itself is characterized by stiffening of the joints, including the arms, legs and knees, elbows, wrists and ankles. If the disease occurs in children, the fingers often become stiff and remain in a bent position. Patients suffer accordingly from further limitations in mobility and can hardly carry out fine motor tasks.

Since Gordon syndrome is a genetic defect, the cause is hereditary. Affected are children who inherit an autosomal dominant trait from both father and mother or who inherit a dominant genetic disorder from one parent. The risk of inheriting the condition is 50 percent, regardless of the gender of the child.

Exudative enteropathy, also known as Gordon syndrome, occurs as a result of a wide variety of diseases. These include Whipple ‘s disease , Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, lymphogranuloomatose, and Ménétrier’s syndrome. The causes for the development of the respective underlying diseases can vary greatly and range from disorders of the gastrointestinal tract to injuries.

The Gordon system itself occurs as a result of a massive loss of protein, more precisely due to a disturbed lymphatic drainage or increased lymph formation, which leads to a loss of protein in the intestinal lumen.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

Gordon syndrome can be diagnosed at birth in most cases. The characteristic physical symptoms such as cleft palate or clubfoot are clear indicators and, in conjunction with a clinical evaluation and the parents’ medical records, allow for a clear diagnosis. If the symptoms are not noticed until later in life, Gordon syndrome can often be diagnosed by those affected themselves.

Diagnosis & History

Since the symptoms vary in severity and can be assigned to different underlying diseases, diagnosis by a doctor is essential. The specialist first talks to the patient and narrows down the symptoms that occur. What complaints arise? How serious are these complaints?

Are there similar illnesses in the family? All these questions must first be clarified before the physical examination begins. The diagnosis can then be made using typical examination procedures for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to blood tests, listening to the abdomen and palpation of the painful region, stool and saliva samples are taken, which are examined in the laboratory for the respective pathogens.

Depending on the suspicion, X -rays and ultrasound examinations can also be used to narrow down the causes. The diagnosis of exudative enteropathy is usually made using a Gordon test. This is a procedure that detects diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and thus enables comprehensive treatment.

The Gordon test itself is carried out using a labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone, with the radioactive material used being tested for the pathogens after it has been excreted. Alternatively, the process is also often carried out with the help of other active ingredients such as Cr human serum albumin. Through this and through the anamnesis mentioned at the beginning and further examinations, the Gordon syndrome and the degree of severity in which it occurs can be clearly diagnosed.


As a rule, Gordon syndrome can be diagnosed shortly after birth, so that early treatment is possible. The patient has suffered from malformations and complaints since birth. So-called cleft palate and clubfoot often occur. These complaints can severely restrict everyday life and lead to mobility problems.

Speech disorders also occur, which can lead to bullying and teasing, especially in young children. In most cases, the motor and mental development of the child is unaffected by Gordon syndrome. Speech disorders can be treated relatively well with the help of therapies, with no further complications occurring.

Certain malformations are removed and treated with the help of surgical procedures. It is not always possible to treat and reconstruct the damaged bones or joints. It is not uncommon for patients to be dependent on walking aids or the help of other people in everyday life.

Painkillers are used for severe pain, but these can damage the stomach in the long run. Parents are also often affected by the psychological stress caused by Gordon syndrome.

When should you go to the doctor?

A doctor’s visit is always necessary for Gordon syndrome. This disease does not heal itself. The doctor can significantly improve the patient’s quality of life. In most cases, the symptoms of the syndrome are visible before birth or immediately after birth.

An additional visit to the doctor for diagnosis is therefore not necessary. However, the doctor should be consulted if the symptoms make everyday life difficult for the child or lead to problems with coordination and concentration.

Regular examinations can often prevent further complications and significantly increase the life expectancy of those affected. Further visits to the doctor are necessary if there are broken bones or other problems with the bones.

Since parents and relatives often suffer from psychological problems or depression as a result of Gordon syndrome, psychological care is often necessary. As a rule, the symptoms can be reduced so that the person concerned can lead a normal life.

Treatment & Therapy

The treatment of Gordon syndrome depends on the type and intensity of the respective symptoms and side effects, which can vary greatly from person to person. Depending on the physical impairments, various specialists such as paediatricians, speech pathologists, surgeons and physiotherapists are then consulted. Surgical procedures are a common means of correcting physical abnormalities such as clubfoot or joint stiffness and reconstructing malformed or damaged joints.

Along with this, physiotherapy can be useful in order to increase the mobility of previously damaged areas of the body. Further measures depend on the symptoms that occur. Patients suffering from damage to the spine and back can cope with the pain with the help of strong painkillers.

On the other hand, patients who suffer from ptosis, i.e. drooping of the eyelids, can have surgery. The same applies to a shortened neck, cryptorchidism and similar damage to the musculoskeletal system. The relatives are often treated therapeutically and given supportive advice.

Since those affected are usually children or infants, the parents are cared for from the time the child is born and referred to the responsible specialists.

Outlook & Forecast

Gordon syndrome can be treated well. If the protein loss in the intestinal lumen is detected early, the symptoms can be effectively alleviated with medication. The symptoms subside within a few days without any long-term effects to be expected. In individual cases, gastrointestinal problems such as fatty stool can occur for a short time. These symptoms also subside quickly if the therapy works and the loss of protein can be stopped.

If this is not successful, serious health problems can occur as a result of Gordon syndrome. Cramps and muscle paralysis can occur, which must be treated immediately. In general, however, Gordon syndrome usually takes a positive course. If the patient is physically fit and has no other health problems, there should be no further problems after the therapy.

Preventive measures prevent recurrence of Gordon syndrome. Life expectancy is not reduced by intestinal protein loss syndrome. However, the quality of life can decrease in the medium term, since the patient often has to be hospitalized during therapy and suffers from physical complaints such as the gastrointestinal problems mentioned and cramps. If the syndrome is not treated, it can take a serious course and sometimes even lead to the death of the patient.


Because Gordon syndrome is a genetic condition, preventive measures are limited. Pregnant women who suffer from the disease themselves have the option of having the unborn child tested for the genetic defect and then taking further measures. In the best case, you can start treating the respective symptoms shortly after birth and enable the baby to receive comprehensive treatment.

Other specialists are often called in to look after the parents and often accompany the sick child for many years. If the symptoms that occur are marginal, preventive measures such as regular physiotherapy and medication can at least contain the symptoms later in life.


Aftercare options are severely limited in Gordon syndrome. It is a genetic disease that cannot be fully treated. Only a purely symptomatic treatment is possible, whereby those affected are usually dependent on lifelong therapy.

In order to prevent the syndrome from being passed on to offspring, genetic counseling should be carried out if you wish to have children. In many cases, those affected are dependent on surgical interventions on the affected joints. The patient should always rest and recover after such an operation.

In any case, you should refrain from exertion or sporting activities. Stress should also be avoided. Furthermore, physiotherapy measures are often necessary to treat Gordon syndrome. Some of the exercises from this therapy can also be performed at home to speed up healing.

Patients depend on the help of their fellow human beings, friends and family to get by in everyday life. Loving care always has a positive effect on the further course of the disease. In most cases, the life expectancy of those affected is not affected by Gordon syndrome.

You can do that yourself

The treatment of Gordon syndrome can be supported by various means of self-help. As a rule, patients are dependent on physiotherapy and physiotherapy after the surgical intervention. The exercises from these therapies can often be carried out at home, which speeds up healing. The same applies to exercises from speech therapy.

Those affected are often severely restricted in their everyday lives and need permanent help. Ideally, this should be done by your own family or friends and support the person concerned in everyday life. Talking to people you trust can often alleviate and avoid possible depression or other mental upsets.

Contact with other people affected by Gordon syndrome can also be worthwhile here, as this leads to an exchange of information, which may make everyday life easier and significantly improve the patient’s quality of life.

Taking strong painkillers can damage the stomach. For this reason, painkillers should only be taken if they are necessary and the doctor has recommended them.

Gordon Syndrome

All You Need to Know About Skin Infection

All You Need to Know About Skin Infection

A skin infection refers to damage to the skin caused by the body’s defense reactions to certain pathogens. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are possible triggers here. There are a variety of different dangerous skin infections.

What is a skin infection?

According to abbreviationfinder, skin infections refer to infections of the skin and associated areas of the body, including infections of the sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and so on. Accordingly, skin infections are not only limited to the dermatological picture, but can go far beyond that. In a broader sense, nail bed infections and, for example, athlete’s foot and nail fungus are also included.

A skin infection is always caused by a pathogen, with bacteria being the most common trigger. In addition, a distinction must also be made as to whether it is a disease that only affects the skin or whether the skin infection is a symptom of another disease. For example, systemic diseases are also often associated with skin infections.

The types of infections can be very different. They range from slight skin irritations to severe necrosis with pus formation. Local skin infections are not uncommon. Acne and the occasional breakout, for example, affect almost everyone. Diaper rash affects almost every baby at some point in their life.


Skin infections basically know four different types of pathogens: bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. The majority of all infections can be traced back to the fact that pathogens get into the skin through the smallest injury. For example, streptococci or staphylococci can nest and lead to an infection. Individual sweat or sebaceous glands as well as hair follicles can also be affected, which then also leads to a (local) infection.

In this context boils are also mentioned. If there is also no internal pus formation, abscesses form, which are also associated with skin infections. Acne is often promoted by other types of bacteria – mostly Propioni bacteria.

In principle, most bacteria can lead to purulent infections in the event of a skin injury, since the bacteria cause inflammation and immune reactions through their metabolic products. These infections can remain superficial or penetrate deeper into the tissue. Above all, inflammation of skin glands, purulent infections, acne and erysipelas are triggered by bacteria. But cellulite (not to be confused with cellulite !) and larger wound infections are also caused by bacteria.

Viral pathogens are among other things the cause of chickenpox, warts, measles, shingles, genital warts and herpes. It is not uncommon for the viral pathogens to get into humans through body fluids. Among the fungi there are numerous species that are native to the human skin flora anyway. Usually, they only become a fungal infection if the immune system of the affected person is (permanently) damaged or the skin flora has changed significantly.

Then various yeast fungi and other skin fungi can lead to fungal lichen. But fungi can also settle in the body, for example in the case of oral thrush. The most prominent example, however, is athlete’s foot (which can also affect the hands, scrotum, and other areas). Filamentous fungi are responsible here. Furthermore, fungi can also be found in or under the nail.

Last but not least, parasites are the rarest cause of skin infections. Lice, bed bugs and the itch mite are the most common pathogens here. In the case of lice and bed bugs, the infection (or inflammatory response) is secondary. In the case of scabies, the infection occurs due to the parasite in the skin.

Sometimes skin infections arise from opportunistic infections: the weakened skin (due to dryness, illness, or injury, for example) then becomes the local focus of infection more by chance. It should also be noted that people have different thicknesses of skin and that the skin flora in some people almost favors certain infections.

Skin infections must also be distinguished from infections that are most likely to occur due to skin trauma. Examples are tetanus and rabies.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

Skin infections are always shown by a change in the appearance of the skin. Redness usually occurs. Itching and uncomfortable sensations in the affected areas are also common.

Otherwise, the symptoms are very different. Bacterial infections sometimes lead to the formation of pus, abscesses, extensive destruction of the skin and so on. The skin can also be completely destroyed as a result of local necrosis.

Viral infections, on the other hand, are never associated with the formation of pus or abscesses and are often easier to identify. Especially the viral skin infections that lead to the so-called children’s diseases have a clear symptom picture. These include, for example, chickenpox and measles.

Fungal infections are very different. Superficial skin infections are usually associated with the formation of spots. These can be of different sizes and more or less raised. Sometimes the pigments of the skin are destroyed, which can lead to discoloration. Fungal skin infections are not always associated with itching.

In most cases they are completely symptom-free (with the exception of the aesthetic change). Foot and nail infections, on the other hand, are often associated with itching and often result in a very penetrating odor development. The parasite infestation on the skin always leads to itching. In the case of scabies, it can be particularly distressing.

A few examples of classic symptoms of well-known skin diseases should be listed here. For example, acne always means the formation of pus in the sebaceous glands (usually on the face or upper trunk), which can be associated with pain. Large abscesses (e.g. after severe wounds) can lead to immense pain and necrosis.

Cellulitis is accompanied by severe reddening of the skin, but can otherwise be asymptomatic. Hand, foot, and mouth disease can cause blisters in the mouth, irritation of the skin on the hands and feet, and loss of appetite. Young children in particular are affected by the viral infection.

Scabies shows up through bore tunnels in particularly warm and well-perfused areas. Sometimes it can be seen as a small dot under the skin. The itching gets worse, especially at night.


Overall, complications from skin infection are rare. Most skin infections can be considered harmless if treated adequately, although the treatment can often take a long time.

Complications are to be feared at most in severely immunosuppressed patients and in the case of extensive infections with the formation of pus and abscesses. For example, a poor immune system can always lead to a worsening of an actually harmless clinical picture. Bacteria and other pathogens can then multiply faster and cause more damage even faster. In the case of bacteria, potentially fatal sepsis can occur under the most unfavorable circumstances. This can also be caused by particularly large abscesses.

If a part of the body is too deeply penetrated by an infection, which may have originated in the skin, amputation is also necessary in rare cases.

In most cases, the complications of skin infection depend on whether the infection is local or spread. For example, a single boil or pimple is unlikely to lead to complications, while fungal infections can.

A frequent consequence of skin infection is that the affected skin areas are attacked and secondary infections occur. If no action is taken, there is a risk of losing the intact skin. Overall, however, complications are rare. It should be noted that particularly susceptible skin types are not well protected against certain skin diseases (especially fungal infections) and the people affected suffer from them again and again.

Further complications depend on the exact disease.

When should you go to the doctor?

Skin changes (with the exception of a single pimple or a faint reddening) are always a reason to see a doctor. This is not only the case because the skin changes can represent skin infections. Rather, there are also various skin changes that indicate other diseases.

For example, a Lyme disease infection causes typical circles on the skin. But other diseases from the idiopathic group of dermatological diseases can also occur and require clarification. A typical example here is neurodermatitis.

Occasional rashes can occur due to allergen exposure. Here, too, it is worth repeating and clarifying. In addition, some skin rashes are associated with infectious diseases. For example with HIV, syphilis and the flu.

A family doctor can be the first point of contact. Above all, he will recognize clear clinical pictures well. If the findings are not clear, a dermatologist can help.

Warning signs that indicate a visit to the doctor are, for example, hardened skin areas, strong swellings, changes in sensation and circulatory disorders.


The diagnosis is usually made by looking at the skin and, if necessary, by taking tissue samples and swabs. In most cases, however, the visual diagnosis is sufficient to determine at least the type of pathogen. An anamnesis is usually obtained when the skin changes are infectious but cannot really be assigned.

If there are abscesses and similarly serious damage, imaging methods may have to be used. In rare cases it is necessary to know the exact type of pathogen (e.g. when the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is advised against). Then laboratory diagnostic tests are used. Parasites can usually be recognized quickly.

Treatment & Therapy

Treatment is cause-oriented, with the exception of viral pathogens. This is how bacteria are treated with antibiotics. There are fungicidal agents against fungi that are either applied externally or used in tablets. Parasites can also usually be combated with creams and ointments.

In some cases it is necessary to intervene directly in the skin. Thus, the treatment also consists in establishing adequate hygiene of the affected area. Abscesses are usually punctured. Severe necroses usually have to be surgically removed. Amputations can be considered in the case of extensive tissue loss with a risk of sepsis.

Treatment in the case of a skin infection can take a long time, for example in the case of inflammatory acts or severe cases of fungal infestation. The therapy usually consists of a combination of medication and certain actions that are intended to protect the skin. This can mean using certain detergents, avoiding certain substances and much more and must be determined individually.

In some cases (especially in the case of fungal infestation), hair removal can also be useful in order to be able to better combat any reserves of the pathogen. This is also useful for head lice and pubic lice. Viral pathogens, on the other hand, are treated symptomatically.

Outlook & Forecast

Skin infections have a good prognosis in most cases. The pathogens can be easily identified in a medical treatment through targeted tests and then treated. Therefore, within a few weeks, a large number of patients experience relief from their symptoms and then freedom from symptoms.

Basically, the sooner treatment is possible, the better the chances of recovery. With some pathogens, there is an improvement in the skin changes even without drug treatment. A good cleansing of the body and a change of clothes can already help to alleviate the symptoms.

However, depending on the cause of the skin infection, without treatment, health can deteriorate. The germs, viruses, fungi or bacteria can multiply and spread on the skin within a short time. In addition, the risk of pathogens entering the organism through open wounds increases. In severe cases, the patient is threatened with blood poisoning and thus a fatal course of the disease.

It is therefore important for a good prognosis to determine the cause of the present skin infection. Based on the test results, a decision can then be made about the need for medical treatment. For some infections, therapies based on natural remedies are entirely sufficient to achieve recovery.


Preventing skin infections is difficult. It applies in the case of infections arising via wounds that wounds and scratches that appear should be cleaned quickly. This should be done with sterilizing agents if possible. Covering the injured area is advisable.

Furthermore, the skin flora and skin health can be supported. Dryness on the skin should be avoided. Sufficient liquid and care creams can help here. In addition, the intake of vitamins A and E has a positive effect on the skin’s ability to regenerate.

Particular attention is also paid to washing the skin. There is a lot of discussion here about how much soap and other agents a skin flora can tolerate. This seems to be different for everyone. For example, people with very sensitive and often damaged skin can try to use less soap when showering. Among other things, this maintains the natural acid protection of the skin and can support the natural skin flora (which competes with invading pathogens).


In the case of a skin infection, the possibilities and measures of aftercare in most cases depend very much on the exact infection, so that no general prediction can be made here. Usually, skin infections can be treated relatively well, but early diagnosis is always necessary to prevent further complications or problems. The sooner a doctor is consulted for this disease, the better the further course is in most cases.

Most infections on the skin are treated by applying creams or ointments. The person concerned should pay attention to regular application and also to the correct dosage of the funds. If antibiotics or other medications are prescribed, these must also be taken and dosed regularly.

When taking antibiotics, it should also be noted that they should not be taken together with alcohol, otherwise their effect will be significantly weakened. In serious cases, talking to friends or your own family is also very advisable to prevent mental upsets or depression. In this context, contact with other affected persons can also be useful. In most cases, a skin infection does not reduce the life expectancy of the person affected.

You can do that yourself

For skin infections that are temporary and show no symptoms, it’s best to keep the affected areas clean. In addition, they should not be touched unnecessarily in order to accelerate healing.

In the event of pus formation, warm, moist compresses can cause the pus to break out more quickly, which leads to faster relief. In principle, people affected by skin infections can take all measures to promote skin health and the immune system. This applies above all to a diet rich in vitamins and minerals.

In addition, individual inflammations of the skin (pimples, inflamed glands, etc.) can be treated with drying and antiseptic agents. Examples are zinc ointments and turpentine oil. However, with remedies like these, their use should be discussed with a doctor.

Fungal infections can be temporarily combated with vinegar. However, this does not eliminate the spore reserves that have already been created. Large-area skin changes, such as those that occur in the case of a large abscess or severe fungal infestation, cannot be treated by yourself. A full visit to the doctor is inevitable here.

Skin Infection

All You Need to Know About Chalazion

All You Need to Know About Chalazion

A chalazion, also known as a chalazion, is a cyst in the eyelid. This is caused by inflammation of a blocked gland on the upper eyelid. A chalazion differs from a stye (hordeola) in that it is a subacute and usually painless nodule.

What is a hailstone?

The glands affected by a chalazion are the meibomian or eyelid glands located in the eyelid. There are between 30 to 40 of these oil glands in each of the upper and lower eyelids. They produce a thick fluid that is contained in the eye’s tear film and lubricates the surface of the eye.

A chalazion is the result of a swollen oil gland in the eyelid caused by chronic inflammation after the gland duct becomes blocked. While the cyst tends to grow larger than a stye, once it swells it is painless and considered harmless.

Adults are more likely to suffer from a chalazion than children. Recurrent chalazia in the same location can sometimes be a symptom of sebaceous carcinoma, a rare type of cancer.


A chalazion is the result of an inflammatory process. The small opening through which a meibomian gland secretes its secretions can become blocked as a result of narrowing of the opening or hardening of the sebum near the opening.

The backflow thickens the walls of the gland and the escaping secretion in the eyelid itself. This leads to inflammation both within the gland and on the eyelid and ultimately to the formation of a cyst (chalazion).

A possible cause of a chalazion is incomplete removal of eye makeup, which collects the oil from the cosmetic product in the glands.

Inflammation of the edge of the eyelid ( blepharitis ) as a result of the overproduction of sebum due to meibomitis or inflammatory skin diseases such as acne vulgaris or acne rosacea can also cause a chalazion.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

A chalazion is a prominent lump on the eyelid. Externally, it resembles the stye, but unlike the latter, it is usually not painful. Unlike this, the course is not acute either, but it develops gradually over several weeks and grows slowly. It is characteristic of the hailstone that it can be moved.

The chalazion is usually about the size of a hailstone, which is why it is also called that. In some cases, much smaller chalazia also occur. The simultaneous presence of several hailstones is unusual. A chalazion does not usually cause any pain, but it can be associated with an uncomfortable feeling of pressure in the eye that can be caused by the friction.

This can sometimes cause eye irritation and inflammation of the conjunctiva ( conjunctivitis ). The affected eye is clearly reddened. There may be increased sensitivity to light and increased tears. In rare cases, hailstones can also be large enough to impair vision. Without treatment, the hailstone usually disappears completely within a few months or years.

Diagnosis & History

Symptoms of the development of a chalazion are swelling of the eyelid combined with sensitivity to pressure, sensitivity to light or a perceived heaviness of the eyelid.

A bump appears clearly on the eyelid. A chalazion usually occurs in the upper eyelid. Smaller chalazions disappear over time, while larger chalazions become permanent or even increase in size.

Enlarged chalazia can increase pressure on the eyeball and cause visual disturbances. There is also a risk that the blocked gland will become secondarily infected, leading to irritation, pain and inflammation. For the relatively unambiguous diagnosis, the eyes are checked with regard to visual function and field of vision.

In order to reliably distinguish between a chalazion and a stye, the doctor treating you will also close the affected eyelid to examine the inside. In addition, a palpation examination will check the mobility of the chalazion.


A hailstone is usually not much larger than a grain of rice and only needs to be treated with eye drops or ointment in the case of severe inflammation. Very often it regresses on its own without any complications, which does not require any further measures. In some cases, however, it can swell. Then the chalazion endangers vision and an operation is necessary to remove the tissue knot.

Larger hailstones otherwise persist for a long time without swelling. Complications with the conjunctiva can also occur. Surgery is not done until the chalazion is causing severe pain or is larger than normal. Rare complications are also possible here. While most of those affected no longer have any symptoms a few days later, postoperative bleeding and infections cannot be ruled out, as is the case with any operation.

Damage to the optic nerve or the eye itself during surgery is also possible. Sometimes a scar also remains, causing the eyelid to warp. Normally, no traces of the operation remain on the eye. Recurring inflammation can indicate underlying diseases such as diabetes mellitus or other metabolic diseases and must be examined accordingly.

When should you go to the doctor?

Normally, a hailstone does not require medical treatment. It is a harmless inflammation of the eye glands that heals on its own after a few days. If the symptoms have not subsided after a week at the latest, a visit to the family doctor or ophthalmologist is indicated.

Accompanying symptoms such as severe pain, pus formation or visual disturbances also require medical treatment in order to avoid the development of serious complications. If another hailstone forms after treatment, a comprehensive investigation is required in any case.

The symptoms may be due to an allergy or a serious medical condition that needs to be diagnosed and treated. In individual cases, a lid tumor can develop from recurring inflammation. Therefore, recurring complaints should be examined by a specialist.

Patients at risk, such as people with chronic eye diseases, allergy sufferers, children, the elderly and pregnant women, are best advised to have a hailstone clarified immediately by their general practitioner. Other contacts are the ophthalmologist, the naturopath and, in the case of severe symptoms, the medical emergency service.

Treatment & Therapy

Treatment will initially be non-invasive. A hot compress can be applied to the affected area or massaged lightly to get the glandular secretions flowing again. Likewise, homeopathic remedies are excellent for treatment.

If antibiotic eye drops or eye ointment such as chloramphenicol or fusidic acid do not clear up a chalazion, surgical intervention is recommended. Removal of a chalazion is an outpatient procedure that usually takes no more than 15 minutes. Due to the risk of infection and serious damage to the eyelid, such procedures should be performed exclusively by a doctor.

The eyelid is numbed with a local anesthetic. A clamp is then placed over the eyelid to hold it securely in place and allow it to be flipped over. The doctor will then make a 3mm incision on the inside of the eyelid to scrape out the chalazion.

Since scarring of the eyelid can cause vision problems, surgery will only be considered as a last resort. Although chalazias are rarely dangerous, it is common for pieces of tissue to be sent in for biopsy for cancer screening.

Outlook & Forecast

The prognosis of a hailstone is favorable. The small or medium-sized hailstones usually completely regress within a few weeks. There are no consequential damages or impairments. Many patients suffer from the visual blemish caused by a hailstone. The emotional state of the affected person usually improves as the foreign body subsides.

Large hailstones temporarily impair vision. Since the eyelid cannot be moved as usual, the affected person’s field of vision is severely limited. Many doctors recommend surgery in these cases. If the patient decides to have the chalazion removed surgically, it is usually considered symptom-free afterwards. If no further complications or delays in the healing process occur, the patient is released from treatment after a few days as cured.

The eyelid can be opened as usual after the wound has healed. With this, the ability to see is completely restored, since the presence of a hailstone has no effect on the functionality of the eyeball or the information processing of the incoming sensory stimuli. Only the field of vision is restricted by the foreign body.

If a hailstone occurs again in the course of life, the prognosis is also favourable. The course of the disease and the treatment options remain unchanged in the event of a recurrence.


Thorough eye hygiene is recommended to prevent hailstones. This includes thorough make-up removal and cleaning of the eyelashes as well as meticulous cleaning of required contact lenses. In principle, strengthening the immune system also helps to counteract inflammatory processes.


In most cases, the person affected with a chalazion has no special or direct measures and options for aftercare. However, these are not necessary either, since it is a harmless disease that usually disappears on its own without the need for treatment. However, if the chalazion occurs for a longer period of time and does not disappear on its own, an ophthalmologist should be consulted.

This can possibly prevent further complications and complaints, which in the worst case would lead to the patient being completely blind. A chalazion can be treated relatively well with eye drops or an eye ointment. These drugs should be used regularly and in the right dosage. If anything is unclear or if you have any questions, always consult a doctor.

If the chalazion does not go away on its own through self-help measures and resources, a doctor should be consulted immediately. The affected eye should be particularly well protected in the case of a chalazion. Eyes are particularly important to protect after an operation. As a rule, this disease does not reduce the life expectancy of the affected person. Furthermore, aftercare measures are no longer necessary.

You can do that yourself

A hailstone can be treated very easily with just a few measures. In order to loosen the accumulation of secretion, it is recommended to apply a warm compress. The heat widens the pores and allows the secretion to drain. Disinfecting and anti-inflammatory plant extracts can also be added to the warm water: These include sage, cistus and chamomile.

If the inflammation spreads to the rest of the eye, eye drops can also be used. Antibiotics are usually not necessary. Eye drops are commercially available with hyaluronic acid – this ensures long-lasting moisturizing – or based on the plant eyebright. Euphrasia – as it is called in Latin – is offered in the form of ampoules or globules. It can be used internally and externally. The intake of selenium – an anti-inflammatory micronutrient – ​​also provides useful internal support.

If the chalazion does not heal and there is a risk of scarring, you need to see an ophthalmologist or surgeon. This would remove the chalazion in an outpatient procedure. However, due to the risk of infection, this is the last resort for treatment.

As a preventative measure, eye make-up should always be removed thoroughly. Thorough hygiene also applies to used contact lenses. In order to care for the edges of the eyelids, those affected can resort to completely natural means: Olive or coconut oil have a disinfecting and caring effect at the same time.


All You Need to Know About LCD

All You Need to Know About LCD

A display LCD (liquid crystal display: ‘ LCD ‘ for short English according to abbreviationfinder) is a thin, flat screen formed by a number of pixels color or monochrome placed in front of a light source or reflector. It is often used in battery-operated electronic devices as it uses very small amounts of electrical energy.

It is present in countless devices, from the limited image that a pocket calculator shows to televisions of 50 inches or more. These screens are composed of thousands of tiny liquid crystals, which are not solids or liquids in reality but an intermediate state.


Each pixel on an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes, and two polarization filters, the axesof each being (in most cases) perpendicular to each other. Without liquid crystal between the polarizing filter, the light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossing) polarizer.

The surface of the electrodes that are in contact with the liquid crystal materials is treated in order to adjust the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. This treatment is usually normally applicable consists of a thin layer of polymer that is rubbed unidirectionally using, for example, a cloth. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is defined by the rubbing direction.

Before the application of an electric field, the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules is determined by adaptation to the surfaces. In a twisted nematic device, TN (one of the most common devices among liquid crystal devices), the surface alignment directions of the two electrodes are perpendicular to each other, thus organizing the molecules in a helical structure., or twisted. Because the material is birefringent liquid crystal, the light that passes through one polarizing filter is turned by the liquid crystal helix that passes through the liquid crystal layer, allowing it to pass through the second polarized filter.. Half of the incident light is absorbed by the first polarizing filter, but otherwise the entire assembly is transparent.

When a voltage is applied across the electrodes, a turning force orients the liquid crystal molecules parallel to the electric field, which distorts the helical structure (this can be resisted thanks to elastic forces since the molecules are confined to the surfaces). This reduces the rotation of the polarization incident light, and the device appears gray. If the applied voltage is large enough, the liquid crystal molecules in the center of the layer are almost completely unwound and the polarization of the incident light is not rotated as it passes through the liquid crystal layer. This light will be mainly polarized perpendicular to the second filter, and therefore it will be blocked and the pixel will appear black. By controlling the applied voltage across the liquid crystal layer at each pixel, light can be allowed to pass through different amounts, constituting different shades of gray. The optical effect of a twisted nematic (TN) device in the voltage state is much less dependent on the thickness variations of the device than in the offset voltage state. Because of this, These devices are often used between crossed polarizers in such a way that they appear bright without voltage (the eye is much more sensitive to variations in the dark state than in the bright state). These devices can also work in parallel between polarizers, in which case light and dark are reversed states. The offset stress in the dark state of this configuration appears reddened due to small variations in thickness throughout the device. Both the liquid crystal material and the alignment layer material contain ionic compounds. If an electric field of a certain polarity is applied for a long period, this ionic material is attracted to the surface and the performance of the device is degraded. This is to be avoided,

When a device requires a large number of pixels, it is not feasible to drive each device directly, thus each pixel requires a separate number of electrodes. Instead, the screen is multiplexed. In a multiplexed display, the electrodes on the side of the display are grouped together with the cables (usually in columns), and each group has its own voltage source. On the other hand, the electrodes are also grouped (usually in rows), where each group gets a sink voltage. The groups have been designed so that each pixel has a unique and dedicated combination of sources and sinks. The electronic circuits or the software that controls them, activates the sinks in sequence and controls the sources of the pixels in each sink.


Important factors to consider when evaluating an LCD screen:


The horizontal and vertical dimensions are expressed in pixels. HD displays have a native resolution of 1366 x 768 pixels (720p) and the native resolution on Full HD is 1920 x 1080 pixels (1080p).

Stitch width

The distance between the centers of two adjacent pixels. The smaller the dot width, the less granularity the image will have. The point width can be the same vertically and horizontally, or different (less common).


The size of an LCD panel is measured along its diagonal, usually expressed in inches (colloquially called the active display area).

Response time

It is the time it takes for a pixel to change from one color to another

Matrix type

Active, passive and reactive.

Vision angle

It is the maximum angle at which a user can look at the LCD, it is when it is offset from its center, without losing image quality. The new screens come with a viewing angle of 178 degrees.

Color support

Number of supported colors. Colloquially known as color gamut.


The amount of light emitted from the screen; also known as luminosity


The ratio of the brightest to the darkest intensity.


The ratio of the width to the height (for example, 5: 4, 4: 3, 16: 9, and 16:10).

Ports of entry

For example DVI, VGA, LVDS or even S-Video and HDMI.

Brief history

  • 1887: Friedrich Reinitzer (1858-1927) discovered that cholesterol extracted from carrots is a liquid crystal (that is, he discovers the existence of two melting points and the generation of colors), and published his findings at a meeting of the Chemical Society Vienna on May 3, 1888 (F. Reinitzer: Zur Kenntniss de Cholesterins, Monatshefte für Chemie (Wien / Vienna) 9, 421-441 (1888)).
  • 1904: Otto Lehmann publishes his work Liquid Crystals.
  • 1911: Charles Mauguin describes the structure and properties of liquid crystals.
  • 1936: The Marconi Wireless Telegraph company patents the first practical application of the technology, the “liquid crystal light valve”.
  • 1960 to 1970: Pioneering work on liquid crystals was carried out in the 1960s by the Royal Radar Establishment, in the city of Malvern, UK. The RRE team supported ongoing work by George Gray and his team at the University of Hull, who eventually discovered cyanobiphenyl in liquid crystals (which had the correct stability and temperature properties for application in LCD displays).
  • 1962: The first major publication in English on the topic Molecular structure and properties of liquid crystals, by Dr. George W. Gray.
    Richard Williams from RCA found that there were some liquid crystals with interesting electro-optical characteristics and he realized the electro-optical effect by generating band patterns in a thin layer of liquid crystal material by applying a voltage. This effect is based on a hydrodynamic instability formed, what is now called ” Williams domains ” inside the liquid crystal.
  • 1964: In the fall of 1964 George H. Heilmeier, while working in the RCA laboratories on the effect discovered by Williams, he noticed the color switching induced by the readjustment of dichroic dyes in a homeotropically oriented liquid crystal. The practical problems with this new electro-optical effect caused Heilmeier to continue working on the effects of dispersion in liquid crystals and, finally, the realization of the first functioning liquid crystal display based on what he called the dynamic mode dispersion (DSM). Applying a voltage to a DSM device initially changes the transparent liquid crystal into a milky, cloudy, state layer. DSM devices could operate in transmission and reflection mode, but require considerable current flow to operate.
  • 1970: The 4 of December of 1970, the patent of the effect of the field “twisted nematic” liquid crystals was filed by Hoffmann-LaRoche in Switzerland (Swiss Patent No. 532,261), with Wolfgang Helfrich and Martin Schadt (who worked for the Central Research Laboratories) where they are listed as inventors. Hoffmann-La Roche, then licensed the invention, gave it to the Swiss manufacturer Brown, Boveri & Cie, which produced watch devices during the 1970’s, and also to the Japanese electronics industry that soon produced the first digital quartz wristwatch. with TN, LCD screens and many other products. James Fergason in Kent State University filed an identical patent in the US on April 22, 1971. In 1971 the Fergason company ILIXCO (now LXD Incorporated) produced the first LCD displays based on the TN effect, which soon replaced the poor quality DSM types due to improvements in lower operating voltages and lower power consumption. Energy.
  • 1972: The first liquid crystal active matrix display was produced in the United States by Peter T. Brody.

A detailed description of the origins and complex history of liquid crystal displays from an insider’s perspective from the earliest days has been published by Joseph A. Castellano in Liquid Gold, The Story of Liquid Crystal Displays and the Creation of an Industry

The same story seen from a different perspective has been described and published by Hiroshi Kawamoto (“The History of Liquid-Crystal Displays”, Proc. IEEE, Vol. 90, No. 4, April 2002), this document is available at public at the IEEE History Center.

Color in devices

In color LCD screens each individual pixel is divided into three cells, or sub-pixels, colored red, green, and blue, respectively, by increasing filters (pigment filters, tint filters, and metal oxide filters). Each sub-pixel can be independently controlled to produce thousands or millions of possible colors for each pixel. CRT monitors use the same ‘sub-pixel’ structure through the use of phosphor, although the analog electron beam used in CRTs does not give an exact number of sub-pixels.

Color components can be arranged in various pixel geometric shapes, depending on monitor usage. If the software knows what type of geometry is being used on a particular LCD, it can be used to increase the resolution of the monitor through sub-pixel display. This technique is especially useful for anti-aliasing text.

All You Need to Know About LCD

All You Need to Know About Peanut Allergy

All You Need to Know About Peanut Allergy

The peanut allergy is one of the food allergies of type I, that is, the symptoms immediately after eating.

What is a peanut allergy?

Peanuts belong to the legume family and are excellent sources of minerals. However, a peanut allergy is one of the most severe food allergies. Even a very small amount can lead to an allergic reaction. Those affected then suffer from dizziness, nausea, reddening of the skin or rapid heartbeat.


In the case of an allergy, the body’s defenses are directed against substances that are normally harmless. At the first contact a sensitization occurs and the immune system forms antibodies against the allergen. If there is further contact, allergic reactions will occur. The triggers for an allergic reaction are so-called Ara-h allergens, which bind to IgE antibodies. This releases inflammatory mediators.

The antibodies attach to basophilic granulocytes or mast cells. The next time they come into contact with the allergen, the cells release histamine or other substances. Mast cells are found in every body tissue and they are also responsible for the allergic reactions. Basophils are white blood cells. As soon as the allergen gets into the circulation, the granulocytes react, which mainly affects the blood vessels.

A small amount of peanuts is enough for a severe reaction, and in some cases skin contact is enough to cause a rash. Allergies are often genetic. So if one of the parents suffers from a peanut allergy, it is possible that the child can also suffer from it. The risk is even greater if both parents are allergic. Another cause is excessive hygiene, as the immune system is underutilized and looks for another goal.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

A peanut allergy causes symptoms in the digestive system, on the respiratory tract, on the skin or in the cardiovascular system. General symptoms include restlessness, feelings of panic, watery eyes and swelling of the mucous membrane in the throat or mouth. However, a slowed or accelerated pulse, headache or clouded consciousness can also occur in connection with a peanut allergy.

This is often noticeable through frequent sneezing, stuffy nose and coughing, asthma attacks and wheezing. It can also cause nausea, stomach cramps and diarrhea. Redness, wheals or eczema form on the skin; in the worst case, a peanut allergy leads to anaphylactic shock.

Anaphylaxis is life-threatening, so the emergency doctor must be informed immediately in the event of an anaphylactic shock. To avoid a possible circulatory collapse, it is important to put your feet up until the doctor arrives.


As part of an anamnesis, the doctor first learns about the patient’s eating habits, allergies within the family, the psychological state of the person concerned or any previous illnesses.

In order to determine an allergy, the so-called prick test is very often carried out, in which potential allergens are applied to the skin. If allergic reactions appear after about thirty minutes, a potential allergen is present.

Another diagnostic option is a blood test, which examines the total concentration of antibodies in the blood. These antibodies are responsible for triggering an allergic reaction.

In the provocation test, the doctor gives the test person the allergens intranasally or orally, but very severe reactions can occur here, so that this test should never be carried out on your own. In some cases the rub test is also used, in which the allergen is rubbed onto the skin in order to be able to determine any reactions.


A peanut allergy can have various complications. These occur primarily immediately after the peanuts have been consumed and can therefore be detected immediately. The complications are very diverse and can affect the lungs, eyes and digestion. Usually watery eyes, a rising panic and swelling in the mouth occur.

Most often these symptoms are accompanied by a headache and dizziness. If a large amount of peanuts has been ingested, the peanut allergy can also lead to shock. In this case, treatment by the doctor is necessary. In the case of mild allergies, the symptoms usually go away on their own. Swelling should also be examined by a doctor.

Due to the peanut allergy, the patient’s diet is restricted so that he is no longer allowed to eat peanuts. However, this only affects a small fraction of the possible foods that are available to the patient. If there is a peanut allergy, treatment can be carried out with the help of medication.

The symptoms disappear completely after a few hours without any further complications. If the peanut allergy occurs for the first time, an explanation from a doctor is necessary. The patient should also test for other allergies and intolerances in order to avoid complications. Above all, this includes other legumes.

When should you go to the doctor?

At the first suspicion of a peanut allergy, those affected should consult a doctor, preferably an allergist, because in some people even small amounts of peanuts are enough to trigger severe allergic reactions such as anaphylactic shock.

Since peanut parts are also contained in many products where you would not suspect them at first glance, it is important that these people are informed about the allergy and its risks by the doctor and that they are given an emergency kit with an antihistamine, cortisone and adrenaline Always have them with you so that you can react quickly in an emergency.

Since some people react to different allergens, a skin prick test is carried out, possibly also a blood test, since a combination of allergies increases the risk of possible complications. At the doctor’s, those affected are also fully informed about foods that contain peanuts or traces of them; in addition, they usually receive nutritional advice from trained specialists, since the treatment of a peanut allergy largely consists of avoiding the allergen in everyday life, and others Informing people about the allergy in situations that may encourage an allergic reaction. The doctor also informs the relatives what to do in an emergency.

Treatment & Therapy

An allergy to peanuts cannot be cured, but there are a variety of measures to be able to live with this disease. In principle, it is necessary to refrain from using peanuts or products that contain them. This is not always easy because many foods and cosmetics contain traces of it. Particular caution is also required with adhesives, bath oils, soaps, vitamin preparations or linoleum.

In medical treatment, those affected also receive glucocorticoids and antihistamines. Nutritional therapy from an appropriate specialist is also recommended. It is important that those affected or their relatives are well informed so that the first symptoms can be recognized quickly. Peanuts are legumes. Some peanut allergy sufferers are therefore allergic to beans or soy or to tree nuts such as pistachios, almonds or hazelnuts.

Outlook & forecast

Like most allergies, peanut allergy is incurable. As with almost all food allergies, “allergy vaccination” is also not an option. Desensitization does not improve the peanut allergy. The patient will therefore be allergic to peanuts for a lifetime and must exercise caution, because the peanut allergens are among the substances that can cause particularly severe symptoms and even dangerous anaphylactic shock with fatal consequences.

However, it is possible that the peanut allergy changes in the course of life – the person affected usually reacts even more violently to contact with peanuts than before. The peanut allergy is often very severe anyway, so that those affected can expect severe symptoms when they eat peanuts. If you do not have an Epi-Pen with you and come into contact with peanuts, severe reactions can result in the patient’s death if no one can help him in time.

Furthermore, cross-allergies can develop in the course of life, which occur together with the peanut allergy – this does not have to happen, but it is also not possible to determine the time in advance or to name factors that favor the development of cross-allergies. It is all the more important that those affected know the most common cross allergies in connection with their peanut allergy so that they can recognize symptoms quickly.


An allergic reaction to peanuts can be prevented by avoiding products that contain peanuts. These include, for example, cornflakes, savory biscuits, muesli, chocolate bars or fried products. But cold-pressed oils can also contain peanut residues. Refined oils are mostly well tolerated and pumpkin seeds are a very good alternative for people with a peanut allergy.

Since 2005, food containing peanuts has to be labeled accordingly. Therefore, those affected should read the fine print on the packaging carefully, and it is also advisable to always have an emergency kit with you, in which syringes containing cortisone, adrenaline and an antihistamine can be found.

Loose goods from the bakery are, however, exempt from this allergen labeling regulation, so that one is dependent on the information of the seller. Organic products should be preferred as they contain fewer additives. You can also find your own shops on the Internet that offer products for people with peanut allergies.


A peanut allergy is often diagnosed in childhood. Otherwise, this diagnosis comes from anaphylactic shock after eating a peanut. Since peanuts are an acute threat to the life of a peanut allergy sufferer, prevention is far more important than aftercare.

Children who have numerous skin eczemas and who are also allergic to chicken eggs are at high risk of developing a peanut allergy. Such children may only be given peanut products if they are not already suffering from a peanut allergy.

After an anaphylactic shock from peanuts in childhood, the preventive measures are also follow-up measures. After the acute treatment, the family is advised to strictly avoid food containing peanuts and an emergency kit is provided. This can contain drugs such as antihistamines, Jext-Anapen, Infectodexa Krupp and Salbutamol with a breathing mask. These preparations can save lives in the event of accidental ingestion of peanut-containing products.

Follow-up care consists mainly of caring for the parents and making the social environment aware of this problem. Children cannot take care of themselves yet.

You can do that yourself

Those affected by a peanut allergy have no concrete options for countering the effects of their allergy in everyday life with everyday means. This is limited to carrying an emergency kit and avoiding the allergen. However, it is possible for those affected to convey their own needs to the environment in a targeted manner and to gain added value from avoidance behavior with regard to food.

It is important that those affected communicate in situations in which they could come into contact with the allergen that they absolutely have to avoid it. It shouldn’t be around. If this encounters a lack of understanding or even resistance, a remedy can be provided by means of a simple explanation (also with the aid of the emergency kit).

Communicating with friends, relatives and possibly the employer makes it easier to move around safely in an environment full of food. Avoiding many products that may contain traces of peanuts also has positive effects. So the person concerned should feel encouraged to try new foods from time to time. By acquiring a broad knowledge of risky and low-risk foods at the same time, he can also decide faster and better what to eat.

Peanut Allergy

All You Need to Know About Meningitis

All You Need to Know About Meningitis

Meningitis, encephalitis or meningitis is a disease of the meninges, which can be attacked by inflammation and lasting damage. Mostly the cause of meningitis or meningitis is an infection by bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi.

What is meningitis?

Meningitis, meningitis or meningitis is a very serious and complex disease. This leads to an inflammation of the meninges.

Meningitis must be treated quickly, and if discovered, a doctor or hospital should be consulted immediately. If meningitis is present, it is important to act quickly, as the course of therapy depends to a large extent on the development of the disease.

Meningitis is a classic bacterial infection that usually occurs in young children or adolescents. In most cases, three types of bacteria are responsible for the onset of the disease.


Three types of bacteria in particular can lead to meningitis or meningitis. These are the meningococci (Neisseria meningitidis), the pneumococci (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and the Haemophilus influenzae.

Most meningitis can be traced back to the types of bacteria listed above, which are usually transmitted from person to person by a droplet infection, for example by sneezing or coughing. Often a rather uncomplicated and harmless inflammation of the upper respiratory tract occurs beforehand, which then leads to meningitis.

However, vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae is possible in Germany, which is why meningococci in particular are a cause of meningitis today. According to estimates, the meningococci are responsible for half of the recorded cases of meningitis. In newborns, however, other pathogens usually lead to meningitis.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

In the different forms of meningitis (meningitis), the symptoms and complaints are different in their development and severity. With bacterial meningitis, severe headaches almost always occur. Typical of bacterial meningitis is the occurrence of at least one of the following symptoms: stiff neck, decreased consciousness, high fever.

In particular, the stiff neck (meningism) is a clear indication of meningitis. With leg meningism, those affected are unable to move their head or can only move their sternum with considerable pain. Often meningitis also results in sensitivity to noise, aching limbs and photophobia. Vomiting, dizziness, hearing and speech disorders and nausea are also relatively common.

In meningitis caused by meningococci, sepsis occurs in around 30 percent of cases. This blood poisoning can be recognized by red and brown patches of skin. The symptoms of virally induced meningitis are characteristically less pronounced than in bacterial meningitis.

In infants and children suffering from meningitis, there are often only the unspecific signs of fever or nausea, which also occur with other diseases. Neck stiffness as a symptom is atypical at this age. In the rare special cases of tuberculous meningitis and neuroborreliosis, fever is often the only symptom for a long time.


In the case of meningitis, positive developments can usually be brought about. In some cases, however, complications cannot be ruled out. Sometimes the affected person can develop a meningoencephalic. This means that the inflammation spreads from the meninges to the brain.

Since the brain is connected to the spinal cord via the central nervous system, meningoencephalomyelitis, an inflammation of the meninges, the brain and the spinal cord, can also occur. Neurological damage such as loss of hearing or paralysis cannot be ruled out either. In addition, psychological damage (disabilities or behavioral problems) are not uncommon.

An accumulation of pus in a cavity that has formed can also be cited as an example of a negative course. Furthermore, a disruption of the cerebral water circulation cannot be ruled out. Vascular occlusion of the veins due to blood clots is not uncommon.


There is a particular risk of complications in the early course of meningitis. In such cases, special treatment is required. Nevertheless, the prognosis for the disease can be unfavorable. With bacterial meningitis, an average of one to two in ten people have complications.

Blood poisoning (sepsis) is one of the most serious consequences of meningitis. It occurs when the meningitis pathogens multiply in the blood. The toxic waste from the germs poison the blood. The blood poisoning poses a higher risk to life than the meningitis itself.

The bacteria penetrate the bloodstream into other organs and tissues and damage them. In the worst case, the affected person suffers a septic shock. This in turn leads to acute circulatory failure. Because the organs and tissues are poorly supplied with blood, they are damaged.

Furthermore, there is a risk of a blood clot due to the reduced blood flow in the limbs. As the disease progresses, there is a risk of life-threatening organ failure. For this reason, the complications of meningitis must always be treated immediately in the intensive care unit.

Another dangerous consequence is meningoencephalomyelitis, which affects the meninges and brain and spreads to the spinal cord. As a result, the patient can suffer permanent neurological damage. These include loss of hearing, paralysis and intellectual disabilities. Other conceivable complications of meningitis are meningoencephalitis, vascular occlusion and a brain abscess.

When should you go to the doctor?

A doctor should be consulted in the event of decreased performance, listlessness, listlessness, fatigue and general weakness, especially if these complaints persist for several days for no reason or if they increase in intensity. If there is a fever, dizziness, vomiting or nausea, a doctor is needed.

Persistent tiredness, inner restlessness and low resilience should be examined and treated. If sleep disorders occur, concentration or attention problems arise, a doctor’s visit is required. In the event of a disturbance of consciousness, a doctor must be consulted as soon as possible or an ambulance service must be called. Changes in skin appearance, pale complexion, a drop in blood pressure, or cold feet and hands are indications that should be investigated. If the balance is disturbed, further functional or digestive disorders set in or cramps occur, a doctor should be consulted.

If there is pain in the bones or joints, general malaise or a feeling of illness, a kind should be consulted. If you have a headache, a feeling of pressure inside your head, aching limbs or an aversion to normal exposure to light, the person concerned needs medical care. If memory disorders occur or everyday duties can no longer be fulfilled, a doctor must be consulted to clarify the cause.

Treatment & Therapy

The side effects and a negative course in meningitis can, however, be avoided. It is important that the meningitis therapy begins immediately. In most cases, strong antibiotics are administered for therapy. After this initial measure has been taken and the blood test is available to the doctor treating you, the antibiotics are matched to the blood test.

As a rule, it is then taken for 7 to 14 days. In the case of meningitis, the bacteria can also spread in the body, so that blood poisoning can also occur. In such a case, therapy must be carried out in a hospital under close observation and treatment. Such an approach can significantly reduce the risk of serious complications and consequential damage.

For your own safety, therapy should be carried out in a hospital under medical supervision, even if the meningitis is not very advanced.


Inflammation of the meninges is a dangerous and high-risk disease that requires appropriate follow-up care even after the healing process has been overcome. Even during the treatment of such an inflammation of the meninges, regular visits to the doctor should not be missed. Failure to do so can lead to serious complications that cannot be recovered afterwards.

For this reason, appropriate follow-up care is very important and significant. Any complications can be identified, treated and eliminated at an early stage. If the inflammation of the meninges is completely over, further visits to the doctor are necessary. With appropriate follow-up care, later brain damage can be diagnosed at an early stage so that long-term effects can be avoided.

Even several years after surviving meningitis, preventive examinations should always take place. Such examinations can nip serious complications in the bud. Appropriate and regular follow-up care is just as important as the treatment itself. This is the only way to identify and treat long-term effects or other diseases that can be traced back to past inflammation of the meninges. A full and lasting recovery is therefore very much dependent on proper follow-up care.

Outlook & forecast

The course of meningitis depends on whether it is caused by bacteria or viruses. If the disease is mild, in some cases it can even go away without treatment. However, bacterial disease in particular leads to death if not treated quickly. Herpes simplex meningitis caused by the virus can also be life-threatening.

If an illness is suspected, therapeutic measures should be taken as soon as possible. The faster the treatment, the less likely it is that you will no longer be able to cure it. Meningitis-related complications are very common.

If this is caused by bacteria, it can lead to swelling of the brain with increased intracranial pressure, blood clots, paralysis of the nerves or loss of hearing. Also, a blood poisoning can occur. These complications often arise when the disease is caused by meningococci or pneumococci.

As a therapeutic measure, the doctor will use antibiotics to fight the bacteria. If this happens at an early stage of the disease, there is great hope of a cure. However, if the meningitis is viral, antibiotics will not help. If it does not heal by itself, antivirals are used. Even then, the prognosis is to be assessed positively.

You can do that yourself

Self-help or self-treatment leading to healing is not possible with meningitis and is therefore not recommended under any circumstances. Treatment must always be carried out by a doctor.

Absolute calm in the patient’s surroundings, darkened rooms and cold compresses for the head have a relieving effect during the illness. In addition, homeopathic remedies such as Belladonna for headaches and Gelsemium sempervirens for photosensitivity can be administered. The recommendations for a diet that supports the healing process during illness vary.

On the one hand, a consciously protein-rich diet such as meat broth with egg and drinking plenty of milk is recommended in order to maintain physical strength for as long as possible. On the other hand, foods that strengthen the immune system can support the healing process. Foods with antibiotic properties such as echinacea, onions, lemons, radishes, garlic and fresh vegetable juices are particularly helpful here. If vomiting prevents food intake, nutritional enemas can help.

In Germany there are self-help groups on the subject of meningitis. After surviving the illness, those affected and their relatives can exchange their experiences here, talk to each other about various therapy options, memory training and help in everyday life.


All You Need to Know About Biliary Atresia

All You Need to Know About Biliary Atresia

Biliary atresia is the narrowing of the biliary tract, which occurs during development in the womb. The causes of this are largely unknown, but studies have found connections to certain viral diseases. A disease manifests itself in persistent jaundice after childbirth, colorless stools, brown colored urine, an enlarged liver and later an enlarged spleen, water retention and a tendency to bleed.

What is biliary atresia?

Bile duct atresia is a rare disease. It only occurs in newborns, the so-called neonatal period. This is the time from birth to the fourth week of life. It is an atresia of the biliary tract inside or outside the liver.

An atresia generally denotes the closure or non-placement of a body opening or a hollow organ. Regardless of whether the atresia is inside or outside the liver, biliary atresia affects the entire liver and bile ducts. Therefore, in the meantime, it has been decided not to speak of an extra- or intrahepatic form.

The incidence of an illness varies between every 3,000 and every 20,000 births, depending on the area. The greatest susceptibility is in the Pacific, while the rarest cases occur in Western Europe. In general, girls are affected somewhat more often than boys.

In around every tenth case, the occurrence is associated with other malformations such as heart defects or polysplenia. In this case, the diseases are grouped together as a syndromic form. If the bile duct atresia occurs alone, it is referred to as a nonsyndromic form.


Narrowing of the biliary tract, which ultimately leads to its atresia, begins early in the child’s development in the mother’s love. This can be concluded from studies of the liver with ultrasound technology. The reasons for this are largely unknown. However, a connection with certain viral diseases can be recognized from medical examinations.

These include the Ebstein-Barr viruses, which cause Pfeiffer’s glandular fever, and respiratory syncitial viruses, a typical cold virus. However, no connection to the hepatitis A viruses, B or C has been established. Genetic causes also follow from the results of several studies.

Studies show familial or ethnic clusters of occurrence. Certain HLA types are increasingly found in affected children. HLA is a group of genes that are central to the immune system. A cause can also be deduced from this.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

About half of all healthy newborns develop a weakly developed in the first days after jaundice. This is harmless and subsides after a week at the latest. In contrast to this typical neonatal jaundice, jaundice lasts longer in children with biliary atresia. This is due to the bilirubin.

It is a breakdown product of the red blood pigment hemoglobin and a bile pigment. Affected newborns pass acholic, i.e. discolored, stool and the urine takes on a brownish color. Another key symptom is hepatomegaly, an enlargement of the liver. In addition, a disease can be derived from accompanying symptoms such as malformations of the eyes, dysmorphism in the face and heart disease.


The child’s development is not impaired in the first few months. It also shows weight loss and over-excitability. The increase in pressure in the portal vein of the liver causes the spleen to enlarge and water to accumulate in the abdomen. Furthermore, too little bile acid reaches the intestine. This needs the connection for the digestion of fat and for the absorption of vitamins. Vitamin K intake is particularly affected. A lack of this leads to a tendency to bleed.


The symptoms and complications of biliary atresia usually occur immediately after the child is born. The infant suffers from a relatively mild jaundice immediately after birth. There will also be discolored urine and bowel movements.

The spleen and liver can enlarge, and in most cases there is severe pain. As the disease progresses, other symptoms develop, such as heart defects or malformations of the eyes. In the worst case, the patient can become completely blind or suffer from further malformations in the area of the face.

If the biliary atresia is not treated, death will result. As a rule, the treatment is carried out by surgery. If this fails, a liver transplant can also be carried out. Often the parents of the child are also severely affected by biliary atresia and suffer from depression and other mental illnesses.

The support of a psychologist is definitely necessary. The further development of the child is largely normal and does not lead to further complications if the treatment of the biliary atresia has been carried out successfully. Life expectancy is also not minimized as a result.

When should you go to the doctor?

In many cases, facial dysmorphisms and eye misalignments are noticed by obstetricians and doctors in the newborn immediately after birth. This is followed by inpatient examinations, so that a diagnosis of biliary atresia is usually already available at this point in time. If the disease is not diagnosed immediately, the parents should consult a doctor as soon as they notice visual abnormalities on the face within the natural growth process of their child in the first few weeks of life.

Consultation with a doctor is also necessary once the newborn shows yellow skin. In addition, discoloration of the faeces or urine in infants is considered unusual. A doctor should be consulted as soon as the excretions are discolored or the urine has a brownish color. If there are malformations of the skeletal system, a doctor should also be consulted. If the child loses weight despite the recommended diet, there is cause for concern.

A doctor should be consulted as soon as the newborn continues to experience weight loss over several days. Consultation with a doctor is necessary if behavioral problems occur. If the child shows an overreaction, hyperactivity or aggressive behavior, a doctor must be consulted to determine the cause. If the abdominal girth increases abnormally, water can build up. These are to be examined and treated as soon as possible.

Treatment & Therapy

If left untreated, biliary atresia leads to death within the first few years of life. For treatment, an operation according to Kasai is initially performed. In this case, the connective tissue between the two pford vein branches of the liver and the changed bile tissue are removed.

In order to ensure that the intestine is supplied with bile, a loop of the intestine is then sewn onto the portal of the liver. There are also various medicinal products for therapy. These include drugs that slow down the remodeling of the liver, anti-inflammatory preparations and active ingredients that improve the flow of bile. However, their use is controversial.

The success of the Kasai operation is reflected in the increasing brown color of the stool and lighter color of the urine. Nevertheless, even in this case, many patients develop cirrhosis of the liver, which leads to death. It can be traced back to the increasing bile congestion.

At the latest now, or if the operation according to Kasai has failed, a liver transplant is necessary. This usually takes place at the age of two, but some cases require it earlier at six months. The availability of the necessary transplant organs has increased recently.

This is thanks to new processes. Since the liver is able to regenerate itself, donations of life are also possible. For this reason, it is also possible to split one donor organ between two recipients. This so-called split procedure is particularly suitable for children, as there are not many suitable organs for child liver transplants.

Outlook & forecast

If left untreated, biliary atresia has a very poor prognosis. The changes arise in the natural development and growth process of the fetus in the womb. If there is insufficient medical care immediately after the birth, the child will die within the first year of life. Surgical intervention is required, which is associated with the usual risks and complications.

If the operation is successful, there is an improvement in health. Nevertheless, there is a risk of life shortening even in patients whose corrective intervention leads to an adequate supply of bile to the intestine.

There is a risk of secondary diseases such as cirrhosis of the liver. A donor organ is required for this because life expectancy is also reduced without a transplant. The process up to the transplant is lengthy and the procedure is a challenge. The donated organ is not always accepted by the organism.

Despite various therapeutic approaches for biliary atresia and the possibility of alleviating the symptoms, patients with this disease can expect lifelong therapy. Physical resilience is limited in direct comparison to fellow human beings and various complications can be expected. The general lifestyle must be adapted to the health conditions so that survival is assured.


Since the causes of biliary atresia disease are largely unknown, there are no known ways of preventing it. In addition, the fact that it is a congenital disease that occurs early in development poses a problem in the development of preventive measures. To counteract persistent jaundice, a low-fat, high-fiber diet is recommended.


In the case of biliary atresia, the options for follow-up care are severely limited. With this disease, the person affected is primarily dependent on direct medical treatment by a specialist in order not to reduce life expectancy and to avoid further complications. Self-healing is not possible, so medical treatment cannot be avoided.

If the bile duct atresia is not treated, the affected person will die after a few years. With this disease, those affected are mostly dependent on taking medication to alleviate the symptoms. Care must be taken to ensure that these medications are taken regularly and correctly, with the parents in particular having to ensure that they are taken correctly in the case of children.

Often possible interactions with other drugs should also be considered in order not to impair healing. Since the bile duct atresia also affects the internal organs, those affected should undergo regular examinations by a doctor in order to detect damage to the internal organs at an early stage. Contact with other biliary atresia patients can also be useful, as this leads to an exchange of information that can make everyday life easier.

You can do that yourself

Parents whose child has been diagnosed with biliary atresia should refer to the doctor’s suggestions for next steps. In general, several operations are performed. The healing process can be supported by rest and bed rest after an operation.

The child should not be exposed to stress for the first few weeks and must also be closely monitored by parents. Should further complaints or complications arise, a doctor must be consulted immediately. Accommodation in a specialist clinic may be necessary.

After a liver transplant, it should be ensured that the child is drinking enough fluids. In addition, the diet has to be changed. The child should eat as little fat as possible and instead eat a lot of fruit and vegetables. Adequate personal hygiene should also be observed in order to avoid infection and other complications.

Even shortly after the transplant, regular breathing exercises and physiotherapy exercises are useful to prevent infection of the respiratory tract. Regular check-ups by a doctor support these measures and ensure a symptom-free healing process. If unusual symptoms occur, it is best to contact the emergency medical service.

biliary atresi

All You Need to Know About Distal Humeral Fracture

All You Need to Know About Distal Humeral Fracture

According to DigoPaul, a distal humerus fracture is a broken bone that is located in the area of ​​the lower end of the humerus (the medical name of the humerus). In children, such fractures are mainly caused by falls with an outstretched arm, while in adults, falls on the elbow joint are often responsible for distal humerus fractures.

What is a distal humeral fracture?

In the context of a distal humerus fracture, fractures occur in the humerus, with adults and children being affected by the fractures at different rates. In adults, distal humeral fractures make up around three percent of all fractures of the extremities, while in children it is up to ten percent. Thus, the distal humerus fracture is a rarely occurring type of bone fracture.

Distal humeral fractures are difficult to treat fractures. They occur more frequently in children between the ages of five and ten years, accounting for approximately five percent of all fractures but 80 percent of all child fractures of the elbow.


The possible causes for the development of a distal humeral fracture can be different. As with fractures that are external to the joint and partial joint fractures are common, the main causes are direct or indirect force applied to the affected bone. Fractures outside the joint (medical term extra-articular fractures) are divided into various categories depending on the mechanism of the accident.

These include the more common extension fractures and flexion fractures, which are far less common. Most of these occur in children. If the distal humeral fracture is a complete fracture of the joint, the cause is the direct application of force.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

A distal humerus fracture can cause various symptoms and complaints for the affected patient. First and foremost, the people suffer from severe pain. The pain starts from the area of ​​the fracture, but radiates and can reach far beyond the upper arm.

Under these circumstances, movements of the arm affected by the distal humerus fracture are hardly possible. In addition to the pain, swelling, malpositions and palpable and audible crepitation also occur as a rule. This refers to the rubbing of fracture parts together, which in most cases is associated with severe pain.

In addition, the distal humerus fracture can be associated with other complaints, for example if it was caused by a fall and other injuries, for example in the form of abrasions or larger open wounds, have formed. Other symptoms that can arise in connection with a distal humerus fracture are, for example, damage to the brachial artery from the extension fractures.

In addition, a so-called Volkmann contracture can develop on the flexor side due to a lesion of vessels and nerves. Damage to the ulnar nerve and the radial nerve can also be side effects that can occur with a distal humerus fracture. However, these are rarely observed.


Various examination methods are available to diagnose a distal humeral fracture. In most cases, an examination using x-rays is used. The attending physician carries out this examination in two planes in order to be able to analyze the distal humerus fracture from different sides. This diagnostic method is usually sufficient to make a reliable diagnosis as well as to plan a possible operation.

For further clinical concerns it is sufficient to differentiate between a few fracture forms. As a rule, a distinction is made between three forms, namely (metaphyseal) fractures affecting the bone, fractures located in the joint capsule (intra-articular) or outside the joint (extra-articular). This classification has proven itself over the long term and is used by most doctors.

During the clinical examination, the blood flow, sensitivity and motor skills of the affected arm as well as the hands and fingers should be checked. Corresponding diagnoses related to the distal humerus fracture are confirmed by means of X-rays.


The distal humerus fracture describes a rarely occurring complicated bone fracture at the lower end of the humerus. These limb fractures mainly occur when falling with an outstretched arm or on the elbow joint. The symptom is more likely to occur in children than adults.

Affected people suffer from severe pain that extends well over the shoulder. The arm can hardly be moved and is misaligned. When palpating, crackling noises can be heard from the fracture parts. Swellings and bruises also appear, especially if the upper arm artery has been injured.

If the symptom is not treated as soon as possible, the complications will increase. Concomitant symptoms such as severe abrasions or open wounds can become infected. In the flexor side of the arm, nerves and blood vessels can be permanently damaged. The consequences are circulatory and sensitivity disorders, but also permanent motor damage that extends into the fingers.

The distal humerus fracture includes various types of fracture that can affect one or more bones and the joint capsule. Imaging measures clarify the type of break for the operative measure. The operation of the distal humerus fracture is often complicated. The soft tissue jacket must be able to form a new stable connection to the bone structure and a precisely fitting joint surface reconstruction must be carried out. Then the patient has to undergo physiotherapy.

When should you go to the doctor?

If a distal humerus fracture is suspected, a doctor should be consulted immediately, who can clarify the symptoms and, if necessary, treat them directly. If you feel severe pain in your upper arm after a fall or accident, it is best to call an emergency doctor directly.

Swelling, misalignment or bleeding also indicate a medical emergency that must be clarified immediately. At the latest when symptoms of a shock are noticed, the emergency number must be dialed immediately. Open abrasions can sometimes be self-treated.

However, due to the risk of infection alone, this task should be left to the doctor. If nerves or vessels have been injured, this must be treated in hospital in any case. Otherwise, the symptoms will increase and permanent motor damage may occur, which can extend from the shoulder to the fingers.

In the case of nerve damage, further physiotherapeutic treatment may be necessary. The doctor responsible should best answer which specific measures have to be taken to restore the mobility and performance of the upper arm.

Treatment & Therapy

Various methods are available for the treatment of a distal humeral fracture. These are used depending on the type of fracture and the severity of the fracture.

In the majority of cases, the distal humerus fracture is treated surgically by applying a plate fixation or, alternatively, a screw fixation. If the fractures are particularly complex and no longer allow reconstruction, treatment with an elbow joint prosthesis must be considered in individual cases.

Conservative treatment is far less possible in the presence of a distal humerus fracture. For this, the fracture fragments must not be displaced from their original position and there must be no instability. In conservative therapy, an upper arm cast is put on for a period of three to six weeks. If children have a distal humeral fracture, the prognosis is usually good.

Outlook & forecast

The distal humeral fracture heals well in most cases. Children have the best prognostic prospects and can often be symptom-free for life after healing. The older the patient, the worse the fracture heals. Overall, the healing path is extended and there are often restrictions on the range of motion.

In children, complications and consequential damage can occur if the growth plate in the distal humerus fracture is affected. This leads to problems with reduction and can negatively affect the very favorable prognosis.

Adults suffer more and more from permanent mobility restrictions, as the bones no longer grow together in their natural form with increasing age. In addition to the mobility restrictions, a loss of the usual level of performance or sensitivity to the weather is to be expected. Nevertheless, the patient achieves a good quality of life with the distal humerus fracture and does not have to expect paralysis or similar restrictions.

Often there are bad postures or necessary changes to the usual movement sequences. These are necessary to avoid or reduce muscle, tendon or nerve damage. Through targeted training and exercises, the patient can learn to stress his body differently. In this way, it improves general well-being and alleviates existing complaints. This process takes several months until the patient is almost symptom-free.


As with most fractures, the best way to prevent a distal humerus fracture is through paying more attention to potentially dangerous activities. Corresponding joint protectors should be worn, especially in sports where more falls can occur. With sufficient force, however, even these cannot guarantee protection against a distal humerus fracture.


With this disease, in most cases, the patient has very few measures or options for follow-up care available, so that early detection must primarily be carried out in order to prevent further complications or restrictions in movement. The earlier the humerus fracture is diagnosed and treated, the better the further course of the disease will usually be.

Self-healing cannot occur, so a visit to a doctor is necessary. In most cases, the humerus fracture is treated with the help of surgical interventions, which are intended to permanently alleviate the symptoms. It is advisable for those affected to rest after such an operation and take it easy for a while. Refrain from exertion or other stressful activities.

In particular, the affected area on the body should not be unnecessarily stressed. Furthermore, physiotherapy measures are usually very useful. As a rule, the person affected can also perform many exercises from such a therapy in their own home and thus possibly accelerate the healing process. In most cases, the humeral fracture does not reduce the life expectancy of the person affected.

You can do that yourself

If there is a distal humerus fracture, the arm in question is immobilized for several weeks. This is usually done with plaster of paris. As a result, everyday life is severely restricted, as movements are only possible with the other arm.

The prescribed rest is very important, otherwise the arm cannot heal undisturbed. For this reason, the position of the arm should always remain on the upper body – even at night. This is not always easy – but there is no alternative.

Once the fracture has healed and the cast is removed, it is crucial to reactivate the arm with the help of physiotherapeutic measures. This must be done gradually. Excessive demands in everyday life should be avoided at all costs.

In most cases, it takes several months for the arm to be fully resilient. In the beginning, only light objects may be lifted and light work carried out.

Anyone who has previously played sport should wait as long as the doctor recommends. This can take four to six months. It is not uncommon for about a year to pass before the arm is fully functional again. If the weather changes, the former break point can still be noticeable for several years.

Distal Humeral Fracture

All You Need to Know About Depressive Mood

All You Need to Know About Depressive Mood

The depressive mood is unfortunately part of life for more and more people. If the mental illness, which expresses itself through exhaustion, sadness and feelings of weakness, was once considered a taboo subject, it has come into the public eye, not least because of some prominent people affected. However, it must be differentiated from general depression. The depressive mood is curable, but can also cause considerable suffering.

What are depressive moods?

According to DigoPaul, the depressive mood is an illness that causes mental complaints. The depressive mood is therefore a disturbance of the mental equilibrium. As a rule, psychological or even psychiatric treatment of the depressive mood will be necessary, which is usually accompanied by medication.

Often the ailments do not occur continuously, but occur in phases – not infrequently in connection with certain events or seasons. The depressive mood is often associated with a long winter (winter depression) without sunlight. But that is not entirely true, as the depressive mood can be triggered by stress, professional or private problems and a lack of balance to everyday life.


The underlying causes of the depressive mood can only be determined on a case-by-case basis. However, stressful situations of all kinds are often involved in the depressive mood. Financial hardships, professional situations with no way out or other extreme situations are considered to be the triggers of the illness.

In addition, the physical imbalance can also lead to a depressive mood. For example, when the organism does not receive the vitamins or minerals it needs to function properly. Or if you do without balancing sport and exercise in the fresh air.

The depressive mood is usually based on more than one cause. It is not uncommon for long-hidden fears or longings to appear during therapy – they are considered to be the real core of the depressive mood.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

Depressive moods can express themselves both emotionally and physically. Those affected are often sad, depressed and feel an inner restlessness. Constant brooding is characteristic, from which self-doubt and feelings of guilt can develop – since the thoughts cannot be switched off even at night, there are often problems falling asleep or staying asleep.

During the day, a leaden tiredness becomes noticeable, which is associated with impaired concentration and poor performance. Anyone who suffers from a depressive mood can not get up to anything, because on the one hand they lack the strength to do so and on the other hand the meaningfulness of every action is questioned.

Often there are fears that relate specifically to certain situations or that can be felt as a constant state of inner tension. The environment is often very irritable and nervous. A prolonged depressive epoch often leads to social withdrawal, which in the long term intensifies feelings of loneliness and sadness. Occasionally, overactivity up to work or sports addiction can be signs of a depressive mood.

The psychological symptoms are often accompanied by physical complaints such as dizziness, headaches, gastrointestinal disorders and a pronounced feeling of weakness. In contrast to normal mood swings, with which even healthy people react to stressful life situations, depressive moods occur even without a visible trigger and last for a long time.


Normally, the depressive mood is insidious. From the first mostly neglected phases of weakness, feeling upset or dejection, the depressive mood returns more and more often in spurts.

It weighs heavily on the person’s thoughts, blocks the view of ways out and seems to paint life in dreary colors. The depressive mood is often accompanied by a flight into alcohol or drugs.

Since the person concerned rarely expresses himself about his or her suffering, friends, family or other companions only recognize the depressive mood relatively late. Not infrequently too late. As soon as there are signs of the disease, however, the depressive mood should be treated therapeutically.


Occasional depressive mood is normal if it can be traced back to current events. However, if the depression persists, it can be an illness that requires treatment. However, this is not always recognized or admitted by the person concerned. A resulting complication can be suicide attempts or a dramatic aggravation of the mental state. In this state, a depressed mood can lead to consequences that are just as dramatic.

Depressive moods can also be a complication of certain diseases. This can be the case, for example, with problems with your own appearance after accidental or burn injuries or with chronic pain. Postnatal or postoperative depression are also serious complications.

Fears and depressive moods can also be found in cancer patients. Elderly people often suffer from depressive moods or mood swings because of their age-related loneliness and painful old age ailments. These can lead to alcohol abuse or pill abuse.

The administration of antidepressants is also not always helpful straight away if you are depressed. In a full blown depression, however, it is inevitable. Depression can be a sequela, but it can also be the underlying cause of burnout. Complications can also arise from the interactions of antidepressants with other drugs. Such combination of preparations can lead to gastrointestinal bleeding, liver and kidney failure, heart attacks or muscle inflammation.

When should you go to the doctor?

People who have been in a negative mood for weeks or months should seek therapeutic help. If, due to the existing emotional state, the tasks and activities of normal life can no longer be used, it is advisable to consult a doctor. With persistent withdrawal behavior, the unusual avoidance to participate in social life or listlessness, the symptoms should be discussed with a psychologist or psychotherapist.

If the person concerned suffers from changed circumstances, a separation, the loss of a job or if they have to deal with a fateful event, they should seek help. If, for no apparent reason, the person concerned finds it difficult to move physically or to enjoy and enjoy existing activities, this is considered worrying. If the existing sense of enjoyment decreases, the interest in activities that increase well-being or predominantly negative thoughts occur, a doctor should be consulted.

If a pessimistic attitude towards life persists for more than two weeks, a therapist should be contacted. A doctor’s visit is necessary if the person concerned needs mood-enhancing substances in order to cope with everyday life. If there are increasing conflicts within the social environment due to an existing mood, therapeutic advice and hints help.

Treatment & Therapy

The treatment of the depressive mood can be done in different ways. The decisive factor here is the stage at which the disease was diagnosed. If it is diagnosed as not yet serious, the depressive mood can be remedied in outpatient talk therapy.

The focus here is often on the present and previous life of the person concerned: Fears, longings and emergencies are discussed. Even this release from the pent-up burdens can alleviate the symptoms. However, if the depressive mood occurs with more severe suffering, medical support is also possible. In doing so, the patient’s unwanted thoughts are blocked, thereby breaking the mental cycle of the negative.

In-patient treatment is only necessary in severe cases. These are often people who have been affected by the depressive mood for a long time and who take refuge in substitute symptoms – anorexia, alcohol addiction, self-mutilation. These stays in a clinic can, however, also be undertaken voluntarily. On the other hand, the situation is different in the case of concrete dangers to one’s own life or that of strangers: Here, the depressive mood is forcibly treated as an inpatient.

Outlook & forecast

The prognosis of a depressed mood depends on various factors. Basically, there is a cure for the disease. At the same time, if the course of the disease is unfavorable, the symptoms may worsen. The depressive mood is often not recognized in time. The complaints last for years and thus have the opportunity to manifest themselves. This worsens the prognosis, as it can develop into a chronic course without a diagnosis and subsequent treatment.

The depressed mood can turn into a severe depression. This increases the patient’s risk of suicide. If other mental illnesses occur, the prognosis also takes an unfavorable course. In the case of personality, anxiety, eating or mood disorders, the possible healing path can take several years. Some patients do not experience healing over the lifespan.

The depressive mood can be cured with cognitive or behavioral therapy. In addition, the administration of medication can improve symptoms. In recovery, the patient’s cooperation and the will to heal are important. Spontaneous healing can occur at any time. In addition, a sudden recurrence of the depressed mood is also possible. Many patients experience a long period of freedom from symptoms until stressful or traumatic life events lead to the symptoms being triggered again.


The prevention of the depressive mood lies first in a balanced diet, sporting activity (⇒ jogging helps real miracles) and a balance to everyday life. Fresh air and copious consumption of beverages are considered fuel for the brain – if it can work better, the depressive mood is less common. In addition, however, it can also help not to take all problem cases too seriously and thus avoid the depressive mood.

You can do that yourself

Those who suffer from a depressive mood have often lost the joy and purpose of life. With a few self-help tips, you can find your way back out of the low mood and perceive life as more worth living again.

In addition to an active lifestyle with sufficient exercise, a balanced diet is also recommended for those affected. Movement causes the serotonin level in the brain to rise, so that the metabolic disorder in the brain can be compensated for. Above all, endurance sports, such as jogging, walking or cycling, ensure a release of endorphins in the brain and thus contribute to a euphoric mood.

Those affected should attach great importance to a rich diet that provides the body and mind with sufficient nutrients. A well-known mood enhancer is chocolate, which – consumed in small quantities – can have a positive effect on the health of those affected.

An important factor in relieving a depressive mood is also an adequate supply of light. The light minimizes the release of melatonin in the body and increases the serotonin level at the same time. Anyone suffering from a depressive mood should incorporate regular walks in daylight into everyday life. The walk results in light physical activity on the one hand and an adequate supply of light on the other.

Depressive Mood